Opus Sectile grīdas segums [rozetes]

Opus Sectile grīdas segums [rozetes]



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Romas mozaīkas

Romiešu mozaīkas bija kopīga privātmāju un sabiedrisko ēku iezīme visā impērijā no Āfrikas līdz Antiohijai. Mozaīkas ir ne tikai skaisti mākslas darbi, bet arī nenovērtējams ikdienas priekšmetu, piemēram, apģērba, pārtikas, instrumentu, ieroču, floras un faunas, ieraksts. Viņi arī atklāj daudz par romiešu aktivitātēm, piemēram, gladiatoru konkursiem, sportu, lauksaimniecību, medībām, un dažreiz viņi pat iemūžina pašus romiešus detalizētos un reālistiskos portretos.

Romiešu grīdas mozaīka, kas datēta no 350. līdz 375. gadam un kurā attēlotas zivis. Pārtika bija populāra tēma mosiakos visā Romas periodā. Izcelsme: Toragnola, Roma. (Vatikāna muzeji, Roma).

Tehnika

Mozaīkas, citādi pazīstamas kā opus tesellatum, tika izgatavoti ar maziem melniem, baltiem un krāsainiem kvadrātiem, kuru izmērs parasti bija no 0,5 līdz 1,5 cm, bet smalkas detaļas bieži tika atveidotas, izmantojot pat mazākus gabalus, kuru izmērs bija tikai 1 mm. Šie kvadrāti (tesserae vai tessellae) tika sagriezti no tādiem materiāliem kā marmors, flīzes, stikls, smalto (stikla pasta), keramika, akmens un pat čaumalas. Pamatni vispirms sagatavoja ar svaigu javu un tesserae novietoti pēc iespējas tuvāk viens otram ar spraugām un pēc tam piepildītas ar šķidru javu procesā, kas pazīstams kā šuvums. Pēc tam viss tika iztīrīts un pulēts.

Izcelsme un pastiprinātāja ietekme

Grīdas komplekts ar maziem oļiem tika izmantots bronzas laikmetā gan Mino civilizācijā, kuras pamatā ir Krēta, gan Mikēnas civilizācijā Grieķijas kontinentālajā daļā. Tāda pati ideja, bet modeļu atveidošana tika izmantota Tuvajos Austrumos 8. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras. Grieķijā pirmais oļu grīdas segums, kas tika mēģināts projektēt, datēts ar 5. gadsimtu pirms mūsu ēras, ar piemēriem Korintā un Olintā. Tie parasti bija divos toņos ar gaišiem ģeometriskiem zīmējumiem un vienkāršām figūrām uz tumša fona. Līdz 4. gadsimta beigām pirms mūsu ēras tika izmantotas krāsas, un Pella Maķedonijā ir atrasti daudzi labi piemēri. Šīs mozaīkas bieži pastiprināja, ieklājot terakotas vai svina sloksnes, kuras bieži izmantoja kontūru iezīmēšanai. Patiešām, tikai hellēnisma laikos 3. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras mozaīkas patiešām pacēlās kā mākslas forma un detalizēti paneļi, izmantojot tesserae rakstainās grīdās sāka iestrādāt nevis oļus. Daudzas no šīm mozaīkām mēģināja kopēt mūsdienu sienu gleznas.

Trešā gadsimta CE romiešu grīdas mozaīka, kurā attēlots Bakhs, vīna dievs. No via Flaminia, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Tā kā mozaīkas attīstījās 2. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras, tās kļuva mazākas un precīzāk sagrieztas tesserae tika izmantoti, dažreiz pat 4 mm vai mazāk, un dizainos tika izmantots plašs krāsu spektrs ar krāsainu šuvju, lai tie atbilstu apkārtnei tesserae. Šis konkrētais mozaīkas veids, kurā izmantota sarežģīta krāsošana un ēnojums, lai radītu gleznai līdzīgu efektu, ir pazīstams kā opus vermiculatum un viens no izcilākajiem amatniekiem bija Pergamonas Soruss (150–100.g.pmē.), kura darbs, it īpaši viņa dzeramā baloža mozaīka, tika daudz kopēts gadsimtiem vēlāk. Bez Pergamona izcili hellenistikas piemēri opus vermiculatum tika atrasti Aleksandrijā un Delosā Kiklādās. Šo gabalu izgatavošanā ieguldītā darba dēļ tās bieži bija nelielas mozaīkas 40 x 40 cm, kas uzliktas uz marmora paplātes vai apmales paplātes specializētā darbnīcā. Šie gabali bija pazīstami kā emblēma jo tos bieži izmantoja kā centra gabalus ietvēm ar vienkāršāku dizainu. Šie mākslas darbi bija tik vērtīgi, ka tie bieži tika izņemti atkārtotai izmantošanai citur un tika nodoti no paaudzes paaudzē ģimenēs. Vairāki emblēma varētu izveidot vienu mozaīku un pakāpeniski, emblēma sāka vairāk līdzināties savai apkārtnei, kad tos pēc tam dēvē par paneļiem.

Evolūcija dizainā

Ar tādu tēmu kā mozaīkas, kurās ir grūtības iepazīšanās, milzīgas atšķirības mākslinieciskajā kvalitātē, sabiedrības gaumē un reģionālajās konvencijās, ir problemātiski aprakstīt stingri lineāru mākslas formas attīstību. Tomēr var atzīmēt dažas būtiskas pārmaiņu vietas un reģionālās atšķirības.

Sīkāka informācija par Aleksandra Mozaīku, kas Aleksandru Lielo attēlo zirga Bucephalus laikā Issusa kaujā. No Faunas nama Pompejā.

Sākotnēji romieši neatkāpās no hellenistiskās pieejas mozaīkām pamatiem, un patiesībā viņi bija ļoti ietekmēti tematikas un jūras motīvu un ainu no grieķu mitoloģijas un ainu ziņā, kā arī daudzi mākslinieki, kā daudzi parakstījuši romiešu mozaīkas bieži nes grieķu vārdus, kas liecina, ka pat romiešu pasaulē mozaīkas dizainā joprojām dominēja grieķi. Viena no slavenākajām ir Aleksandra mozaīka, kas bija helēnisma oriģinālās gleznas kopija, ko uzdeva vai nu Filoksens, vai Tēbu Aristeīds. Mozaīka ir no Faunas nama, Pompejā, un tajā ir attēlots Aleksandrs Lielais, kurš brauc ar Bucefalu un saskaras ar Dāriju III ar saviem kara ratiem Isas kaujā (333.g.pmē.).

Romiešu grīdas mozaīka, kas datēta ar mūsu ēras 4. gadsimtu un attēlo Dionīsu, kurš cīnās ar indiāņiem. Dionīss bija ļoti populārs priekšmets romiešu mozaīkās. Izcelsme: Villa Ruffinella, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Romiešu mozaīkas bieži kopēja agrāk krāsotas, tomēr romieši izstrādāja savu stilu, un visā impērijā tika izstrādātas ražošanas skolas, kas kultivēja savas īpašās izvēles un liela mēroga medību ainas un perspektīvas mēģinājumus Āfrikas provincēs, impresionistisko veģetāciju un priekšplāna novērotājs Antiohijas mozaīkā vai, piemēram, Eiropas priekšroka figūru paneļiem.

Romiešu grīdas mozaīka, kas datēta ar mūsu ēras 3. gadsimtu un attēlo vienu no četriem gadalaikiem. Melnbaltās mozaīkas bija ļoti populāras visā romiešu periodā Itālijā. Izcelsme: caur Prenestinu, Romu. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma)

Dominējošais (bet ne ekskluzīvais) romiešu stils pašā Itālijā izmantoja tikai melnbaltu tesserae, garša, kas labi saglabājās mūsu ēras 3. gadsimtā un visbiežāk tika izmantota, lai attēlotu jūras motīvus, it īpaši, ja to izmantoja romiešu pirtīm (lielisks piemērs ir Romas Karakallas pirts pirmā stāva). Tika arī dota priekšroka vairāk divdimensiju attēlojumiem un uzsvars uz ģeometriskiem dizainiem. C. 115 m.ē. pie Butikosa pirtīm Ostijā ir agrākais cilvēka figūras piemērs mozaīkā, un 2. gadsimtā pēc mūsu ēras siluetētas figūras kļuva izplatītas. Laika gaitā mozaīkas kļuva arvien reālistiskākas, attēlojot cilvēka figūras, un arvien biežāk sastopami precīzi un detalizēti portreti. Tikmēr impērijas austrumu daļā un it īpaši Antiohijā mūsu ēras 4. gadsimtā izplatījās mozaīkas, kurās tika izmantoti divdimensiju un atkārtoti motīvi, lai radītu “paklāja” efektu-stilu, kas spēcīgi ietekmētu vēlākās kristīgās baznīcas un ebrejus. sinagogas.

Romiešu grīdas mozaīka ģeometriskā dizainā, datēta ar mūsu ēras 1. gadsimta beigām. No villas netālu no Gvido pils, netālu no Romas. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Citi grīdas modeļi

Grīdas varētu likt arī, izmantojot lielākus gabalus, lai izveidotu dizainu lielākā mērogā. Opus signinum grīdas segumam izmantoja krāsainu javas pildvielu (parasti sarkanu) ar baltu tesserae novietoti, lai izveidotu plašus modeļus vai pat nejauši izkaisīti. Krusto, izmantojot piecus sarkanus tesserae un centrālais tesserae melnā krāsā bija ļoti izplatīts motīvs Itālijā 1. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras un turpinājās 1. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras, bet biežāk, izmantojot tikai melnas flīzes.

Opus sectile bija otrs grīdas seguma veids, kurā tika izmantotas lielas krāsainas akmens vai marmora plāksnes, kas sagrieztas noteiktās formās. Opus sectile bija vēl viena hellenistiskas izcelsmes tehnika, bet romieši šo tehniku ​​paplašināja arī līdz sienu apdarei. To izmantoja daudzās sabiedriskās ēkās, tikai mūsu ēras 4. gadsimtā tas kļuva arvien izplatītāks privātās villās un Ēģiptes ietekmē sāka izmantot necaurspīdīgu stiklu kā primāro materiālu.

Romiešu grīdas mozaīka, kas datēta ar 1. gadsimtu pirms mūsu ēras un attēlo Niku. No romiešu villas netālu no via Ruffinella, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Citi mozaīkas lietojumi

Mozaīkas nekādā gadījumā neaprobežojās tikai ar grīdas segumu. Velves, kolonnas un strūklakas bieži dekorēja ar mozaīku (opus musivum), atkal, it īpaši vannās. Agrākais šīs izmantošanas piemērs ir datēts ar mūsu ēras 1. gadsimta vidus Cicerona villas nimfā Formiaē, kur tika izmantotas marmora, pumeka un čaumalu skaidas. Citās vietās tika pievienoti arī marmora un stikla gabali, radot dabiskas grotas efektu. Līdz 1. gadsimtam mūsu ēkā tika izmantoti arī detalizētāki mozaīkas paneļi, lai izrotātu Nymphaea un strūklakas. Pompejā un Herkulānā šo paņēmienu izmantoja arī nišu, sienu un frontonu segšanai, un atkal šie sienas gleznojumi bieži atdarināja oriģinālas gleznas. Vēlāko impērijas romiešu vannu sienas un velves tika dekorētas arī mozaīkā, izmantojot stiklu, kas atspoguļoja saules gaismu, kas skāra baseinus, un radīja mirdzošu efektu. Pašu baseinu grīdas bieži bija ieklātas ar mozaīku, tāpat kā mauzolejas grīdas, dažkārt pat iekļaujot mirušā portretu. Atkal romiešu izmantotās mozaīkas sienu telpas un velves dekorēšanai turpinās ietekmēt kristiešu baznīcu interjera veidotājus no mūsu ēras 4. gadsimta.


Arheologi atjauno otrā tempļa pagalma grīdas segumu ar matemātiķa palīdzību

Arheologi no Jeruzalemē bāzētā Tempļa kalna sijāšanas projekta ir pārliecināti, ka viņi ir veiksmīgi atjaunojuši Otrā tempļa unikālo arhitektūras elementu: virkni karaliski dekorētu grīdas flīžu, kas rotāja portretus Tempļa kalna virsotnē, kas, iespējams, bija redzami pagalmos. Otrā tempļa laikā valdnieka Hēroda valdīšanas laikā Jeruzalemē (no 37 līdz 4 p.m.ē.).

Frenkijs Snaiders, Temple Mount Sifting Project pētnieku komandas loceklis un seno Hērodijas stila grīdas segumu eksperts, sacīja, ka viņam izdevās atjaunot greznos flīžu modeļus, “izmantojot ģeometriskos principus un līdzības, kas atrodamas flīžu dizainā, ko Hērods izmantoja plkst. citas vietnes. ” Snaiders, kuram ir akadēmiskā izglītība gan matemātikā, gan jūdaistikā, paskaidroja, ka šāda veida grīdas segums, ko sauc par "sectile", "latīņu valoda" grieztam darbam "ir ļoti dārgs un tika uzskatīts par daudz prestižāku nekā mozaīka flīžu grīdas. ”

Herodian grīdas flīžu sortiments / Pieklājīgi Dāvida pilsēta

Līdz šim mums ir izdevies atjaunot septiņus iespējamos majestātisko grīdas segumu dizainus, kas rotāja Tempļa kalna ēkas, - sacīja Snaiders, kurš atzīmēja, ka pirms karaļa Hēroda laikiem Izraēlā nebija opus sectile grīdas. . “Flīžu segmenti bija ideāli inkrustēti tā, ka starp tiem pat nevarēja ievietot asu asmeni. ”

“Tas ļauj mums gūt priekšstatu par tempļa neticamo krāšņumu, ” teica Dr Gabriel Barkay, Temple Mount Sifting Project līdzdibinātājs un direktors. Atjaunotās flīzes plašākai sabiedrībai tiks prezentētas 8. septembrī, 17. gadskārtējā Dāvida pilsētas arheoloģiskajā konferencē.

Zigzaga modulis, Herodian grīdas flīzes / Pieklājīgi Dāvida pilsēta

"Šī ir pirmā reize, kad arheologiem ir izdevies veiksmīgi atjaunot elementu no Herodian Otrā tempļa kompleksa," sacīja Tempļa kalna atsijāšanas projekta līdzdibinātājs un direktors Zachi Dvira.

Tempļa kalna atsijāšanas projekts tika izveidots, reaģējot uz 1999. gadā Islāma Waqf nelikumīgo tonnu senlietām bagātās zemes izvešanu no Tempļa kalna. Tas atrodas Tzurimas ielejas nacionālajā parkā, un to atbalsta Dāvida pilsētas fonds. un Izraēlas Arheoloģijas fonds. Iniciatīva tiek īstenota Bar-Ilan universitātes un Izraēlas parku un dabas pārvaldes pārraudzībā.

Līdz šim ir atklāti aptuveni 600 krāsainu akmens grīdas flīžu segmenti, no kuriem vairāk nekā 100 ir galīgi datēti ar Hērodija otrā tempļa periodu. Šis grīdas seguma stils atbilst tiem, kas atrodami Hēroda pilīs Masadā, Hērodianā un Jērikā, kā arī majestātiskajās pilīs un villās Itālijā, kas arī attiecināmas uz Hēroda laiku. Flīžu segmenti, kurus galvenokārt importēja no Romas, Mazāzijas, Tunisijas un Ēģiptes, tika izveidoti no pulētiem, daudzkrāsainiem akmeņiem, kas sagriezti dažādās ģeometriskās formās. Hērodiešu flīžu galvenā iezīme ir to izmērs, kas atbilst vienas pēdas romiešu mērījumam, aptuveni 29,6 cm.

Herodian grīdas flīzes Opus Collection / Pieklājīgi Dāvida pilsēta

Iespēju, ka Otrā tempļa laikā lielie Tempļa kalna plašumi tika pārklāti ar opus sectile grīdas segumu, 2007. gadā pirmo reizi izvirzīja arheologs un Jeruzalemes sienu nacionālā parka direktors kopā ar Izraēlas Dabas un parku pārvaldi Assaf Avraham.

Avrahama teorija balstījās uz romiešu ebreju vēsturnieka Džozefa (mūsu ēras 1. gadsimtā) aprakstīto aprakstu, un#8220… nesegtais [Tempļa kalna pagalms] bija pilnībā bruģēts ar dažāda veida un krāsas akmeņiem ... ” (Ebreju karš 5: 2). Turklāt Talmuda literatūrā ir ierakstīta lieliskā Tempļa kalna konstrukcija, aprakstot marmora rindas dažādās krāsās - zaļā, zilā un baltā.

Tagad, pateicoties Frenkija Snaidera matemātiskajām prasmēm, mums ir izdevies atjaunot faktiskos flīžu modeļus, un sacīja Dr Barkijs, uzsverot, ka šis ir pirmais gadījums, ko varam redzēt savām acīm. grīdas krāšņums, kas dekorēja Otro templi un tā piebūves pirms 2000 gadiem. ”

Barkijs pastāstīja, ka, aprakstot Hēroda uzcelto templi, Talmuds saka, ka tas, kurš nav redzējis Hēroda celtni, savā dzīvē nav redzējis skaistu ēku, un ka mūsu paaudze vēl nav nopelnījusi lai redzētu templi savā krāšņumā, un, atklājot un atjaunojot šīs unikālās grīdas flīzes, mēs tagad varam dziļāk izprast un novērtēt Otro templi, pat pateicoties šai atšķirīgajai iezīmei. ”

Kopš Tempļa kalna atsijāšanas projekta uzsākšanas 2004. gadā, sijāšanā ir piedalījušies vairāk nekā 200 000 brīvprātīgo no visas pasaules, kas ir vēl nebijusi parādība arheoloģisko pētījumu jomā.


Klasiskais arheologs Darius Arija

Dariuss atrodas Sofijas katedrālē, Stambulā, Turcijā, fotografējot PBS un#x2019s senās neredzamās pilsētas.

Nav nekā jauna nekā skatīties pagātnē vai vismaz tā domā Romā dzīvojošais arheologs Darius Arja. Dariusam Roma ir vairāk nekā senā vēsture, tā ir dzīvā vēsture un nepārtraukts stāsts, ko Dārijs aizved uz lekciju zālēm, lauku un uz ekrāniem- lieliem un maziem.

𠇎Visi sapņoja par Indiānu Džonsu, un#x201D stāsta Dariusam, un#x201CI saprata, ka es to vienkārši daru. Es gribēju būt līdz ceļiem līdz seniem uzrakstiem un pagrīdes vietām, tāpēc sāku ar latīņu valodu. ar prieku pazīstams Centra studentiem un studentiem. Kamēr viņa uzmanības centrā bija grieķu un latīņu valoda, Dariusu aizrāva apkārtējā aktīvā vēsture un viņš turpināja studēt maģistrantūrā un maģistrantūrā klasiskajā arheoloģijā Teksasas Universitātē Ostinā, un viņam tika piešķirta Fullbright stipendija un stipendija Amerikas akadēmijā Romā.

Tas, kas Dariusu noenkuroja un joprojām piesaista mūžīgajai pilsētai, ir unikāls pagātnes un tagadnes pretstatījums savā mākslā, arhitektūrā un kultūrā. “I mēdz aplūkot Romu no pagātnes, piemēram, pirms 2500 gadiem, un pastāvīgi redzēt šos pavedienus mūsdienu dzīvē gan šeit, gan visā pasaulē. divas desmitgades Romā, viņš ’s darīja visu, lai dalītos tajā. Kā amerikāņu Romas kultūras institūta direktors, bezpeļņas organizācija, kas veicina sarunas par Romas ārkārtas kultūras mantojumu, izmantojot izglītību, iepazīstināšanu un daudzplatformu stāstīšanu, Dariuss radīja vairākas izglītības un jauno plašsaziņas līdzekļu iniciatīvas un kā dokumentālo filmu veidotājs, viņš vada 2018. un#x2019. gadu un#x201CSenās Invisible Cities ” (PBS) un notiekošās Itālijas televīzijas sērijas “S Itālijā ” (RAI5).

Konservatori nosedz seno sienu pie Arijas un#x2019 izrakumos Parco dei Ravennati Ostia Antica. Izrakumi ietvēra kapu pārbaudi, kas atradās gar seno maģistrāli Tibras upes krastā, kā arī tika atklāta vēlīna antīka māja.

Mēs apsēdāmies kopā ar Dāriju, lai uzzinātu, kā ir dzīvot, strādāt un rakt Romā.

1 Jūs#15 gadus koordinējat izrakumus Romā. Kādi ir daži pārsteigumi, ar kuriem jūs esat saskārušies? Kāds ir bijis tavs vispilnīgākais projekts līdz šim?Neatkarīgi no tā, cik daudz jūs plānojat un mācāties, beidzot izrakumus jūs neizbēgami atradīsit lietas, kuras negaidījāt, par kurām nekad neesat sapņojis. Es atnācu un#xA0 šķērsoju nedokumentētu impērijas laikmeta kapsētu un atklāju neskartu opus sectile grīdu. Mans personīgais mīļākais un, iespējams, vispievilcīgākais bija mūsu rakšana Akveduktu parkā, publiskā parkā, kas atrodas mazāk nekā astoņas jūdzes no Romas centra. Pats parks ir pārsteidzošs ar savu jūdzi garo senā Aqua Claudia akvedukta arkādi. Mēs bijām trešajā vasarā izrakumos, jau atklājot 50 000 kvadrātpēdas greznu vannas kompleksu un#x2014 vairākus stāstus un kameras, kā arī daudz in situ marmora paneļu. Mēs bijām dienas vidū, un jau atklājām skaistus statuju fragmentus (skaidras pazīmes par vēlu senlaicīgu sadrumstalotību), kad atklājām krāsainu marmora galvu. Progresējot, mēs sapratām, ka mums ir vesela neskarta augstākās kvalitātes statuja un mūsu ēras otrā gadsimta sarkanā marmora statuja, kurā attēlota Marsija, piesieta pie koka, ar skaistu sīku muskulatūru un vienu atlikušu bronzas inkrustētu aci. Es biju tik paranoisks, kad to atradām, es nolēmu tajā naktī gulēt tranšejā kopā ar Marsiju, baidoties no laupītājiem (vienmēr reāli draudi jebkādiem izrakumiem). Nākamajā rītā mēs ar nelielu celtni izvilkām statuju un nogādājām uz uzraudzības noliktavu glabāšanai. Pēc rūpīgas restaurācijas un tīrīšanas mūsu Marsyas ir pastāvīgi publiski izstādīts Capitoline Museums Montemartini galerijā.


Saturs

Romas civilizācijas vēsturē bija daudz kuriju, daudzas no tām pastāvēja vienlaikus. Kurija nozīmē vienkārši "saieta nams". Kamēr Senāts regulāri tikās pie komisijas telpas kurijas, bija daudzas citas struktūras, kas paredzētas, lai apmierinātu nepieciešamību: piemēram, tikšanās ar kādu, kuram nebija atļauts iekļūt Senāta svētītajās kūrijās.

Curia Julia ir trešā nosauktā kurija komitijā. Katra struktūra tika pārbūvēta vairākas reizes, bet tās cēlies no viena etrusku tempļa, kas būvēts, lai ievērotu Sabīnes konflikta pamieru. Kad šis sākotnējais templis tika iznīcināts, Tullus Hostilius to pārbūvēja un deva tam savu vārdu. Tas ilga dažus simtus gadu, līdz kurija tika iznīcināta ugunsgrēkā no Publija Klodija Pulčera ekspromta bērēm. Jauna struktūra tika veltīta tās finansiālajam labvēlim Faustam Kornēlijam Sullam.

Patiesībā tagad forumā esošā struktūra ir otrā Cēzara kurijas iemiesojums. No 81. līdz 96. gadam Curia Julia tika atjaunota Domitianā. 283. gadā to spēcīgi sabojāja uguns, imperatora Karīna laikā. [2] No 284. līdz 305. gadam Kuriju pēc tam atjaunoja Diokletiāns. Mūsdienās ir Diokletiāna ēkas paliekas. 412. gadā Kuriju atkal atjaunoja, šoreiz - pilsētas prefekts Annijs Eucharius Epiphanius.

1923. gada 10. jūlijā Itālijas valdība par aptuveni 16 000 sterliņu mārciņām no Collegio di Spagna iegādājās Jūlijas kuriju un tai blakus esošo S. Adriano baznīcas klosteri. [3]

Curia Julia ārpusei ir ķieģeļu betons ar milzīgu balstu katrā leņķī. Priekšējās sienas apakšējā daļa bija dekorēta ar marmora plāksnēm. Augšējā daļa bija pārklāta ar apmetuma balto marmora bloku imitāciju. Viens solis ved uz bronzas durvīm. Pašreizējās bronzas durvis ir mūsdienīgas kopijas, oriģinālās bronzas durvis pāvests Aleksandrs VII 1660. gadā nodeva Svētā Jāņa Laterāna bazilikā. [5]

Pārvešanas laikā durvīs tika atrasta monēta. [6] Tas ļāva arheologiem noteikt Senāta namā veiktos remontdarbus un bronzas durvju pievienošanu imperatora Domitiāna valdīšanai (81. – 96. G. Ē.). Senāta mājas sākotnējais izskats ir zināms no 28. gada pirms mūsu ēras imperatora Augusta denāra, kurā redzama veranda, ko ēkas priekšējā sienā tur kolonnas. [7]

Curia Julia interjers ir diezgan askētisks. Zāle ir 25,20 m gara un 17,61 m plata. Ir trīs plaši soļi, kuros varēja būt piecas krēslu rindas vai kopā aptuveni 300 senatoru. [5] Sienas ir noņemtas, bet sākotnēji divas trešdaļas no augšas tika finierētas ar marmoru. Divas galvenās Curia Julia interjera iezīmes ir tās Uzvaras altāris un pārsteidzošais stāvs.

Zāles tālākajā galā varēja atrast "Uzvaras altāri". [5] Tā sastāvēja no Viktorijas statujas, uzvaras personifikācijas, stāvot uz zemeslodes, izstiepjot vainagu. Altāris tika ievietots Kūrijā Augusts, lai atzīmētu Romas militāro meistarību, konkrētāk viņa paša uzvaru Actiuma kaujā 31. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Altāris tika noņemts 384. gadā, kas bija daļa no vispārējas pretdarbības senās Romas pagānu tradīcijām pēc kristietības uzplaukuma. [8]

Otra „Curia” interjera galvenā iezīme - grīda ir pretstatā ēkas bezkrāsainajai ārpusei. Uz grīdas ir redzama romiešu mākslas tehnika opus sectile, kurā materiāli tiek sagriezti un inkrustēti sienās un grīdās, lai veidotu modeļu attēlus. Klāridžs to raksturo kā "stilizētas rozetes kvadrātā, kas mijas ar pretējiem pārpilniem pārpilnības pāriem taisnstūros, un tie visi strādāja zaļā un sarkanā porfīrā uz Numidijas dzeltenās Frīģijas purpursarkanās krāsas fona". [5]

Viņa Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Augusts par projektu raksta: "Es uzbūvēju Senāta namu. Ar valsts varu pilnībā manās rokās ar vispārēju piekrišanu, es nodzēsu pilsoņu karu liesmas un pēc tam atteicos no savas kontroles, nododot Republiku atpakaļ valdībai. Senāts un Romas tauta. Par šo dienestu mani ar Senāta dekrētu nosauca par Augustu ". [9] Patiesībā varas atteikšanās bija patiesāka vārdos nekā darbos, kurijas Jūlijas celtniecība sakrita ar republikāņu Romas beigām.

Agrāk "Curia Hostilia" un "Comitium" "orientējās pēc kompasa kardinālajiem punktiem, kas, iespējams, iezīmēja tos kā īpaši augu apgabalus un jebkurā gadījumā novirzīja tos slīpi no Foruma taisnstūra, kas veidojās gadsimtu gaitā". Pārtraucot tradīcijas, Jūlija Cēzars pārvirzīja Jūliju Cēzaru uz “racionālākām” līnijām, saliekot to ar Foruma taisnstūra līnijām un vēl ciešāk ar savu jauno forumu, kuram jaunais Senāta nams veidoja arhitektūras pielikumu. saskaņā ar pieaugošo Senāta pakļautību ”. Romas Senāta samazināto varu impērijas periodā atspoguļo Curia Julia mazāk pamanāmā atrašanās vieta un orientācija. [10]

Tomēr abām ēkām bija līdzības. Gan Curia Hostilia Tabula Valeria, gan Curia Julia Uzvaras altāris Curia Julia apliecina Romas militāro spēku ilgstošo pārākumu, neraugoties uz Senāta lomas samazināšanos.

2012. gada 17. februāris Skats uz Romas forumu pa Palazzo Senatorio logu: centrā Sv. Martinas un Lukas baznīca labajā apakšējā stūrī Septimija Severusa arka.

2013. gada 13. novembris Skats uz Jūlijas kuriju un Sv. Martinas un Lukas baznīcu


Pietra dura Itālijā

The Tribuna Uffizi galerijā Florencē. Ņemiet vērā marmora inkrustēto grīdu un astoņstūraino centrālo galdu ar pietra dura virsmu. & kopējiet Marta de Bortoli, izmantojot vietni Wikimedia Commons

Galvenais impulss pietra dura attīstībai Itālijā bija valdošā Medici ģimene. Medici bija viena no visspēcīgākajām Itālijas renesanses tirgotāju ģimenēm un visproduktīvākā mākslas patrons.

Tieši 1588. gadā lielkņazs Ferdinando I de Medici nodibināja Galleria dei Layori, iespējams, pirmā darbnīca Eiropā, kas specializējusies cieto akmeņu griešanā. Viņš cerēja, ka jaunā darbnīca spēs izrotāt viņa dzīvesvietas opus sectile cietais akmens darbs, piemēram, senās Romas pilis.

Tieši šajā darbnīcā sāka ražot pirmos pietra dura objektus. Izvēršoties ārpus arhitektūras iezīmēm, amatnieki pie Galerija sāka būvēt lādītes, galda virsmas un pat skapjus. Tas viss tika izmantots, lai iekārtotu plašās Medici pilis.

Tā kā māksla attīstījās 16. gadsimtā Florencē, tā bija pazīstama kā opera di commessi (burtiski, & lsquofitted kopā darbojas & rsquo), kur mūsdienu itāļu nosaukums Commesso nāk no.

Šie agrīnie pietra dura gabali bija dārgi: akmeņi, piemēram, jašma, porfīrs, kvarcs un ahāts, pirms to salikšanas bija jāizrok un jānosūta no attāliem pasaules nostūriem Commesso panelis.

Tieši šīs eksotikas un greznības un ndash apvienojumā ar tehniskajām zināšanām, kas vajadzīgas, lai pabeigtu šādu darbu & ndash, pietra dura drīz kļuva ļoti vēlama starp Eiropas un rsquos nozīmīgākajiem kolekcionāriem.

Varbūt lielākais Florences darbnīcas sasniegums bija dekorācijas telpā, kas pazīstama kā Tribuna Uffizi galerijā Florencē, agrāk Medici & rsquos administratīvais centrs.

The Tribuna Medici ģimene tradicionāli glabāja savas vissvarīgākās gleznu un senlietu kolekcijas, tostarp Mikelandželo un da Vinči darbus.

Astoņstūra grīda telpā tika dekorēta 1580. gados ar izsmalcinātu polihroma marmora pietra dura ielaidumu, un sākotnēji tā bija iekārtota ar lielu pietra dura skapi, kas vēlāk tika iznīcināta. Istabas centrā šobrīd atrodas liels 17. gadsimta astoņstūrainais pietra dura galds.

Darbnīca Florencē, kurā tika uzbūvēti pietra dura elementi Uffizi un citiem palazzos pilsētā turpinātu darboties, pārsteidzoši, līdz 20. gadiem. Viņu pietra dura darbs kļūs par īpaši populāriem kolekcionāriem un rsquo priekšmetiem lielajiem tūristiem 18. un 19. gadsimtā.

Pietra dura Indijā

Daži no sarežģītajiem pietra dura darbiem Taj Mahal. Ņemiet vērā šeit izmantotos spilgti krāsainos dārgakmeņus, piemēram, zaļo malahītu. & kopējiet Teufel1987, izmantojot Wikimedia Commons

Sākot ar 16. gadsimtu, zināšanas par šo tehniku ​​izplatījās arī no Florences un nonāca vietās, kas atrodas pat Indijas subkontinentā.

Pietra dura būtiski ietekmētu 16. un 17. gadsimta Indiju. Tas bija Mogulu impērijas periods Indijā, periods, kas saistīts ar mākslas un arhitektūras uzplaukumu.

Valdošie mogāļi apbrīnoja tikko atklāto tehniku ​​un pasūtīja gabalos izstrādātus darbus: no tā izrietošais pietra dura jeb parchin kari stils savos attēlos un lietojumā bija izteikti neeiropeisks.

Indijas parchinkari darbs atkal galvenokārt tika izmantots arhitektūras, nevis dekoratīvās vidēs: viens no pirmajiem piemēriem ir slavenais imperatora Humayun (1508-1556) kaps Deli, kas tika pabeigts 1569.-70.

Varbūt visslavenākā Indijas ēka, kurā attēloti pietra dura inkrustācijas darbi, tomēr ir Tadžmahals, iespējams, zelta laikmeta Mogulu arhitektūras tēls. Daži no pietra dura inkrustācijas darbiem ir attēloti iepriekš.

Taj Mahal ir bagātīgi dekorēts ar ziedu pietra dura ielaidumiem uz tā iekšējām sienām, grīdām un mauzolejas, un tajā izmantoti reti dārgakmeņi, piemēram, karneols, lapis lazuli, tirkīzs un malahīts.


Polihromu akmeņu inkrustācijas dekorēšana

Opus sectile ir veids, kā izgatavot rotājumus, izmantojot precīzi sagrieztus polihroma akmens gabalus, parasti marmoru, lai veidotu rakstus un figūras uz plakanām virsmām.

Opus sectile tika izmantots segumos, sienās un mazākās virsmās, piemēram, galdos.

Tehnika bija ļoti dārga, un to izmantoja tikai augsta statusa apstākļos, kur polihromās mozaīkas un gleznas nebija piemērotas.

Villa Romana del Casale, ļoti bagāta romiešu lauku villa Sicīlijā no mūsu ēras 4. gadsimta ar vairāk nekā 3500m 2 daudzkrāsainu ģeometrisku un figurālu mozaīku, bija tikai viena istaba - galvenā auditorijas zāle, kurā mājas saimnieks uzņēma savus viesus. iekšā stāvs opus sectile.


Stambulas vēlās romiešu un bizantiešu vietas

Admirālis Konstantīns Lips 907.-908. Gadā uzcēla klostera klosteri, veltītu Theotokos Panachrantos (Dieva Bezvainīgajai Mātei). Imperators Leo VI Gudrais piedalījās tā atklāšanā, un drīz vien klosteris kļuva par vienu no lielākajiem Konstantinopolē.

Šis klosteris sastāv no divām baznīcām.

Theotokos Panachrantos baznīca (ziemeļu baznīca)

The katholikon klostera, iespējams, tika uzcelta uz VI gadsimta baznīcas paliekām. Tās celtniecībā izmantoti kapakmeņi no romiešu kapsētas.

Baznīca bija otrais Konstantinopolē, lai pieņemtu plānu, kas sakrīt ar kvadrātu (pirmā ir Nea Ekklesia no Lielās pils no 880. gada), un tā ir vecākā baznīca ar šādu plānu saglabājusies pilsētā. Tam ir a naossadalīts deviņos līčos. Centrālo līci klāj kupols, ko atbalstīja četras kolonnas. Pašreizējais kupols ar astoņiem logiem ir no Osmaņu perioda, tāpat kā divas smailās arkas, kas aptver visu baznīcu, nomainot kolonnas. Trīs kolonnu pamati ir palikuši sākotnējā stāvoklī. Kvadrātveida kodola velvētās rokas beidzas milzīgos trīskāršos logos ziemeļu un dienvidu fasādēs. The naos kulminācija austrumos ir trīspusēja bemaun rietumos pie trīs līča nartekss. Baznīcas apses ir augstas un tās pārtrauc logi: ar trīskāršu logu centrālajā apsidē un atsevišķiem logiem sānu apsēs.

Turklāt šai baznīcai bija sešas kapličas. Zemes līmenī, priekšā bija divas kapelas protēze un diakonons. Neparasti ēkas četrās malās atradās arī nelielas jumta kapelas: divas virs rietumu stūra līčiem. naos, viens virs protēze, un viens virs diakonons. No vienas no šīm kapelām 20. gadsimtā tika atrasta Heliopolisa mocekļa Eudokijas 10. gadsimta marmora ikona.

Mūra sastāv no mainīgiem ķieģeļu un nelielu akmens bloku slāņiem. Ķieģeļi grimst biezā javas gultnē, kā tas raksturīgi 10. gadsimta bizantiešu arhitektūrai. Iekšpusē baznīca bija dekorēta ar marmora paneļiem un krāsainām flīzēm, un velves bija pārklātas ar mozaīkām. Izcili ir baznīcas logu iegriezumi, karnīzes un vainagi, ko rotā dažādi motīvi (piemēram, lapotne, palmetes, rozetes, fantastiski augi, krusti, pāvi un ērgļi). Tie veido to, kas ir viena no izcilākajām vidusbizantijas skulpturālās dekorācijas kolekcijām pilsētā.

Archivolt with the busts of the Apostles, from the Church of Theotokos Panachrantos of the Monastery of Constantine Lips (late 13th or early 14th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos (south church)

The Monastery of Lips was restored by Theodora, the widow of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, between 1281 and 1304. She had another church erected south of the existing church. Dedicated to Saint John the Forerunner, that church served as a mausoleum for the members of the Palaiologan dynasty, starting with Theodora herself.

The south church is a notable example of Palaiologan architecture. Its centerpiece is a simple square bay crowned by a dome. The central bay is surrounded on three sides by an ambulatory and further on the west by a narthex (originally domed). These spaces were filled with tombs. The ambulatory is lower than the domed core and the bema, providing access of light through triple windows on three sides of the central bay.

The walls and vaults of the church were covered with mosaics. The floor of the naos was paved in the opus sectile technique. The bema has a marble floor, which has been preserved.

On the three apses of the south church, niches and windows of various sizes can be seen. More attention gets the attractive brickwork of the apses. The bricks are arranged to form various interesting patterns, like arches, hooks, meanders, sun crosses, and fans. Between these patterns there are white bands of stone separated by two to five courses of bricks. Such decorations, showing the influence of the East, became common in the Late Byzantine architecture.

Exonarthex-parecclesion

In the early 14th century, in order to create space for additional burial sites, a long exonarthex was added to the two churches, together a with parecclesion of the south church. These were interconnected, forming a space that surrounds the complex on the west and south sides. The tombs were placed in the arcosolia, built along the outer walls of the structure. The façades of the exonarthex un parecclesion closely follow the style of the two churches.

44-45. Rotunda and Church of Myrelaion

Aksaray Caddesi, Mesihpaşa Caddesi, Laleli Caddesi & Şair Haşmet Sokak, Laleli

We can distinguish two surviving structures in the Myrelaion complex: a rotunda (cistern) and a church (mosque).

44. Rotunda of Myrelaion

5th century converted into a cistern in early 10th century

In around 920, Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos bought a property in the Myrelaion neighbourhood of Constantinople. (Myrelaion means ‘place of myrrh’ in Greek.) His intention was to build here a new imperial residence, as a replacement of the Great Palace.

On the site that he acquired stood a giant rotunda from the 5th century. With its diameter of 41.8 m, it was the largest circular building in the city un second largest in the ancient world (after the Pantheon of Rome, which measures 43.3 m). The identity and the original function of the rotunda is unclear. It has been suggested that it was the palace of the Theodosian princess Arcadia. Its sigma-shaped portico (destroyed) may be identified as the Amastrianon, which served as a market and a place for public executions in the Medieval period.

The rotunda was converted, possibly by Romanos himself, into a cistern. Its dome was destroyed, and its surface was levelled. The interior was filled with kolonnas to support a vaulted system. This structure can be visited in the bazaar that it houses. The capitals of the columns are very beautiful, especially when considering their current surroundings.

On the surface of the cistern Romanos built the Palace of Myrelaion. It resembled a Roman corridor villa and was much smaller than the rotunda. Later he turned the palace into a nunnery and the substructure into a burial chapel. Almost nothing remains of the palace today.

In the 1960s, archaeologists discovered a fragment of a porphyry sculpture from the rotunda. It turned out to be the missing heel of the Portrait of the Tetrarchs, which had been stolen from Constantinople and brought to Venice during the Fourth Crusade (now displayed at a corner of the façade of St Mark’s Basilica). This statue probably originates from the Philadelphion, a square close-by, where the Mese branched in two, considered the physical centre, or the mesomphalos, of the city.

45. Church of Myrelaion

A church was attached to the Palace of Myrelaion. In 922, Theodora, the wife of Romanos, died and was buried here, followed in 931 by his eldest son and co-emperor Christopher. By burying his family in the Church of Myrelaion, Romanos broke a tradition that had started from Constantine the Great, whereby all the Byzantine emperors were supposed to be laid to rest in the Church of the Holy Apostles. In 948, Romanos himself was buried here. His example was followed by later Komnenian and Palaiologan emperors, who, too, preferred private burial churches.

The Church of Myrelaion is one of the first churches in the city with the cross-in-square plan, after the Nea Ekklesia of the Great Palace and the northern church of the Monastery of Lips.

The church has a naos surmounted by a dome with a fluted surface, forming the so-called umbrella dome, vai pumpkin dome. The cross arms of the naos are topped by groin vaults. The naos was originally partitioned by four columns (replaced by piers in the Ottoman period). To the east is a sanctuary with three polygonal apses (the bema, prothesis, un diaconicon). To the west is a narthex with a dome on its central bay. Originally, the church also had an exonarthex, but that was replaced by a wooden portico in the Ottoman era. The mosaics and marble that decorated the interior have totally disappeared.

On the outside, unusual elements include semi-cylindrical buttresses, which create a flowing effect on the façades, and small rounded windows. Rare is also the fact that the masonry is entirely made of bricks.

In around 1500 the church was converted into a mosque and named after its substructure (‘bodrum’ means basement in Turkish).

46-47. Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

In the 9th and 10th century there was a monastery near the Cistern of Aetius on the Sixth Hill of Constantinople. It has been, for long time, identified as the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra, but there is no conclusive evidence to prove that. The structures today known as the Odalar Mosque, Kasım Ağa Mosque and İpek Bodrum Cistern were probably all part of that monastery, with the first being its katholikon, the second an annex, and the third its water source.

46. Katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Odalar Mosque
Müftu Sokaĝi 20-22, Karagümrük
First church – 9th or 10th century second church – mid- or late-12th century

Pirmais katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra was erected in the 9th or 10th century. It had a square plan with three apses. Under it was a basement composed of 24 vaulted rooms and a vaulted crypt with an apse. These spaces may have had a profane use before. These were later turned into a cistern.

The second church was built in the middle or at the end of the 12th century. It used 16 rooms of the basement of the old church as a substructure, and its floor was 3.3 m above that of the first church. The plan was cross-in-square, with the typical dome, four columns, tripartite naos and narthex. Atypical was the diaconicon, which was larger than the prothesis. The walls were build up of stone and bricks, the recessed-brick technique being used with the latter.

Several frescoes survive from the two churches, depicting the Theotokos Enthroned, the Deesis, the Prophets, the Life of Mary, and Saint Mercurius. Some are now in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

In 1475, when the Ottomans conquered the Genovese city of Caffa (today Feodosia) in Crimea, this neighbourhood was populated with Christian settlers. The church was given to the Dominicans, who had brought a large icon of the Hodegetria type with them and who dedicated the church to Saint Mary of Constantinople. By the beginning of the 16th century, the area had become predominantly Italian. Sultan Murad IV decided to move all the foreigners that were not Ottoman subjects to Galata and Pera, as a result of which, in 1636, the church was closed and, in 1640, turned into a mosque. The icon found its way to the Church of SS Peter and Paul in Galata. The mosque got its current name after 1782, when married Janissaries moved to the neighbourhood (with ‘oda’ meaning ‘room’ in Turkish). The building was destroyed in a fire in 1919 and has fallen in ruin since then.

47. Annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Kasım Ağa Mosque
Koza Sokak, Karagümrük
13th-15th century

This small building was probably an annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra. It was roughly square in plan, with a single nave preceded by an atrium in the north east and a projecting room in the east. It has no apse. Its masonry suggests that it was a Palaiologan structure, but also that there were different construction phases. It seems to have fallen in ruins by 1453, and a mosque was built in its place in 1460 or 1506.

48. Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae

Atik Mustafa Paşa Mosque / Hazreti Cabir Mosque
Çember Sokak, Ayvansaray
Mid-9th century 1059

For a long time it was thought that this church was dedicated to Saints Peter and Mark. It is more probable, however, that it is, instead, the Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae.

In the middle of the 9th century, Princess Thekla, a daughter of Emperor Theophilus (829-842), is known to have enlarged an oratory located some hundred meters east of the Church of the Saint Mary of Blachernae and dedicated it to her patron saint. Because the church displays many archaic elements it is sometimes suggested that it dates from that time. Examples of the archaic elements include the L-shaped piers, which form the internal side of the cross to support the dome, and simple, barrel-vaulted corner bays. If the church can be dated to this period, it would be the earliest surviving post-Iconoclast church and the first cross-in-square type of a church in the city.

It is known that in 1059, Isaac I Komnenos built a larger church around here, to commemorate his surviving a hunting accident. That church was famous for its frescoes and mosaics. Anna Komnene writes that her grandmother Anna Dalassene used to come here often to pray. It may be that the church as we see it today dates from this (or an even later) period.

The church is oriented to north-east and south-west. On the south-east side it has three polygonal apses. Originally the church looked much lighter than today, as the floor was 1.50 metres lower and the dome was taller and filled with windows. The dome was heavily damaged in the 1509 earthquake, after which the church was turned into a mosque. The current dome is from the Ottoman period, as are the roof, the cornice, and the porch. The windows were later thoroughly reworked. The interior was plastered over as well, including the early-15th-century frescoes depicting the Archangel Michael and Saints Cosmas and Damian.

The mosque is important for Muslims, because of the türbe attributed to a companion of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp), who fell during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674-678).

49. Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols

Tevkii Cafer Mektebi Sokak 1, Fener
Original church – 11th century narthex – 1281-1285 current modification – 18th century

This church stands near the Phanar Greek Orthodox College. Its earliest stage is the 11th century, when it was part of a male monastery dedicated to Theotokos Panagiotissa. Tas bija tetraconch church with a central dome. Each of the four sides of the central square were flanked with semicircular apses, each having three apsidioles. This type of a ground plan is uncommon in the area around Constantinople, but it is still not the only example: the Church of Panagia Kamariotissa on Heybeliada is also a tetraconch church.

The monastery was abandoned after the Fourth Crusade. In 1261 it was re-established by Isaac Doukas, uncle of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. The complex was renovated in 1266-1267. In 1281, it was renovated again by Maria Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Michael VIII, who established it as a nunnery. She added a three-bay narthex to the church and 33 cells, a bath, gardens, and vineyards for the nuns. Maria had been a consort of Abaqa Khan, the second ruler or the Mongol Il-khanate, from which the Greek name of the church, Panagia Mouchliotissa, derives.

This church is known in Turkish as Kanlı Kilise (the Bloody Church). The name comes from the fact that the last resistance of the Byzantines against the Ottomans took place on May 29, 1453 in its surroundings.

Tradition has it that Sultan Mehmed II gave the church to the mother of Atik Sinan, or Christodoulos, the Greek architect of the Fatih Mosque, in acknowledgment of his work. The grant was later confirmed by Sultan Bayezid II. Copies of the firmans ensuring its survival are still preserved inside the church. Even though there were some later attempts to convert the church into a mosque, the earlier grants prevented it from falling from the hands of the Greeks. That makes it the only church in Istanbul that has been continuously used by the Greek Orthodox Church.

The church was modified heavily in the 18th century. It lost its southern semi-dome and the southern bay of the narthex, over which three aisles were built. The only surviving Byzantine features are the eastern and northern apses and the two northern bays of the narthex.

The original interior of the church is gone as well. A mosaic icon of the Panagia Mouchliotissa is housed in the church, dating from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The traces of the mural painting visible today, depicting the Last Judgment, originate from the post-Byzantine period.

50. Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes

Eski Imaret Mosque
Küçük Mektepli Sokak 11, Zeyrek
1085

This church was the katholikon of a monastery established by Anna Dalassene in around 1085. Dedicated to Christ the All-Seeing, it is unique in the Byzantine history in that, as far as it is known, no other monastery in the empire of all those dedicated to Christ ever bore this epithet. For Anna Dalassene, the monastery was a major symbol of his family’s struggle for supremacy, which had culminated in the accession to power of his son Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. As an extremely powerful woman and the mother of the Komnenoi, she was also called Pantepoptes by her descendants. She later retired in this monastery, where she died and was buried.

The church has a cross-in-square plan, with four vaulted crossarms. It has two narthexes: the esonarthex is original, while the exonarthex may be a Palaiologan addition, replacing an open portico. Over the narthex and the two western bays of the quincunx runs a gallery, probably built for the private use of Anna Dalassene. It was endowed with two rooms and possibly connected with outside structures. Chapels may have stood above the prothesis un diaconicon. Of the original interior nothing remains, except for some red marble around the doorways and some columns.

In the exterior, elements typical of Byzantine architecture under the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) co-exist with innovations which where to become commonplace in the Komnenian era (1081-1185). The scalloped roofline of the 12-sided dome, for example, is typical of the Macedonian architecture, while the small recessed niches in the walls represent the Komnenian period.

This church is the oldest extant building in Istanbul where the use of the recessed-brick technique ir redzams. This technique, a trademark of the middle-period Byzantine architecture, means the placement of a band of bricks in a way that it is slightly recessed, while placing another band, as usual, on the outer line of the wall. The recessed bricks are covered with mortar, which creates the alternation of red (brick) and light-coloured (mortar) bands on the walls. In the upper parts, stone is used.

The church is also notable for the use of cloisonné masonry, i.e dressed stones laid in regular courses and framed by bricks horizontally and vertically. This technique was typical in Greek architecture of the period (cf. the Byzantine churches of Athens ), but virtually unknown in Constantinople. Decorative motifs such as sunbursts, meanders and basket-weave patterns can be found on the façades. Dog-tooth frets decorate the cornices. Unique is also the brick-tiled roofing, as in Constantinople churches were normally roofed with lead.

After the conquest of 1453, the complex was known for the soup kitchen (imaret) it housed. The mosque that the church has been converted to is still called Eski İmaret Camii, or the Mosque of the Old Soup Kitchen.

51. Chapel of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora / Chapel of the Monastery of Kyra Martha

Manastır Mescidi (Monastery Mosque)
Turgut Özal Millet Caddesi & Karanfilli Çavuş Sokak, Topkapı
Late 11th century or the Palaiologan era

It has been speculated that this cute building, located near the Gate of Saint Romanos, was part of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora. Others have suggested that it was an annex of the Monastery of Kyra Martha. Its size indicates that it was a chapel within a monastery rather than its katholikon.

The original plan of the building is not known. The current structure has a single nave, a tripartite bema in the east and a vaulted narthex in the west. Two carved capitals separate the naos from the narthex. Foundations of columns have been found in the naos, which may suggest that it was originally a cross-in-square building. It may have also had an exonarthex, a chapel in the south (with its own narthexes on three sides), and an open portico.

52. Church of Hagia Theodosia / Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio / Church of Christos Euergetes

Gül Mosque
Vakıf Mektebi Sokak 16, Ayakapı
Late 11th or early 12th century

This church has traditionally been identified as the church of the Monastery of Hagia Theodosia. Theodosia was one of the nuns who gathered on January 19, 729 to prevent the removal of the icon of Christ which stood over the Chalke Gate at the Great Palace of Constantinople. She let the man executing the order given by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian to fall from the ladder, causing his death. She was captured and executed. After the end of Iconoclasm, Theodosia was recognised as a martyr, and she soon became one of the most venerated saints in Constantinople.

It has also been argued that the building was the Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio. Some suggest that the church was part of the Monastery of Christos Euergetes (Christ the Benefactor).

The church lies on a high vaulted basement, which gives it an impressive look. Its masonry shows the use of the technique of the recessed brick, which makes it probable that it dates from the late 11th or early 12th century. Another element that contributes to the credibility of this dating are its side apses, which consist of five niches divided into four tiers and decorated with ornamental brickwork and a cornice. This makes the church stylistically very similar to the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, which was built between 1118 and 1136. The plainer central apse is probably a later Byzantine reconstruction.

The church has a cross-domed plan (cf. the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa). It is surmounted by five domes, one big in the centre and four smaller ones at the corners. The central dome, which has a low external drum and no windows, and the broad pointed arches that carry it are from the Ottoman period.

Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome was supported by piers, and not columns. The eastern piers are interesting because they contain both a small chamber. One of them may have contained the tomb of Saint Theodosia, but later also the tomb of the Ottoman saint Gül Baba according to some. (The more famous türbe of Gül Baba is located in the Rózsadomb neighbourhood in Budapest.) The inscription in Ottoman Turkish above the entrance (‘Tomb of the Apostle, disciple of Jesus, peace with him’), bears witness to the religious syncretism of the 16th-century Constantinople.

Another interesting elements is the upper gallery. It occupies three walls of the naos, running from the chapel located atop the prothesis to the one that lies above the diaconicon. It is possible that the gallery is a Palaiologan addition.

The church was turned into a mosque in around 1490. It became to be known as the Gül Mosque. That name may be explained by the presence of the tomb of Gül Baba or, more probably, by the fact that during the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 the church was adorned with garlands of roses (‘gül’ means ‘rose’ in Turkish). The night before, Emperor Constantine XI and Patriarch Athanasius II had participated at the feast of Saint Theodosia in the church and prayed for the city. The next morning, the Ottomans found many people still gathered in the church. They took them as prisoners of war, threw away the relics and cast the body of the saint to the dogs.

53.(-55.) Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Zeyrek Mosque
İbadethane Arkası Sokak, İbadethane Sokak & Fazilet Sokak, Zeyrek
1118-1136

In 1118, Empress Irene of Hungary founded a monastery dedicated to the Christ Pantocrator on an eastern slope of the Fourth Hill of Constantinople. To the north of its katholikon, Emperor John II Komnenos soon added another church, dedicated to the Theotokos Eleousa (Merciful Mother of God). He also built a large funerary chapel, dedicated to Archangel Michael, to connect the two churches. These three structures must have been completed by October 1136, when the typikon of the monastery, one of the very few surviving, was issued.

The monastery is special in that no other Byzantine church, only the Church of the Holy Apostles excluded, received as many imperial burials. Both John II and Irene were buried here (in 1143 and 1134, respectively), followed by Emperor Manuel I (1180) and Empress Bertha of Sulzbach (1159). The tradition continued in the Palaiologan era, when emperors Manuel II (1425) and John VIII (1448) were laid to rest here. The typikon of the monastery describes the funerary chapel as a heroon, a term reserved for the mausoleum of Constantine the Great and his successors at the Church of the Holy Apostles, showing the imperial ambitions of the Komnenoi. The reputation of the monastery was further raised, when the icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria – the city’s most revered icon – was brought here.

The complex of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator is the second largest religious edifice built by the Byzantines still standing.

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Chapel of Archangel Michael (on the left) and Church of Theotokos Eleousa (north church on the right)

The churches are both typical examples of the Middle Byzantine architecture. Viņiem ir a cross-in-square plan: a nine-bay naos, a central dome supported by four columns (changed in the Ottoman era), a tripartite bema, and a narthex. They both had a matroneum, or a women’s gallery, above the narthex. In the south church, the central bay of the matroneum is also covered by a dome. The north church has only one dome, which is oval.

The Chapel of Archangel Michael has two bays. It is possible that the bay on the east functioned as a liturgical area, while the one on the west was a funerary space. The both bays of the chapel are capped by an elliptical dome.

All the three structures have polygonal apses with windows and niches. The south church, which is larger, also has an exonarthex and a courtyard, which were added together with the north church and the chapel.

The masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. It is slightly sloppy, incorporating bricks of different sizes. This may be explained by the fact that the building material comes from a much older structure, as hinted by the many Early Byzantine brick stamps that have been found here.

Brickwork on the apses of the chapel and the north church

Brickwork on the apse of the chapel

The two churches and the chapel were richly decorated. The most beautiful decorative element that remains is the colourful opus sectile stāvs, covering the naos of the southern church. Motifs that are commonly found in imperial palaces can be seen here, such as birds of prey, fantastic beasts, and the wheel of the zodiac. Scenes from the life of Samson are also displayed. The floor is now, unfortunately, hidden under the carpet of the mosque.

Fragments of coloured glass have been found from the south church as well, suggesting the presence of stained-glass windows. The north church has intricate sculptural decorations, for example, on the capitals and cornices, which show traces of Armenian bole and gold leaf. Some traces of mosaics can also be found in the complex. Tur ir arī spolia from the Church of Saint Polyeuctus.

Cornice and traces of mosaics in the north church

Capitals in the north church

Marble revetments in the south church

Saskaņā ar typikon, the monastery complex included a 50-bed hospital, a home for 24 elderly men, a medical school, and a leprosarium.

It has been suggested that, during the Fourth Crusade, the treasury of the monastery was raided and its contents was carried off to Venice. It may be that some panels of the Pala d’Oro, now serving as the altar retable in Saint Mark’s Basilica in Venice, comes from the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. During the Latin occupation in 1204-1261, the monastery served as the Venetian headquarters of Constantinople.

54. Library of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Şeyh Süleyman Mosque
Zeyrek Caddesi 24, Zeyrek

The library of the monastery may have located 120 m south-west of the katholikon, in a building known today as the Şeyh Süleyman Mosque.

It is not clear when that building was constructed. It consists of a square substructure and a hexagonal superstructure with a dome supported by pendentives. The lower part is made of ashlar masonry, while in the upper part bricks are used. It is sometimes argued that it is a Palaiologan structure, but the masonry indicates that it is an older building. It may have been an Early Byzantine mausoleum. The pointed arches on the façade are part of an Ottoman renovation.

55. Pantocrator Cistern / Unkapanı Cistern

Atatürk Bulvarı, northeast of the katholikon
6th or early 12th century

The monastery was supplied with water by a number of cisterns. The largest of them covers an area of 18 m and 55 m. It is built inside a hill, and it has an exposed wall with a series of niches. According to some, its roots go back to the 6th century. The other cisterns here were built at the same time with the monastery.

56. Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos in Troullo

Hirami Ahmet Paşa Mosque
Koltukçu Sokak 4, Çarşamba
9th or 12th century

This small church dedicated to John the Baptist is located near the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos in the conservative Çarşamba neighbourhood of Istanbul. Its appellation ‘en to Troullo’ (‘trullus’ means ‘dome’ in Latin) may be related to the vicinity of a domed palace.

The church is usually dated to the 12th century. Tas ir cross-in-square church with a tripartite bema and a narthex. Four columns support an octagonal drum which bears the dome. The arms of the cross to the north and south are covered with barrel vaults. The central apse, which projects boldly outside, is opened by a large window, divided in three by two pillars with capitals. There are other tripartite windows that lit the interior.

Some date the church to the 9th century. This may be due to the unadorned semicircular apses un circular drum of the dome, which were common in the provinces in the 9th and 10th centuries. Visticamāk, ka bema extended west in some period, to include the three eastern bays of the naos. Another factor that contributes to an earlier dating is the alternation of bands of ashlar and brick, which was typical in Constantinople from the 8th to the 10th century, but not thereafter, when the recessed-brick masonry dominated.

The church had primarily a funerary purpose. The narthex had at least four arcosolia. Two more arcosolia were located in the naos.

Since 1456 the church served as a convent for nuns who had been evicted from the nearby Church of Pammakaristos, which had been made the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. It was converted into a mosque between 1587 and 1598. The mosque has no minaret.

57. Church of Hagios Theodoros in Karbounaria

Vefa Mosque / Molla Gürani Mosque
Tirendaz Sokak, Molla Şemsettin Cami Sokak & Divan Efendi Sokak, Vefa
Church proper – 11th or 12th century exonarthex – 13th or 14th century

This church, located in the Byzantine neighbourhood named after the coal market (karbounaria), is traditionally identified as the Church of Hagios Theodoros. It is a typical middle-Byzantine church. Tam ir a cross-in-square plan. Its masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. The exterior has occasional decorative motifs, such as snake patterns. The apse is interrupted by windows and niches.

Several structures were added to the church in the Palaiologan era. The most important of them was the five-bay exonarthex. It has a bipartite façade. The lower part has triple arcades (originally open), while on the upper part there are windows framed by large semicircular blind arcades. The masonry consists of alternating courses of red bricks and white stones, especially remarkable on the north façade.

The exonarthex has three domes. All of these were originally covered with mosaics, traces of which survive. The best preserved is the image of the Theotokos with Child Christ surrounded by eight prophets on one of the domes. The exonarthex is further decorated with columns, capitals, and closure slabs – all reused material from the Early Byzantine period.

To the south-west corner of the church a belfry was added at the same time with the exonarthex. Similarly to the Chora Church, a two-storey annex on the north side can be found. Remains of underground cisterns have also been found under the south and west sides of the church, hinting to the existence of a monastery in the Byzantine period.

58. Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa

Kalenderhane Mosque
16 Mart Şehitleri Caddesi & Medrese Sokak, Vefa
1190s sanctuary – 6th-12th centuries

This church, constructed at the end of the 12th century, was most probably dedicated to Theotokos Kyriotissa (Enthroned Mother of God). It is one of the most impressive Middle Byzantine buildings in Istanbul.

Tas ir cross-domed church (like the church housing the Gül Mosque and Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki). The central bay of the naos is covered by a dome with the diameter of 8 m and with 16 ribs. Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome is supported by four massive piers instead of four slender columns as in a typical cross-in-square church. Deep barrel vaults form the side-arms of the cross. In the west, there is a narthex, which was originally surmounted by an upper gallery, like in the churches of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. An exonarthex was later added to the structure.

The interior is dominated by polychrome marble panels and mouldings. Only a third of these seen today are original. The rest is either secondary revetment or plaster imitating marble.

The masonry of the church is made of alternating layers of brick and stone.

The oldest parts of the church are the bema, un prothesis, un diaconicon. The prothesis is the apse of a church that was built on this site in the 6th century. That church may have been connected to a 4th- or 5th-century bathhouse. The bema of the 12th-century church uses the apse from a church which was built in the 7th century south of the older church. The diaconicon consists of two chapels, known as the Francis Chapel un Melismos Chapel, built in the Middle Byzantine period before the main church. The masonry of the Francis Chapel is similar to that of the northern church of the Monastery of Lips. The Melismos Chapel is made in the recessed-brick technique, which was common from the late 11th century on.

The bema was home to a mozaīka representing the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It probably comes from the earlier church and dates back to the 6th or 7th century, being the only surviving religious mosaic from the pre-Iconoclastic period in Constantinople, un earliest surviving representation of the hypapante in Byzantine art.

Mosaic of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple from the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa (late 6th or early 7th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

The Francis Chapel housed a fresco cycle portraying the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. It is the oldest representation of the saint, painted only some years after his death, in the mid-13th century, when the church was being used by the Franciscans. The fresco cycle, too, can be found in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.

After the Fall of Constantinople the church was given by Sultan Mehmed II to the Kalenderi sect of dervishes, after whom today’s mosque is named.


Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosettes] - History

A reconstructed tile from the Second Temple.. (photo credit:ZACHI DVIRA/TEMPLE MOUNT SIFTING PROJECT)

For the first time since its destruction at the hands of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago, archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have reconstructed several floor tiles from Jerusalem’s Second Temple’s courtyard.

According to Dr. Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Dvira, co-founders and co-directors of the Temple Mount Sifting Project, the reconstruction is unprecedented.

“This represents the first time that archaeologists have been able to successfully restore an element from the Herodian Second Temple complex,” said Dvira at an unveiling of the tiles at the project’s headquarters in Tzurim Valley National Park, located on the western slopes of Mount Scopus.

The regally-designed ancient tiles likely featured prominently in the courtyards of the holy Temple during King Herod’s reign between 37 to 4 BCE, added Barkay.

“It enables us to get an idea of the Temple’s incredible splendor,” he said.

The Temple Mount Sifting Project, supported by the City of David Foundation and the Israel Archaeology Foundation, was established in response to the illegal removal of tons of antiquities-rich earth from the Temple Mount by the Islamic Waqf in 1999.

It is run under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University and the Israel Parks & Nature Authority.

Frankie Snyder, a member of the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s team of researchers, and an expert in the study of ancient Herodian-style flooring, said they succeeded in restoring the ornate tile patterns using geometric principles, and through similarities found in tile design used by Herod at other sites.

“This type of flooring, called ‘opus sectile’ (Latin for ‘cut work’) is very expensive, and was considered to be far more prestigious than mosaic tiled floors,” said Snyder, who has an academic background in mathematics and Judaic Studies.

“So far, we have succeeded in restoring seven potential designs of the majestic flooring that decorated the buildings of the Temple Mount,” added Snyder, noting that there were no opus sectile floors in Israel prior to the time of King Herod.

“The tile segments were perfectly inlaid, such that one could not even insert a sharp blade between them,” he explained.

To date, approximately 600 colored stone floor tile segments have been uncovered, with more than 100 of them definitively dated to the Herodian Second Temple Period.

“This style of flooring is consistent with those found in Herod’s palaces at Masada, Herodian, and Jericho, among others – as well as in majestic palaces and villas in Italy, also attributed to the time of Herod,” said Snyder.

The tile segments – mostly imported from Rome, Asia Minor, Tunisia, and Egypt – were created from polished multicolored stones, cut in a variety of geometric shapes.

“A key characteristic of the Herodian tiles is their size, which corresponds to the Roman foot, approximately 29.6 cm,” noted Snyder.

The possibility that large expanses of the Temple Mount during the Second Temple Period were covered with opus sectile flooring was first raised in 2007 by archaeologist Assaf Avraham, director of the Jerusalem Walls National Park, with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Avraham’s theory was based on a description given by the Romano-Jewish historian Josephus (1st Century CE), who wrote, “…the uncovered [Temple Mount courtyard] was completely paved with stones of various types and colors… (The Jewish War 5:2).”

Moreover, Talmudic literature records the meticulously-planned construction of the Temple Mount, describing rows of marble in different colors, including green, blue and white.

“Now, as a result of Frankie Snyder’s mathematical skills, we have succeeded in recreating the actual tile patterns,” said Barkay.

“Referring to the Temple that Herod built, the Talmud says that, ‘Whoever has not seen Herod’s building, has not seen a beautiful building in his life,’” he continued. “Though we have not merited seeing the Temple in its glory, with the discovery and restoration of these unique floor tiles, we are now able to have a deeper understanding and appreciation for the Second Temple, even through this one distinctive characteristic.”

Since the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s inception in 2004, more than 200,000 volunteers from around the world have taken part in the sifting, representing an unprecedented phenomenon in the realm of archaeological research.

The restored tiles will be presented to the general public on Thursday at the 17th Annual City of David Archaeological Conference.


Mus e de Beaux-Arts et d'Arch ologie de Vienne: bronze statue of Caius Julius Pacatianus (?) and an ivory jewel box in the foreground

The museums of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Romain-en-Gal are not the only ones at Vienne which show works of art of the Roman period. A limited number of relatively small exhibits are on display in a museum which was inaugurated in 1895 mainly to house paintings and faience. The statue of Pacatianus was found in 1874 broken into very many small pieces. Similar to that of the God of Coligny at Lyon it was reassembled. The head is clearly too small for the body, so either the fragments belonged to two statues or the head (which is less old than the body) replaced a previous one. A separate bronze inscription which was found in the same location suggested that the statue portrayed Caius Julius Pacatianus, a magistrate from Vienne who held many offices at the time of Emperor Septimius Severus and was the patron of Italica, but the inscription could refer to another statue.