Vai ir pierādījumi, kas liecinātu, ka Ābrahāms un Hammurabi ietekmēja viens otru?

Vai ir pierādījumi, kas liecinātu, ka Ābrahāms un Hammurabi ietekmēja viens otru?


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Atbildes InGenesis iesaka:

Tomēr neseno pētījumu rezultāts ir tāds, ka senās pasaules hronoloģija tiek atjaunota. Tagad šķiet, ka Hammurabi ir tuvs Mozus laikabiedrs Ābrahāma vietā. Ēģiptes hronoloģiskajos pētījumos patriarhi ir datēti agrāk nekā jebkad agrāk.

EarlthlyCovenant apgalvo:

pierādījumu stars, kas liek domāt, ka mezopotāmiešu valdnieks, ar kuru Ābrahāms noslēdza derību, bija Bābeles lielais likumu devējs, ķēniņš Hammurabi (1790-1752 p.m.ē.).

Mans jautājums ir šāds: Vai ir pierādījumi, kas liecinātu, ka Ābrahāms un Hammurabi ietekmēja viens otru?


Mums nav zināmu pierādījumu un nav iemesla cerēt tos atrast. Pat ja mēs uztveram 1. Mozus grāmatu burtiski, tomēr var uzskatīt, ka Ābrahāms bija analfabēts. Darbs Sāras kapa vietā nozīmē lasītprasmi kanaānietē, no kuras viņš to iegādājās, nevis lasītprasmi Ābrahāmā vai kādā no viņa kalpiem.

Dzīvesveids, kādā dzīvoja patriarhi, atstāja zemē maz zīmes un mazāk atstāja, lai to vēlāk varētu izrakt. Vienīgās lietas, ko atstāja Ābrahāms, bija kaļķakmens (?) Kapenes uz virsmas, iespējams, sen izpostītas un izraktas akas, kas pastāv atvērtības dēļ. Ja urbumu mutvārdu vēsture būtu nepareiza un urbums, ko mēs saucam par Ābrahāma aku, mēs to nevarētu zināt.

Ābrahāms ir reģistrēts kā turīgs, taču viņa bagātība ar liellopiem neatstātu nekādu iespaidu pēc aptuveni 4000 gadiem.

Tāpēc nav īpaši iemesla domāt, ka Ābrahāms kādreiz būtu mijiedarbojies ar Hammurabi, un pat tad, ja viņš to darītu (kas nav neiespējami, jo viņš sāka Urā), nav iemesla domāt, ka mums par to būtu jāreģistrē. Galu galā Bībelei ir savs mērķis, un tā bija jāsaglabā saprātīgā izmērā, lai to kopētu ar rokām, tāpēc šādas lietas tiktu izlaistas, un varbūtība, ka jebkurš cits īpašs ieraksts saglabāsies, ir patiešām zema. Ir dažas Babilonas laikmeta ķīļrakstus, bet tās, kurās nav minēts Ābrahāms, ir sagaidāmas pat tad, ja pieņemam, ka viņš tajā laikā bija.

Bet EarthlyCovenant apgalvojums galēji ir dīvains un apvaino jebkura gana vai kazu intelektu. Tā argumentē nozīmi no dažiem izsekojamiem vārdiem, kurus ir grūti saprast, tomēr tiek ignorēti pašas derības vārdi. Viņiem mums vajadzētu teikt: "Ārkārtas prasības prasa ārkārtas pierādījumus."


Iepriekš minēšu, ka pats esmu praktizējošs kristietis, cerot, ka, iespējams, neatmetīsiet mani kā nīdēju, kad ziņošu par sekojošo: Tas ir maz ticams, jo pašreizējā vēsturiskā vienprātība ir tāda, ka Ābrahāms nebija vēsturiska persona. Viņš vairāk atgādina ebreju tautu Romulu un Remu.

Ābrahāma stāstu nevar galīgi saistīt ar kādu konkrētu laiku, un ir plaši atzīts, ka patriarhālais laikmets kopā ar izceļošanu un tiesnešu periodu ir vēls literārs veidojums, kas neattiecas uz nevienu faktiskās vēstures periodu.

Stāsts par Ābrahāmu, lai gan tas patiesi ir veidots daudz agrāk, šķiet, ir pierakstīts dzelzs laikmetā. Lielākā daļa uzticamu zinātnieku (tādi cilvēki, kuriem ir Wikipedia lapas, nevis IMDB lapas) tagad uzskata, ka tas notika kaut kad pēc Babilonijas trimdas beigām.

Tomēr dažas tās daļas (īpaši daži vārdi), šķiet, ir daudz vecākas. Tātad daļa stāsta, bet ne viss, patiešām ir ļoti veca. Bet vairs netiek uzskatīts par uzticamu veidu, kā mēģināt to datēt ar tādu precizitāti, kas ļautu mums runāt par Ābrahāma laikabiedriem citās kultūrās.

Patiesībā nav īsti lietderīgi mēģināt spriest par mītiskām personībām, kas mijiedarbojas ar vēsturiskām. Stāsta svarīgā daļa vienmēr bija tas, ko tas teica par ebrejiem kā tautu un to, kā viņi skatījās uz sevi (un attiecībām ar savu Dievu), nevis tas, ko tas saka par pašu seno vēsturi.


Šī atbilde InGenesis vietnē, kas ir saistīta ar jautājumu, ja jūsu saistītais raksts ir reprezentatīvs, es gribētu izdzēsiet to no manām grāmatzīmēm ja es būtu tu. *

Viena lieta, ko es atklāju, to pētot, ir tāda, ka Arheoloģijas kopiena ir gandrīz vienojusies, ka nav laba veida, kā izmantot savu disciplīnu, lai noteiktu Ābrahāma laika grafiku. Tātad, ja šis raksts vēlas kaut ko atspēkot, tas izmanto arheologu. Tomēr tas pats arheologs nekur nav atrodams, kad vēlas dublēt savu hipotēzi. Tā vietā tas paļaujas uz Bībeles zinātnieku, kuram es nevarēju atrast informāciju tiešsaistē, izņemot kristiešu vietnes un IMDB (!). Es domāju viņš varētu esiet pilnīgi likumīgs pētnieks, bet man tas šķiet ļoti iespaidīgi.

* - Ja jums rūp jūsu informācijas pamatotība, tas ir. Es zinu, ka daudzi mani koreligonisti dod priekšroku darbībai, izmantojot "nezinātnisku metodi": sāciet ar teoriju, kurai viņi vēlas būt patiesi, tad meklējiet informāciju, kas to atbalsta, un izmetiet informāciju, kas neatbilst. Šādas vietnes, iespējams, ir lieliski piemērotas tiem cilvēkiem, ja vien jums ir labi ar "teoriju".


Vārdu sakot, nē.

Ābrahāms un Hammurabi dzīvoja dažādos gadsimtos, gandrīz pusgadsimtu attālumā.

Es uzskatu, ka Ābrahams eksistēja. Jēzus teica: “Pirms Ābrahāms bija, es esmu” Jāņa 8:58.

Pirmkārt, šajā paziņojumā Jēzus apgalvo savu mūžīgo esamību kā Dievs, Dēls; un, otrkārt, tas atklāj viņa pārliecību, ka Ābrahāms bija īsta persona, nevis mīts.

Tad Jēzus, lai parādītu saduķejiem, ka Vecā Derība māca dzīvi pēc nāves, runāja par to, ka Ābrahāms, Īzāks un Jēkabs joprojām ir dzīvi (pēc viņu dvēseles) Mateja 22: 23-32 un paralēlās Lūkas 20: 27- 38 un Marka 12: 18-27. Viņš citē 2. Mozus 3: 6, kur Dievs vēlas pastāstīt Mozum par sevi, sakot: "Es esmu tava tēva Dievs, Ābrahāma Dievs, Īzāka Dievs, Jēkaba ​​Dievs". Šie ir tikai divi piemēri, kas parāda, ka Jēzus ticēja īstam Ābrahāmam.

Lai redzētu, kā Bībeles notikumi un cilvēki ir saistīti ar cilvēkiem un notikumiem ārpus Bībeles, vispirms ir jābūt Bībeles hronoloģijai. Tā ir galvenā pamatvajadzība.

Manuprāt, lielie Bībeles hronoloģijas skolotāji ir Edvīns Tīls, Rodžers C. Jangs, Karls Olofs Jonsons ("The Gentile Times Reconsidered", 1986, Commentary Press Atlanta). Kārļa darbs aprobežojas ar Babilonijas gūsta laikmetu. Eugene Merrill ("Priesteru valstība", 1987, Baker Book House) balstās uz Edvīna Tīla darbu.
Arī Gleisona Arčera "Iepazīšanās ar Veco Derību" ir brīnišķīgs darbs.

Noderīgu vietni skatiet vietnē www.rcyoung.org/papers.html

Edvīns Tīls rāda 931. gada pirms mūsu ēras karaļvalsts sadalīšanas datumu pēc Zālamana nāves ("Ebreju karaļu noslēpumainie skaitļi", Čikāgas preses universitāte, 1951. gads). No tā var izveidot hronoloģiju, norādot Ābrahāma dzimšanas datumu 2167. gadā pirms mūsu ēras.

Skat. 1. Ķēniņu 6: 1 un 2. Mozus 12:40, lai ierastos datumā, kad Jēkabs ieies Ēģiptē 1877. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, kad Jēkabs bija 130 gadus vecs (1. Moz. 47: 9).

Tātad Jēkabs piedzima 2007. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Īzāks bija 60 gadus vecs, kad piedzima Jēkabs (1. Moz. 25:26). Un Ābrahāmam bija 100 gadi, kad piedzima Īzāks (1.Mozus 21: 5). Tātad Ābrahāms dzimis 2167. gadā pirms mūsu ēras.

Tātad Ābrahāms bija vairākus gadsimtus pirms Hammurapi.

Izmantojot šo sistēmu, izceļošana no Ēģiptes notika Pashā 1446. Neatkarīgs liecinieks līdz šim pastāv Ecēhiēla 40: 1, kas tiek saprasts kopā ar 3. Mozus 25: 9, kā minēts Seder Olam un kā atklājis Rodžers Jangs. Tātad mums ir divi neatkarīgi liecinieki izceļošanas datumam:

Liecinieks 1. Dati 1 Ķēniņos un 2 Ķēniņos par valdnieku valdīšanu sadalītajās valstībās. Šie dati gadsimtiem ilgi bija kā slepens kods. Kodu beidzot atšifrēja Edvīns Tīls grāmatā Mystious Numbers of the Ebrews Kings, 1951.

Šeit svarīgs ir tas, ka tas bija kā slepenais kods. Tas bija providenciāli. Ja tas nebūtu bijis kā slepenais kods, tad nebūtu izdevies būt par neatkarīgu liecinieku. Tā kā ķēniņu valdīšanas gadu nozīme bija neaptverama vismaz 20 gadsimtus līdz Edvīna Tīla darbam, datus var uzskatīt par neatkarīgiem no nākamā liecinieka:

Liecinieks 2. Ecēhiēla 40: 1 un komentārs Seder Olam.
Seders Olams ir hronoloģija, kuru otrajā gadsimtā apkopoja ebrejs, kurš vēlējās mēģināt sniegt pēc iespējas precīzāku priekšstatu par zināšanām par hronoloģiju Vecās Derības laikmetā. Vienu viņš saka - jubileja Ecēhiēla gados bija septiņpadsmitā. (Seder Olam tulkojums angļu valodā ir pieejams tiešsaistē.) Ecēhiēla 40: 1 teikts, ka mēneša desmitā diena bija Roša Hašāna, Jaungada diena. (Patiesībā tas ebreju tekstā izmanto terminu "Rosh Hashanah".) Parasti Jaungada diena notika mēneša pirmajā dienā. Roša Hašāna notiek tikai mēneša desmitajā dienā, Izpirkšanas dienā, jubilejas gadā (3. Mozus 25: 9). ((Jubilejas gads bija īpašs gads ik pēc 49 gadiem Vecās Derības laikmetā.)) Tas bija pilni 14 gadi pēc Jeruzalemes pilsētas iznīcināšanas, kas notika 587. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Un Seders Olams saka, ka jubileja Ecēhiēla laikos bija 17. 587 - 14 = 573. 17 jubilejas reizes 49 gadi ir 833 gadi. 573 + 833 = 1406, solīšanas zemē iebraukšanas datums. 1406. - 40 gadu klaiņošana tuksnesī ir 1446. gads pirms mūsu ēras, izceļošanas datums, kurā jau bija ieradies Edvīns Tīls. Skatiet Rodžera Janga rakstu viņa vietnē.

Daudzi mūsdienu zinātnieki saka, ka jubilejas sistēma bija vēls ebreju reliģijas papildinājums, kas tika pievienots apmēram 500. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Bet Ecēhiēla 40: 1 un tā interpretācija saka, ka jubilejas sistēma sākās 1406. gadā pirms mūsu ēras. Sedera Olama komentārs (ka tā bija 17. jubileja), kas, iespējams, bija sagatavots no kāda cita avota, kas vairs nepastāv, ir pierādījums tam, ka 3. Mozus grāmata tika uzrakstīta pirms 1406. gada pirms mūsu ēras, jo tas parāda, ka Jubilejas sistēma jau bija darbojusies 17 jubilāriem Ecēhiēla laikos. Abi neatkarīgi liecinieki apstiprina viens otru.

Šie neatkarīgie liecinieki papildus visam citam mums saka, ka Kings dati ir saglabāti, gadsimtu gaitā nav bijušas nekādas pārraides kļūdas, vismaz attiecībā uz karaļu valdīšanas ilgumu. Tas pats par sevi ir brīnišķīgi.

Lai gan abas metodes sniedz hronoloģiju tikai 1446. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, abu Izmēģinājuma datuma aprēķinu metožu saskaņošanai vajadzētu palielināt mūsu pārliecību par visu Bībeles ierakstu. Tam vajadzētu palielināt mūsu pārliecību par hronoloģijas precizitāti līdz Ābrahāma laikiem.

Nez, cik daudz Bībeles pētnieku pēdējo 20 gadsimtu laikā ir cīnījušies ar 1. un 2. Ķēniņu valdīšanas ilguma sarežģītību. Un cik daudzi ir jautājuši: "Kungs, kāpēc tu ļāvi tam būt tik sarežģītam?" Nu, es domāju, ka mēs tagad zinām - tāpēc izceļošanas datumam var būt divi neatkarīgi liecinieki, kas papildus nodrošina hronoloģisku mugurkaulu/ietvaru Bībeles vēsturei no šī brīža. Es ceru, ka jūs saprotat, kas tiek apgalvots, un, manuprāt, tas šķiet diezgan satriecoši: jo tas ir diezgan brīnišķīgi un diezgan satriecoši.


Hammurabi 's kods: ko tas mums stāsta par veco Babiloniju?

Hammurabi valdīja seno Babiloniju un labu Mesopotāmijas baseina daļu. Viņam piedēvētais likumu kodekss ir viens no agrākajiem un visaptverošākajiem šādu tiesību kodifikācijas centieniem.

Ķēniņš Hammurabi pārvaldīja Babilonu, kas atrodas pie Eifratas un Tigras upes, no 1792. līdz 1750. gadam p.m.ē. Karaļa laikā viņš pārraudzīja savu valstības lielo paplašināšanos no pilsētvalsts uz impēriju. Tomēr šodien viņš ir slavenākais ar virkni spriedumu, kas ierakstīti uz lielas akmens stēlas un nodēvēti par Hamurapi kodu. Zinātnieki joprojām strīdas par tā kā likumu kopuma precīzu nozīmi, taču Kodeksa nozīme kā Babilonijas sabiedrības atspoguļojums ir neapstrīdama. Šajā stundā studenti uzzina par dzīvi Babilonijā, izmantojot Hammurapi kodeksa objektīvu. Šī nodarbība ir paredzēta, lai paplašinātu pasaules vēstures mācību programmas par Mesopotāmiju un sniegtu studentiem padziļinātu priekšstatu par dzīvi Babilonijā Hamurabī laikā.

Vadošie jautājumi

Ko mēs varam uzzināt par Vecās Babilonijas sabiedrību no Hammurapi kodeksa?

Kā Hammurapi kodekss ir ietekmējis turpmākos likumu kodeksus?

Cik lielā mērā Hammurapi kodekss joprojām ietekmē to, kā mēs veidojam un izpildām likumus?

Mācību mērķi

Izpētiet Hammurabi motīvus sava "Koda" izveidei un izplatīšanai.

Novērtējiet, kā Hammurapi kodekss atspoguļo tā laika Babilonijas sabiedrību.

Novērtējiet, cik lielā mērā Hammurabi kodekss palika aktuāls pēc viņa nāves.

Vēsture un sociālās studijas

Nodarbību plāna autors:

Sīkāka informācija par nodarbību plānu

18. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras Hammurabi (arī Hammurapi) kļuva par sesto valdnieku Babilonas pirmajā dinastijā. Hammurabi militāro operāciju panākumi paplašināja Babilonu uz ziemeļiem gar Tigru un Eifratu un uz dienvidiem līdz pat Persijas līcim. Viņa izveidotā impērija ir pazīstama kā Babilona, ​​savukārt civilizāciju bieži dēvē par Veco Babiloniju.

Hammurapi kodekss, kas ierakstīts uz lielas akmens stēlas-stāvošas plāksnes-tika atklāts Francijas ekspedīcijā 1901. gadā. Tās vadītājs tēvs Vinsents Šeils šo kodu pārtulkoja nākamajā gadā. Tajā laikā tas bija vecākais zināmais likumu kopums. Tomēr kopš tā laika agrāk tika atklāti līdzīgi "kodi". Lai gan Hamurabī kods nav unikāls, tas joprojām ir garākais atklātais kods un viens no vienīgajiem, par kuru zināms, ka tas ir ierakstīts uz stēlas. Informāciju un tēlu var atrast, apmeklējot Luvras muzeju, kas ir pieejams, izmantojot EDSITEment pārskatīto resursu The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago. Kad esat Luvras vietnē, kreisajā pusē noklikšķiniet uz saites uz "atlasītajiem darbiem", pēc tam noklikšķiniet uz Austrumu senlietas sadaļā "atlasītie darbi", noklikšķiniet uz Mezopotāmijas un Anatolijas un visbeidzot, ritinot uz leju, jūs redzēsit stēlas attēlu. sīktēlu attēlus. Tas ir atzīmēts kā "Hammurapi likumu kodekss". Jūs varat tieši piekļūt informācijai par stēlu, kas arī ir no Luvras.

Pilns Hammurapi kodeksa teksts ir pieejams EDSITEment pārskatītajā tīmekļa resursā Avalon Project.

Kodeksa reprezentatīvu paraugu lasiet: prologs (pirmā un pēdējā rindkopa) nosaka 3., 4., 60., 108., 196. un 228. priekšrakstu un epilogu (1. – 3. Un 5. punkts). Prologā Hammurabi apgalvo, ka viņa autoritāte nāk tieši no dieviem. Viņš arī norāda, ka kodeksa mērķis ir "ieviest taisnības likumu zemē ... lai stiprie nekaitētu vājajiem". Trešais priekšraksts norāda uz tiesu sistēmas esamību, kurā vecākie pilda tiesneša pienākumus. Ceturtais priekšraksts norāda, ka tika uzlikti naudas sodi un/vai graudi, un tas nozīmē, ka pastāv kaut kas līdzīgs mūsu civillietām, kurās sūdzības iesniedzējs saņēma izlīgumu. Sešdesmit skaitlis norāda uz to, ka pastāv kaut kas līdzīgs akciju apgriešanas sistēmai, kurā viena persona piecu gadu laikā apsaimnieko zemi apmaiņā pret zemi. Šāda sistēma mēdz pārdalīt zemi no lieliem īpašniekiem uz maziem. Simt astoņi norāda, ka Vecajā Babilonijā sievietēm varētu piederēt vismaz daži uzņēmējdarbības veidi. Simt deviņdesmit seši skaitļi, iespējams, ir slavenākie no priekšrakstiem. Tas ir atrodams arī ebreju Bībelē (2. Mozus 21: 18–19, 22–25, 3. Mozus 24: 17–21) un evaņģēlijos (Mateja 5:38). Visbeidzot, skaitlis divi simti divdesmit astoņi parāda priekšrakstu specifiku un norāda, ka par kvalificētu tirgotāju darbu bija noteikts maksas grafiks, šajā gadījumā noteikta maksa par diviem šekeļiem par katru. sar ēku, salīdzināms ar mūsdienu celtniekiem, kuri maksā tik daudz par kvadrātpēdu.

Epilogā teikts, ka akmens, uz kura ir ierakstīts kodekss, tika uzstādīts Babilonas E-Sagil templī. Tā informē lasītāju, ka, ievērojot šos priekšrakstus, var uzzināt, kas ir taisnība. Trešajā rindkopā Hammurabi apņemas uzticēties dievam Mardukam-visaugstākajam Babilonijas panteonā, salīdzināmam ar Zevu grieķu panteonā. Piektajā rindkopā topošajiem ķēniņiem ieteikts ievērot šos priekšrakstus.

NCSS.D2.His.1.6-8. Analizējiet notikumu un notikumu kopsakarības plašākā vēsturiskā kontekstā.

NCSS.D2.His.2.6-8. Klasificējiet vēsturisko notikumu un notikumu sērijas kā pārmaiņu un/vai nepārtrauktības piemērus.

NCSS.D2.His.3.6-8. Izmantojiet jautājumus, kas ģenerēti par indivīdiem un grupām, lai analizētu, kāpēc viņi un to attīstība tiek uzskatīta par vēsturiski nozīmīgu.

NCSS.D2.His.4.6-8. Analizējiet vairākus faktorus, kas ietekmēja cilvēku perspektīvas dažādos vēsturiskos laikmetos.

NCSS.D2.His.5.6-8. Paskaidrojiet, kā un kāpēc cilvēku perspektīvas laika gaitā ir mainījušās.

NCSS.D2.His.14.6-8. Izskaidrojiet vairākus pagātnes notikumu un notikumu cēloņus un sekas.

NCSS.D2.His.15.6-8. Novērtējiet dažādu notikumu un pagātnes notikumu cēloņu relatīvo ietekmi.

NCSS.D2.His.16.6-8. Sakārtojiet piemērojamos pierādījumus saskaņotā argumentācijā par pagātni.

  • Lai iegūtu plašāku informāciju par Hammurabi un Hammurapi kodu, skolotāji var izlasīt Lekciju: Hammurapi kods un sadaļu Mesopotāmijas civilizācija, saiti no EDSITEment resursa interneta publiskās bibliotēkas. Paredzēts vidusskolu un koledžu studentiem, tas var būt piemērots arī dažiem vidusskolas skolēniem.
  • Jūs varat atrast informāciju par to, kur Babilonijas robežas nokrīt mūsdienu politiskajā kartē, salīdzinot ar Mezopotāmiju 1750. gadā p.m.ē., abas ir pieejamas Britu muzeja Mesopotāmijas vietnē, izmantojot saiti no Austrumu institūta: Čikāgas universitāte.
  • Pārskatiet visas vietnes un materiālus, ko studenti apskatīs. Lejupielādējiet to artefaktu fotogrāfijas, kurus studenti skatīsies bezsaistē. Lejupielādējiet un pēc vajadzības sagatavojiet izdales materiālus no lejupielādējamiem PDF failiem šai nodarbībai. Izlasiet stundu plānu un apmeklējiet vietnes, kuras plānojat izmantot saviem skolēniem. Atzīmējiet tos pēc nepieciešamības savā datorā. Pārliecinieties, ka studenti drukātā veidā vai uz ekrāna var apskatīt Hammurabi Stele lielo attēlu, kas pieejams, izmantojot EDSITEment pārskatīto tīmekļa resursu The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago.
  • EDSITEment stunda Ķīļraksta rašanās un attīstība Mezopotāmijā sniedz šīs stundas papildinājumu.

M3rcy triumfē

Ebreju tradīcijās 1. Mozus grāmatas nosaukums ir tāds pats kā pirmais vārds (breshit), parasti ļoti aptuveni tulkots ar “sākumā”. ” 1 Tas ir loģisks grāmatas nosaukums, kas sākas ar pasaules pārdabisko radīšanu un cilvēces agrīno vēsturi.

Bet kas ir ģenēze no Genesis? Citiem vārdiem sakot, kad tika uzrakstīts Genesis? Kur un ar ko tas radies? Lielākā daļa konservatīvo zinātnieku piekritīs, ka Mozus uzrakstīja 1. Mozus grāmatu 15. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras. Viens avots saka 1445 B.C. 2 Cits avots saka 1440–1400 B.C. 3 Jūs saprotat ideju.

Tomēr ir zinātnieki, kuri apgalvo, ka 1. Mozus grāmata patiesībā tika uzrakstīta Babilonijas gūsta laikā 6. gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras. Piemēram, Jaunās pasaules enciklopēdija tiešsaistē norāda: “Visbeidzot, daži zinātnieki uzskata, ka babiloniešu tradīcija, iespējams, pat ir ietekmējusi 1. Mozus grāmatas 1. cilmes stāstu, kas, pēc mitologu domām, ir Enuma Elish attēlotās Babilonijas kosmoloģijas pārstrādājums.” 4

Sekas, kā redzat, ir diezgan nopietnas. Šie liberālie zinātnieki patiešām norāda, ka 1. Mozus grāmatā ir nekas cits kā nolaupīta babiloniešu mitoloģija, ko ebreji ir pārstrādājuši tūkstošiem gadu vēlāk, lai tie atbilstu viņu pašu mērķiem. Ja tā ir taisnība, Bībeles iedvesmai ir dots satriecošs trieciens (2. Tim. 3: 16-17). Man ir iekšēja sajūta, ka tieši to liberālie zinātnieki cenšas paveikt.

Es varētu atbildēt uz šo apgalvojumu, parādot, kā senās ebreju tradīcijas, kā arī Bībeles pieraksti no Vecās un Jaunās Derības Mozum piedēvē Genesis. Šeit ir daudz ko teikt.

Tā vietā es gribētu izmantot vienu no Genesis stāstiem, lai palīdzētu pierādīt grāmatas agrīno datumu. Cerams, ka šī informācija sniegs skaidrību “datuma debatēs” un palīdzēs nostiprināt jūsu ticību Vecās Derības vēsturiskajai precizitātei un ticamībai.

1. Mozus grāmatas 16. nodaļā mums tiek dots ieskats patriarha Ābrahāma dzīvē. Šajā konkrētajā stāstā viņa sieva Sāra cenšas saskaņot Dieva apsolījumu par dēlu ar savu neauglīgo dzemdi un vecumdienām. Viņa saka Ābrahāmam 2. pantā: “Redzi, tagad Tas Kungs mani atturēja no bērnu dzemdēšanas. Lūdzu, ej pie manas kalpones, varbūt es no viņas dabūšu bērnus. ”Un Ābrams klausījās Sārajas balsij.” Kāds dīvains ieteikums! Kāda sieva šodien ieteiktu vīram ko tādu? Un tomēr, lasot, mēs uzzinām, ka Ābrahāms sekoja Sāras padomam.

Tad pēc kāda sagaidāma konflikta starp Sāru un kalponi Hāgar, Ābrahāma jaunā dēla Ismaēla māti, Ābrahāms saka Sārai: “Patiešām, tava kalpone ir tavā rokā, dari viņai, kā gribi.” Un kad Sāraja ar viņu izturējās skarbi. , viņa aizbēga no savas klātbūtnes. ”

Atkal, kāda dīvaina situācija!

Bet patiesībā tas nebija dīvaini viņu kultūrā!

Hammurapi likumu kodekss ir 282 likumu kopums, kas uzrakstīts uz vertikāla akmens pīlāra, un ko franču arheologi atklāja 1901. gadā, veicot senās Sūzas rakšanas darbus mūsdienu Irānā.

Hammurabi, Mesopotāmijas karalis, domājams valdīja no 1792-1750 B.C. Šie likumi būtu noteikuši Ābrahāma dzīves laiku un kultūru. Un viņi izgaismo 1. Mozus grāmatas 16. nodaļu!

Piemēram, apsveriet likumus 145-146:

Ja vīrietis ņem sievu, bet viņa viņam nedod bērnus, un viņš plāno ņemt citu sievu: ja viņš uzņems šo otro sievu un ievedīs viņu mājā, šai otrajai sievai netiks pieļauta vienlīdzība ar sievu. 5

Ja vīrietis ņem sievu un viņa šim cilvēkam dod sievu kalponi un viņa dzemdē viņam bērnus, tad šī kalpone pieņem vienlīdzību ar sievu: tā kā viņa ir dzemdējusi viņam bērnus, viņas kungs viņu nepārdos par naudu, bet viņš var paturēt viņu par vergu, skaitot viņu starp kalponēm. 5

Lai arī cik dīvainas mums šodien šķiet Ābrahāma darbības, viņa kultūrā tās bija pilnīgi normālas. Tas nozīmē, ka Ābrahāms un Sāra, vismaz šajā stāstā, uzticējās pasaules gudrībai (tajā laikā), nevis uzticējās Dieva apsolījumiem.

Bet vēl vairāk, šis stāsts palīdz atspēkot apgalvojumu “novēlots datums”. Kā ebreji varēja sestajā gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras Vai esat zinājis par Mesopotāmijas likumiem, kas datējami ar tūkstošiem gadu?

1. Mozus grāmata, tāpat kā visas Bībeles grāmatas, ir vēsturiski precīza. Tas nav no citām kultūrām aizgūts mītu un stāstu krājums, bet gan iedvesmots vēsturisks ieraksts!


Avoti

Endrjū, Evans. "8 lietas, kuras jūs, iespējams, nezināt par Hamurabī kodu." VĒSTURE. Skatīts 2019. gada 23. jūlijā. Https://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-hammurabis-code.

Arnolds, Bils T. Kas bija babilonieši? Bībeles literatūras biedrība / Arheoloģija un Bībeles pētījumi Nr. 10 Variācija: Arheoloģija un Bībeles pētījumi Nr. 10. Atlanta: Bībeles literatūras biedrība, 2004.

Beikers, Hetere. "Babilonas Hammurabi." Laika augstākā izglītība, Nē. 2063 (16): 44.

Čārpins, Dominika. Babilonas Hamurabi. Londona Ņujorka: I.B. Tauris & amp Co Ņujorka: izplatīts ASV un Kanādā, tikai Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Šoferis G. R. un Babilonijas karalis. Babilonijas likumi / jūdzes, Džons C. Sers, 1870.-1963. (Džons Čārlzs),. Senie Tuvo Austrumu kodeksi un likumi: Senie Tuvo Austrumu kodeksi un likumi. Oksforda: Clarendon Press, 1952.

Glaubitz, H. “Cieti vārīti Hammurabi.” New York Times (1923. gads-pašreizējais fails). 1937. gada 22. augusts.

"Atkal Hammurabi." Perspektīva (1893-1924) 104, nē. 17 (1913): 885.

Babilonas ķēniņa Hamurabī likumu kodekss. 1750 avant J.-C 1792. Basalte, H. 2,25 m W. 0,65 m. Luvra. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/law-code-hammurabi-king-babylon.

Liptak, Ādams. "Apsūdzēts" terorismā "par juridisko materiālu ievietošanu tiešsaistē." The New York Times, 2019. gada 13. maijs, sek. ASV https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/13/us/politics/georgia-official-code-copyright.html.

"Avalon projekts: Hammurapi kods." Skatīts 2019. gada 23. jūlijā. Https://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp.

Van de Mieroops, Marks. Babilonas karalis Hammurabi: biogrāfija. Blekvela seno dzīves variācija: Blekvelas senās dzīves. Maldens, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2005.

Vinsents, Džordžs E. “Hammurapi likumi”. Amerikas Socioloģijas žurnāls 9, nē. 6 (1904. gada 1. maijs): 737–754. https://doi.org/10.1086/211268.


2.4 GALVENIE NOTEIKUMI

  • Amarnas periods
  • Asīrijas impērija
  • Aten
  • Katarakta
  • Pilsētvalstis
  • Civilizācija
  • derība
  • Ķelme
  • Izžūšana
  • Dievišķās ķēniņvalstis
  • Impērija
  • Izceļošana
  • Hamurabī kods
  • Hieroglifi
  • Kerma
  • Kušs
  • Levant
  • Meroe
  • Meroitic
  • Mezopotāmija
  • Vidējā Karaliste
  • Monoteisms
  • Nebukadnēcars II
  • Jaunā Karaliste
  • Nīlas upe
  • Nūbija
  • Vecā valstība
  • Ostraca
  • Narmer palete
  • Politeistisks
  • Pravieši
  • Piramīdas
  • Akadas žargons
  • Šumeru karaļu saraksts
  • Desmit baušļi
  • Karaļu ieleja
  • Rietumu Defufa
  • Ziggurat

Kas ir Ābrahāms Bībelē un kāpēc viņš ir svarīgs?

Ābrahāmam ir svarīga loma kristīgajā ticībā. Viņš ir viena no vissvarīgākajām figūrām Bībelē, izņemot Jēzu. Tieši no viņa cilts nāk pasaules Pestītājs (Mateja 1 Lūkas 3). Neviens nevar saprast Veco Derību, nesaprotot Ābrahāmu, jo daudzos veidos stāsts par pestīšanu sākas ar Dieva un rsquos aicinājumu šim patriarham. Ābrahāms bija pirmais cilvēks, kuru Dievs izvēlējās izpirkšanas plānā. Stāstā par Ābrahāmu Bībelē ir pirmo reizi pieminēta taisnība, kas cilvēkam piešķirta kā vienīgais glābšanas līdzeklis (1. Mozus 15: 6). Tas bija Ābrahāms, kuru Dievs izvēlējās kļūt par daudzu tautu tēvu, vienkārši tāpēc, ka tā bija Viņa griba. Dievs zināja, ka Ābrahāms cīnīsies ar savu aicinājumu, bet arī zināja, ka viņa cīņa radīs lielu izaugsmi un ticību.

Ābrahāma & rsquos vārds sākotnēji bija & lsquoAbram & rsquo, kas nozīmē & lsquothe tēvs ir paaugstināts & rsquo. Viņa vārds tika mainīts uz & lsquoAbraham, & rsquo, kas nozīmē & lsquofather no daudzām & rsquo, kad Dievs uzsāka savu derību ar viņu (1. Mozus 17). Dievs apsolīja Ābrahāmam, ka viņš būs daudzu cilvēku tēvs. Tomēr viņš un viņa sieva Sāra acīmredzot bija beiguši normālo bērnu dzemdēšanas vecumu, tāpēc, ja viņiem tas būtu, acīmredzami būtu Dieva brīnums. Tomēr Ābrahāms uzticējās Dievam un uzskatīja, ka Dievs var izpildīt to, ko Viņš bija apsolījis.

Dievs apsolīja Ābrahāmam bērnus (1. Mozus 15: 5 22:17). Bet, kad tas nenotika tik ātri, kā Ābrahāmam šķita, ka viņš kļuva nepacietīgs pret Dievu un pārņēma lietas savā kontrolē. Viņa sieva Sāra vēl bija bez bērniem, tāpēc viņa lika Ābrahāmam pārgulēt ar savu kalponi, lai viņi varētu iegūt bērnu no savienības. No šīs savienības piedzima dēls, viņa vārds bija Ismaēls. Tomēr tas nebija Dieva un rsquos plāns. Dievs un rsquos apsolīja Ābrahāma un Sāras un rsquos savienības pēcnācējus (1. Mozus 15: 3-4). Īzāks bija tā dēla vārds, kurš nāca no Ābrahāma un Sāras savienības. Tautas tiks svētītas caur Īzāku.

Kad Dievs teica Ābrahāmam un Sārai, ka viņiem sāksies bērns vecumdienās, viņi abi smējās. Viņu smiekli par Dieva un rsquos plānu parādīja viņu neticību tam, ka Viņš varētu darīt to, ko Viņš teica. Bībele mums saka: & ldquoTad Kungs sacīja Ābrahāmam: & lsquo Kāpēc Sāra smējās un sacīja: & lsquo Vai man tiešām būs bērns, nevis ka es esmu vecs? & Rsquo Vai ir kaut kas pārāk grūts Tam Kungam? Es nākamgad atgriezīšos pie jums noteiktajā laikā, un Sārai būs dēls. & Rsquo Sāra baidījās, tāpēc viņa meloja un sacīja: & lsquoEs nesmējos. & Rsquo Bet viņš teica: & lsquoJā, tu smējies. (1. Mozus 18: 13-15). Mēs gribētu domāt, ka Ābrahāms uzreiz ticēja Dievam, bez šaubām, bet tas tā nav. Viņam šķiet gandrīz neiespējami ticēt Dieva vārdam. Galu galā Sāra jau ir krietni pagājusi reproduktīvā vecumā. Tomēr viņa atbilde Tam Kungam neparāda pilnīgu neticību derības solījumam. Viņš krīt uz sejas, simbolizējot pakļaušanos, uzticību un pielūgsmi. Ābrahāms mums parāda, ka patiesa uzticība Dievam neizslēdz gadījumus, kad Viņa neticamos solījumus mums ir grūti saskatīt.

Pēc tam, kad Dievs aicināja Ābrahāmu atstāt Hāranu, viņš paklausīgi to darīja. 1. Mozus grāmatas 12. nodaļā mēs lasām par to, ka Ābrahāms (toreiz saukts par Ābramu) atstāja Hāranu, kur bija apmeties viņa tēvs Tera, un devās meklēt apsolīto zemi. Šajā stāstā Ābrahāmam un rsquosam ir 75 gadu vecums, bet 1. Mozus grāmatas 11. nodaļa un Apustuļu darbi 3 liecina, ka Ābrahāms, atstājot Hāranu, bija daudz vecāks par šo. Svētajos Rakstos arī teikts, ka viņam bija 86 gadi, kad viņa pirmais dēls Ismaēls piedzima caur Hagar, 99 gadi, kad viņš tika apgraizīts, un 100 gadi, kad viņa dēls Īzāks piedzima caur Sāru.

Ābrahāms un Sāra bija ļoti apmierināti ar savu jauno dēlu Īzāku, tomēr Dievam bija pārbaudījums Ābrahāmam. Dievs viņam sacīja: "Paņem savu dēlu, savu vienīgo dēlu Īzāku, kuru tu mīli, un dodies uz Morijas zemi un upurē viņu tur kā dedzināmo upuri vienā no kalniem, par kuru es tev teikšu." (1. Mozus 22: 2.) Tas būtu bijis milzīgs šoks jebkuram vecākam, ja viņu svētītu ilgi gaidītais bērns, tikai lai Dievs jums pavēlētu upurēt šo bērnu. Bībelē nav teikts, ka Ābrahāms brīdi vilcinājās. Patiesībā ir daži fragmenti, kas norāda uz Ābrahāma un rsquos stingro ticību tam, ka Dievs nemaz neņems savu dēlu (1. Mozus 22: 5, 8). Ābrahāms uzskatīja, ka Dievs atdzīvinās Īzāku, ja upuris patiešām notiks (Ebrejiem 11:19). Neatkarīgi no tā, vai Dievs un rsquos, Ābrahāms un rsquos, Isaac & rsquos vai mūsu dēļ kā piemērs, Ābrahāms pacēla savu dēlu kalnā, noguldīja viņu un bija gatavs viņu nogalināt, paklausot Dieva un rsquos pavēlei. Tomēr Dievs iejaucās, neļaujot Ābrahāmam nogalināt savu dēlu un nesot upuri auna veidā, kas noķerts blakus esošajā birstē. Kamēr Ābrahāma un rsquos ticība tika pārbaudīta, viņš savu ticību pierādīja ar paklausību Dievam.

Ābrahāmam bija garš un izaicinošs ceļojums. Visa šī ceļojuma laikā viņš smagi strādāja un piedzīvoja bēdas un svētības. Lielāko daļu laika viņš nevarēja redzēt ceļu uz priekšu, bet viņš stingri turējās pie solījuma sirdī. Dievs turpināja pildīt šo solījumu vairāk nekā tūkstoš gadus pēc Ābrahāma un rsquos nāves, līdz tas piepildījās Viņa Dēlā Jēzū Kristū. Ar Ābrahāma starpniecību mēs zinām, ka Dievs vienmēr pilda savus apsolījumus. Mums, iespējams, nav visu atbilžu, bet Dievam noteikti ir.


Senās Mezopotāmijas sasniegumi

Matemātikas un astronomijas pasaule ir daudz parādā babiloniešiem-piemēram, laika un leņķu aprēķināšanas dzimumu skaitliskā sistēma, kas joprojām ir praktiska, jo skaitlis 60 Grieķijas dienā ir divkārt sadalīts divās stundās. zodiaks un tā zīmes. Tomēr daudzos gadījumos aizņēmumu izcelsme un ceļi ir neskaidri, tāpat kā senās Mezopotāmijas tiesību teorijas izdzīvošanas problēma.

Pašas civilizācijas sasniegumus var izteikt tās labākajos punktos - morālajā, estētiskajā, zinātniskajā un ne mazāk literārajā. Juridiskā teorija uzplauka un bija izsmalcināta jau agri, un tā tika izteikta vairākos juridisko lēmumu krājumos, tā sauktajos kodeksos, no kuriem vispazīstamākais ir Hamurabī kodekss. Throughout these codes recurs the concern of the ruler for the weak, the widow, and the orphan—even if, sometimes, the phrases were regrettably only literary clichés. The aesthetics of art are too much governed by subjective values to be assessed in absolute terms, yet certain peaks stand out above the rest, notably the art of Uruk IV, the seal engraving of the Akkad period, and the relief sculpture of Ashurbanipal. Nonetheless, there is nothing in Mesopotamia to match the sophistication of Egyptian art. Science the Mesopotamians had, of a kind, though not in the sense of Greek science. From its beginnings in Sumer before the middle of the 3rd millennium bce , Mesopotamian science was characterized by endless, meticulous enumeration and ordering into columns and series, with the ultimate ideal of including all things in the world but without the wish or ability to synthesize and reduce the material to a system. Not a single general scientific law has been found, and only rarely has the use of analogy been found. Nevertheless, it remains a highly commendable achievement that Pythagoras’ law (that the sum of the squares on the two shorter sides of a right-angled triangle equals the square on the longest side), even though it was never formulated, was being applied as early as the 18th century bce . Technical accomplishments were perfected in the building of the ziggurats (temple towers resembling pyramids), with their huge bulk, and in irrigation, both in practical execution and in theoretical calculations. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , an artificial stone often regarded as a forerunner of concrete was in use at Uruk (160 miles south-southeast of modern Baghdad), but the secret of its manufacture apparently was lost in subsequent years.

Writing pervaded all aspects of life and gave rise to a highly developed bureaucracy—one of the most tenacious legacies of the ancient Middle East. Remarkable organizing ability was required to administer huge estates, in which, under the 3rd dynasty of Ur, for example, it was not unusual to prepare accounts for thousands of cattle or tens of thousands of bundles of reeds. Similar figures are attested at Ebla, three centuries earlier.

Above all, the literature of Mesopotamia is one of its finest cultural achievements. Though there are many modern anthologies and chrestomathies (compilations of useful learning), with translations and paraphrases of Mesopotamian literature, as well as attempts to write its history, it cannot truly be said that “cuneiform literature” has been resurrected to the extent that it deserves. There are partly material reasons for this: many clay tablets survive only in a fragmentary condition, and duplicates that would restore the texts have not yet been discovered, so that there are still large gaps. A further reason is the inadequate knowledge of the languages: insufficient acquaintance with the vocabulary and, in Sumerian, difficulties with the grammar. Consequently, another generation of Assyriologists will pass before the great myths, epics, lamentations, hymns, “law codes,” wisdom literature, and pedagogical treatises can be presented in such a way that modern readers can fully appreciate the high level of literary creativity of those times.


Senā Mezopotāmija

Mesopotamia is an ancient, historical region that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq and parts of Kuwait, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Part of the Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia was home to the earliest known human civilizations. Scholars believe the Agricultural Revolution started here.

The earliest occupants of Mesopotamia lived in circular dwellings made of mud and brick along the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. They began to practice agriculture by domesticating sheep and pigs around 11,000 to 9,000 B.C. Domesticated plants, including flax, wheat, barley and lentils, first appeared around 9,500 B.C.

Some of the earliest evidence of farming comes from the archaeological site of Tell Abu Hureyra, a small village located along the Euphrates River in modern Syria. The village was inhabited from roughly 11,500 to 7,000 B.C. Inhabitants initially hunted gazelle and other game before beginning to harvest wild grains around 9,700 BCE. Several large stone tools for grinding grain have been found at the site.

One of the oldest known Mesopotamian cities, Nineveh (near Mosul in modern Iraq), may have been settled as early as 6,000 B.C. Sumer civilization arose in the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley around 5,000 B.C.

In addition to farming and cities, ancient Mesopotamian societies developed irrigation and aqueducts, temples, pottery, early systems of banking and credit, property ownership and the first codes of law.


Hammurabi

Mūsu redaktori pārskatīs jūsu iesniegto informāciju un izlems, vai pārskatīt rakstu.

Hammurabi, arī uzrakstīts Hammurapi, (born, Babylon [now in Iraq]—died c. 1750 bce ), sixth and best-known ruler of the 1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon (reigning c. 1792–1750 bce ), noted for his surviving set of laws, once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history. Skat Hammurabi, Code of.

Why is Hammurabi important?

Hammurabi ruled Babylon from about 1792 to 1750 BCE. He is noted for his surviving set of laws, which were inscribed on a stela in Babylon’s temple of Marduk. Hammurabi’s Code was once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history, though older, shorter law collections have since been found.

What is Hammurabi’s Code?

Hammurabi’s Code is the most complete extant collection of Babylonian laws. It consists of Hammurabi’s legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce) as well as family law (marriage and divorce), criminal law (assault and theft), and civil law (slavery and debt).

What did Hammurabi accomplish?

Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia, transformed a small city-state into a large territorial state, and shifted the balance of power in Mesopotamia from the south to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years. However, he failed to set up an effective bureaucracy, and his son lost much of the territory Hammurabi had conquered.

Like all the kings of his dynasty except his father and grandfather, Hammurabi bore a tribal Amorite name belonging to the Amnanum. Only scanty information exists about his immediate family: his father, Sin-muballit his sister, Iltani and his firstborn son and successor, Samsuiluna, are known by name.

When Hammurabi succeeded Sin-muballit about 1792 bce , he was still young, but, as was customary in Mesopotamian royal courts of the time, he had probably already been entrusted with some official duties in the administration of the realm. In that same year Rim-Sin of Larsa, who ruled over the entire south of Babylonia, conquered Isin, which served as a buffer between Babylon and Larsa. Rim-Sin later became Hammurabi’s chief rival.

The reconstruction of Hammurabi’s rule is based mainly on his date formulas (years were named for a significant act the king had performed in the previous year or at the beginning of the year thus named). These show him engaged in the traditional activities of an ancient Mesopotamian king: building and restoring temples, city walls, and public buildings, digging canals, dedicating cult objects to the deities in the cities and towns of his realm, and fighting wars. His official inscriptions commemorating his building activities corroborate this but add no significant historical information.

The size, location, and military strength of the realm left to Hammurabi made it one of the major powers in Babylonia. That Hammurabi was not strong enough to change the balance of power by his own will is well expressed in a diplomatic report: “There is no king who is powerful for himself: with Hammurabi, ‘the man of Babylon,’ go 10 or 15 kings, so with Rim-Sin, ‘the man of Larsa’ with Ibalpiel, ‘the man of Eshunna,’…go 20 kings.”

Hammurabi inherited one major direction for his political activity: to succeed in controlling the Euphrates waters—important in an area that depended exclusively on irrigation agriculture. Such a policy naturally led to conflicts with the kingdom of Larsa, which was situated in a disadvantageous downstream position. This policy, begun by Hammurabi’s great-grandfather but most forcefully and partially successfully pursued by his father, Hammurabi himself took up in 1787 bce , near the beginning of his reign, when he conquered the cities Uruk ( Erech) and Isin, held by Rim-Sin, and clashed again with Rim-Sin the year after. But, according to Hammurabi’s date formulas and contemporary diplomatic correspondence, these operations led no further because Hammurabi shifted the direction of his military operations in 1784 toward the northwest and the east. For almost 20 years thereafter no significant warlike activity is reported. These years were characterized by changing coalitions among the main kingdoms—Mari, Ashur, Eshnunna, Babylon, and Larsa. Hammurabi used this time of uneasy stalemate to fortify several cities on his northern borders (1776–1768 bce ).

The last 14 years of Hammurabi’s reign were overshadowed by continuous warfare. In 1764 Hammurabi dealt with a coalition of Ashur, Eshnunna, and Elam—the main powers east of the Tigris—whose position threatened to block his access to the metal-producing areas of Iran. It can be assumed, however, that Hammurabi took the initiative in moving against Rim-Sin of Larsa in 1763 bce . Few particulars are reported about this latter war, but it seems that Hammurabi successfully employed a stratagem that apparently had been used before by Sin-muballit against Rim-Sin: damming up the water of a main watercourse and then either releasing it suddenly to create a devastating flood or simply withholding it—the main resource of life—from the enemy’s people (that Hammurabi used this device to bring about Rim-Sin’s defeat can be assumed from the fact that in 1760 he rebuilt a canal—the western branch of the Euphrates—to facilitate the resettlement of the uprooted population that lived along its course before this war). The final siege of Larsa, Rim-Sin’s last stronghold, lasted for several months. It was the last step to Hammurabi’s victory.

In 1762 bce Hammurabi again engaged in hostilities with the eastern powers. It is unknown whether this was a protective move on his part or a reaction on theirs to the change in the balance of power. The motives that led Hammurabi in 1761 bce against his longtime ally, Zimrilim, king of Mari, 250 miles (400 km) upstream from Babylon on the Euphrates, remain enigmatic. Two explanations are likely: it was either again a fight over water rights or an attempt by Hammurabi to gain control over Mari’s excellent location at the crossroads of the ancient Middle East’s overland trade.

Two years later Hammurabi had to direct his armies eastward for a third time (1757–1755 bce ). The final destruction of Eshnunna during this campaign—again achieved by damming up the waters—most likely proved to be a pyrrhic victory, because it removed a buffer zone between Babylonia proper and the peoples of the east (among them probably the Kassites, who were to take over in Babylonia 160 years hence). During his last two years, Hammurabi thus had to concentrate on the construction of defense fortifications. By this time he was a sick man, and he died about 1750 bce , with the burden of government already being carried by his son, Samsuiluna.

Changes affecting nearly all spheres of life took place during Hammurabi’s reign. They were aimed at the consolidation of conditions resulting from the transformation of a small city-state into a large territorial state. His letters show that he personally engaged in the details of implementing these changes and in the daily routine of the administration of his realm. This personal style is characteristic for Hammurabi and also for other contemporary rulers. Hammurabi’s laws—not a law code in the modern sense—must also be considered as an expression of his concern to be a just ruler—an ideal pursued by Mesopotamian kings at all times.

That Hammurabi failed to set up an effective bureaucratic system may be attributed to his personal style in the governance of his realm and the fact that he was fully engaged in wars during the last part of his reign. The lack of effective administration might have been one reason for the fast deterioration after his death of what he had achieved in military terms.

When Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia he did not follow the century-old tradition of having himself deified during his lifetime. There is reason to believe that this was his personal decision, probably based on a different view of the nature of kingship, setting a precedent for the concept of kingship until Hellenistic times.

Hammurabi’s eminence in Mesopotamian history has long been exaggerated. It was first based on the discovery of his laws but subsequent discoveries of older, though less voluminous, collections of laws have led to a less enthusiastic view. Moreover, the frequently noted resemblance between Hammurabi’s laws and the Mosaic laws is now seen in terms of common heritage rather than as proof for direct dependency.

Hammurabi is also credited with bringing Mesopotamia again under a single rule. Although there existed certain trends toward such unification—particularly expressed in the themes depicted on contemporary seals and in the apodoses of omens evoking a past when such kings as Sargon of Akkad and Shulgi ruled Mesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea—it is doubtful that unification was the only motive for Hammurabi’s conquests. The lasting achievement of Hammurabi’s rule was that the theatre of Mesopotamian history, which had been in the south from the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , was shifted to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years.


Is there evidence to suggest that Abraham and Hammurabi influenced one another? - Vēsture

By Gene D. Matlock, B.A., M.A.

This article was published through courtesy ofhttp://www.viewzone.com , where you can the find the original and lots of other incredible, mind- boggling articles on forbidden archeology and unsolved mysteries.

In his History of the Jews, the Jewish scholar and theologian Flavius Josephus (37 - 100 A.D.), wrote that the Greek philosopher Aristotle had said: ". These Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers they are named by the Indians Calani." (Book I:22.)

Clearchus of Soli wrote, "The Jews descend from the philosophers of India. The philosophers are called in India Calanians and in Syria Jews . The name of their capital is very difficult to pronounce. It is called 'Jerusalem.'"

"Megasthenes, who was sent to India by Seleucus Nicator, about three hundred years before Christ, and whose accounts from new inquiries are every day acquiring additional credit, says that the Jews 'were an Indian tribe or sect called Kalani. '" (Anacalypsis, by Godfrey Higgins, Vol. I p. 400.)

Martin Haug, Ph.D., wrote in The Sacred Language, Writings, and Religions of the Parsis , "The Magi are said to have called their religion Kesh- -Ibrahim.They traced their religious books to Abraham, who was believed to have brought them from heaven." (p. 16.)

There are certain striking similarities between the Hindu god Brahma and his consort Saraisvati, and the Jewish Abraham and Sarai , that are more than mere coincidences. Although in all of India there is only one temple dedicated to Brahma, this cult is the third largest Hindu sect.

In his book Mois s y los Extraterrestres , Mexican author Tom s Doreste states,

Voltaire was of the opinion that Abraham descended from some of the numerous Brahman priests who left India to spread their teachings throughout the world and in support of his thesis he presented the following elements: the similarity of names and the fact that the city of Ur, land of the patriarchs, was near the border of Persia, the road to India, where that Brahman had been born.

The name of Brahma was highly respected in India, and his influence spread throughout Persia as far as the lands bathed by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Persians adopted Brahma and made him their own. Later they would say that the God arrived from Bactria, a mountainous region situated midway on the road to India. (pp. 46-47.)

Bactria (a region of ancient Afghanistan) was the locality of a prototypical Jewish nation called Juhuda or Jaguda, also called Ur-Jaguda. Ur meant "place or town." Therefore, the bible was correct in stating that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldeans." "Chaldean," more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste who lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir.

"The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India and, settling in Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea." (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 405.)

"He was of the religion or sect of Persia, and of Melchizedek."(Vol. I, p. 364.)

"The Persians also claim Ibrahim, i.e. Abraham, for their founder, as well as the Jews. Thus we see that according to all ancient history the Persians, the Jews, and the Arabians are descendants of Abraham.(p.85) . We are told that Terah, the father of Abraham, originally came from an Eastern country called Ur, of the Chaldees or Culdees, to dwell in a district called Mesopotamia. Some time after he had dwelt there, Abraham, or Abram, or Brahma, and his wife Sara or Sarai, or Sara-iswati, left their father's family and came into Canaan. The identity of Abraham and Sara with Brahma and Saraiswati was first pointed out by the Jesuit missionaries."(Vol. I p. 387.)

In Hindu mythology, Sarai-Svati is Brahm's sister. The bible gives two stories of Abraham. In this first version, Abraham told Pharaoh that he was lying when he introduced Sarai as his sister. In the second version, he also told the king of Gerar that Sarai was really his sister. However, when the king scolded him for lying, Abraham said that Sarai was in reality both his wife and his sister! ". and yet indeed she is my sister she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother and she became my wife." (Genesis 20:12.)

But the anomalies don't end here. In India, a tributary of the river Saraisvati is Ghaggar. Another tributary of the same river is Hakra. According to Jewish traditions, Hagar was Sarai's maidservant the Moslems say she was an Egyptian princess. Notice the similarities of Ghaggar, Hakra and Hagar.

The bible also states that Ishmael, son of Hagar, and his descendants lived in India. ". Ishmael breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his kin. They dwelt from Havilah (India), by Shur, which is close to Egypt, all the way to Asshur." (Genesis 25:17-18.) It is an interesting fact that the names of Isaac and Ishmael are derive from Sanskrit: (Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = "Friend of Shiva." (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-Mahal = "Great Shiva."

A third mini-version of the Abraham story turns him into another "Noah." We know that a flood drove Abraham out of India. ". Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, Even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor and they served other gods. And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan." (Joshua 24:2-3.)

Genesis 25 mentions some descendants of his concubine Ketura (Note: The Moslems claim that Ketura is another name of Hagar.): Jokshan Sheba Dedan Epher. Some descendants of Noah were Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, and Ophir. These varying versions have caused me to suspect that the writers of the bible were trying to unite several different branches of Judaism.

About 1900 BC, the cult of Brahm was carried to the Middle and Near East by several different Indian groups after a severe rainfall and earthquake tore Northern India apart, even changing the courses of the Indus and Saraisvati rivers. The classical geographer Strabo tells us just how nearly complete the abandonment of Northwestern India was. "Aristobolus says that when he was sent upon a certain mission in India, he saw a country of more than a thousand cities, together with villages, that had been deserted because the Indus had abandoned its proper bed." (Strabo's Geography, XV.I.19.)

"The drying up of the Sarasvati around 1900 BCE, which led to a major relocation of the population centered around in the Sindhu and the Sarasvati valleys, could have been the event that caused a migration westward from India. It is soon after this time that the Indic element begins to appear all over West Asia, Egypt, and Greece." ( Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World , by Subhash Kak, taken from IndiaStar online literary magazine p.14)

Indian historian Kuttikhat Purushothama Chon believes that Abraham was driven out of India. He states that the Aryans, unable to defeat the Asuras (The mercantile caste that once ruled in the Indus Valley or Harappans) spent so many years fighting covertly against the Asuras, such as destroying their huge system of irrigation lakes, causing destructive flooding, that Abraham and his kindred just gave up and marched to West Asia. (See Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism.) Therefore, besides being driven out of Northern India by floods, the Aryans also forced Indian merchants, artisans, and educated classes to flee to West Asia.

Edward Pococke writes in India in Greece ,

". in no similar instance have events occurred fraught with consequences of such magnitude, as those flowing from the great religious war which, for a long series of years, raged throughout the length and breadth of India. That contest ended by the expulsion of vast bodies of men many of them skilled in the arts of early civilization, and still greater numbers, warriors by profession. Driven beyond the Himalayan mountains in the north, and to Ceylon, their last stronghold in the south, swept across the Valley of the Indus on the west, this persecuted people carried with them the germs of the European arts and sciences. The mighty human tide that passed the barrier of the Punjab, rolled on towards its destined channel in Europe and in Asia, to fulfill its beneficent office in the moral fertilization of the world.the distance of the migratory movement was so vast, the disguise of names so complete, and Grecian information so calculated to mislead, that nothing short of a total disregard of theoretic principles, and the resolution of independent research, gave the slightest chance of a successful elucidation."

(p. 28.)

If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage,
why doesn't History mention them?

The exodus of refugees out of ancient India did not occur all at once but over a period of one or more thousand years. If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage, why doesn't History mention them? Indeed they are mentioned as Kassites, Hittites, Syrians, Assyrians, Hurrians, Arameans, Hyksos, Mittanians, Amalekites, Aethiops (Atha-Yop), Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and many others. But we have been wrongly taught to regard them as ethnicities indigenous to Western Asia. Our history books also call them "Indo-Europeans," causing us to wonder where they were really from. "The people of India came to realize their social identity in terms of Varna and Jati (societal functions or caste) not in terms of races and tribes." (Foundations of Indian Culture p. 8.)

Here's an example of how the ancient Indians identified people: The leaders were called Khassis (Kassites), Kushi (Kushites), Cossacks (Russian military caste) Caesars (Roman ruling caste), Hattiya (Hittites), Cuthites (a dialectical form of Hittite), Hurrite (another dialectical form of Hittite), Cathay (Chinese leaders), Kasheetl/Kashikeh among the Aztecs, Kashikhel/Kisheh by the Mayans, and Keshuah/Kush by the Incas. The Assyrians (in English), Asirios (in Spanish), Asuras or Ashuras (India), Ashuriya, Asuriya (Sumer and Babylonia), Asir (Arabia), Ahura (Persia), Sur in Central Mexico, etc., were people who worshipped Surya (the Sun).

Naturally, in areas where this religion prevailed, they were known as "Assyrians," no matter what the real names of their respective kingdoms were.

Another problem that western scholars have in identifying the Indo-Europeans as Indians is that India was not then and never was a nation. Furthermore, it is not "India." It is Bharata , and even Bharata is not a nation. Bharata is a collection of nations, just as Europe is a collection of nations, presently held together by the real or perceived threat of Moslem expansionism. Indian scholars have told me that when and if this expansionism ever disappears, the "Bharata Union" will again splinter into many smaller nations.

"The Arabian historians contend that Brahma and Abraham, their ancestor, are the same person. The Persians generally called Abraham Ibrahim Zeradust. Cyrus considered the religion of the Jews the same as his own. The Hindoos must have come from Abraham, or the Israelites from Brahma. " (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 396.)

Was our Abraham Really the Hindu Deity Ram?

Ram and Abraham were possibly the same person or clan. For example, the syllable "Ab" or "Ap" means "father" in Kashmiri. The prototypical Jews could have called Ram "Ab-Ram" or "Father Ram." It's also conceivable that the word "Brahm" evolved from "Ab-Ram" and not vice-versa. The Kashmiri word for "Divine Mercy," Raham, likewise derives from Ram. Ab-Raham = "Father of Divine Mercy." Rakham = "Divine Mercy" in Hebrew Ram is also the Hebrew term for "highly placed leader or governor." Indian historian A. D. Pusalker, whose essay "Traditional History From the Earliest Times" appeared in The Vedic Age , said that Ram was alive in 1950 BC, which is about the time that Abraham, the Indo-Hebrews, and the Aryans made the greatest India-to-the-Middle East migration since the Great Flood.

"One of the shrines in the Kaaba was also dedicated to the Hindu Creator God, Brahma, which is why the illiterate prophet of Islam claimed it was dedicated to Abraham. The word "Abraham" is none other than a malpronunciation of the word Brahma. This can be clearly proven if one investigates the root meanings of both words. Abraham is said to be one of the oldest Semitic prophets. His name is supposed to be derived from the two Semitic words 'Ab' meaning 'Father' and 'Raam/Raham' meaning 'of the exalted.' In the book of Genesis, Abraham simply means 'Multitude.' The word Abraham is derived from the Sanskrit word Brahma. The root of Brahma is 'Brah' which means - 'to grow or multiply in number.' In addition Lord Brahma, the Creator God of Hinduism is said to be the Father of all Men and Exalted of all the Gods, for it is from him that all beings were generated. Thus again we come to the meaning 'Exalted Father.' This is a clear pointer that Abraham is none other than the heavenly father Brahma."

(Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia Part VI p.2.)

Several word-meanings can be extracted from "Abram," each of which points directly to his exalted position. Ab = "Father" Hir or H'r = "Head Top Exalted" Am = "People." Therefore, Abhiram or Abh'ram can mean "Father of the Exalted." Here's still another: Ab - - Ram = "Father of the Merciful." Ab, also meaning "Snake," could indicate that Ab-Ram (Exalted Snake) was a Naga king. All the meanings that can be extracted from the compound word "Abraham" reveal the divine destiny of his followers. Hiram of Tyre, Solomon's close friend, was "Exalted People" or Ahi-Ram (Exalted Snake).

In ancient India, the Aryan cult was called "Brahm-Aryan." The Aryans worshiped multiple gods. Abraham turned away from polytheism. By so doing, he could have become "A-Brahm" (No longer a Brahman.) The Aryans called the Asuras "Ah-Brahm." Therefore, we can logically assume that the fathers of the Indus civilization were probably prototypical Jews.

Jerusalem was a Hittite (Indian hereditary leadership caste) city at the time of Abraham's death. In Genesis 23:4, Abraham asked the Jerusalem Hittites to sell him a burial plot. The Hittites answered, ". thou art a prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead none of us shall withhold from thee." (p. 6). If Abraham was revered as a prince by the Hittites, he, too, was a highly regarded member of India's hereditary ruling and warrior caste. The bible never did say that Abraham wasn't a Hittite. It just said, "I am a stranger and a sojourner with you." (Genesis 23:4.) As the Hittites said, they recognized Abraham as being even above them. Just as the Hittites were not a unique ethnicity, neither were the Amorites or Amarru. Marruta was the Indian caste name of commoners. The word "Amorite" (Marut) was the first caste name of the Indian Vaishyas: craftsmen, farmers, cattlemen, traders, etc.

G. D. Pande writes in Ancient Geography of Ayodhya , "Maruts represented the Visah. The Maruts are described as forming troops or masses. Rudra, the father of the Maruts, is the lord of cattle." (p. 177.) Malita J. Shendge states: ". the Maruts are the people." (The Civilized Demons p. 314.) We should not be surprised to find the Khatti (Hittites) and Maruts (Amorites) functioning as the fathers (protectors) and mothers (helpmates or assistants) of Jerusalem.

In India, the Hittites were also known as Cedis or Chedis (pronounced Hatti or Khetti). Indian historians classify them as one of the oldest castes of the Yadavas. "The Cedis formed one of the most ancient tribes among the Ksatriyas (the aristocratic class made up of Hittites and Kassites) in early Vedic times. As early as the period of the Rgveda the Cedi kings had acquired great reknown. they are one of the leading powers in northern India in the great epic." (Yadavas Through the Ages, p. 90.) Ram or Rama also belonged to the Yadava clan. If our Abraham, Brahm, and Ram are the one and the same person, Abraham went to Jerusalem to be with his own people!

Ram's congregations segregated themselves in their own communities, called Ayodhya, which in Sanskrit means "The Unconquerable." The Sanskrit word for "fighter" is Yuddha or Yudh. Abraham and his group belonged to the Ayodhya (Yehudiya, Judea) congregation who remained aloof from non-believers and Amalekites (Aryans?).

Melchizadek. the sage of Salem

If what I have said thus far isn't convincing enough, maybe the word "Melchizedek" will be. Melchizedek was a king of Jerusalem who possessed secret mystical and magical powers. He was also Abraham's teacher.

Melik-Sadaksina was a great Indian prince, magician, and spiritual giant - the son of a Kassite king. In Kashmiri and Sanskrit, Sadak = "a person with magical, supernatural powers." A certain Zadok (Sadak?) was also a supernaturally-endowed priest who annointed Solomon. Why does the Kassite (of royal caste) Melik-Sadaksina, a mythical Indian personage, suddenly appear in Jerusalem as the friend and mentor of Abraham? According to Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar in The Hindu History , Brahm was the spiritual leader of the Aryans. As an Aryan (Not of Yah), he naturally believed in idols. The bible says that he even manufactured them. Upon seeing how increasing idol worship and religious guesswork were contributing to the further downfall of his people, Brahm backed away from Aryanism and reembraced the ancient Indian (Yah) philosophy (Cult of the MaterialUniverse) even though it, too, was foundering in manmade evils. He decided that mankind could save himself only by dealing with what was real not the imagined.

Shocked at the barbarism and blind selfishness of the people, the wise men and educated people among the proto-Hebrews isolated themselves from the masses. Dr. Mazumdar wrote, "The moral fall was rapid. The seers and sages lived apart from the masses. They seldom married and were mostly given to religious contemplation. The masses, without proper light and leader, soon became vicious in the extreme. Rape, adultery, theft, etc., became quite common. Human nature ran wild. Brahma (Abraham) decided to reform and regenerate the people. He made the chief sages and seers to marry and mix with the people. Most refused to marry, but 30 agreed." Brahm married his half sister Saraisvati. These sages became known as prajapatis (progenitors).

"Northern Afghanistan was called Uttara Kuru and was a great center of learning. An Indian woman went there to study and received the title of Vak, i.e. Saraisvati (Lady Sarah). It is believed that Brahm, her teacher (and half brother), was so impressed by her beauty, education, and powerful intellect, that he married her." (The Hindu History p. 48, in passim.)

From the holy community in Southern Afghanistan, similar communities spread all over the world: the whole of India, Nepal, Thailand, China, Egypt, Syria, Italy, the Philippines, Turkey, Persia, Greece, Laos, Iraq, - even the Americas! The linguistic evidence of Brahm's presence in various parts of the world is more than evident: Persian: Braghman (Holy) Latin: Bragmani (Holy) Russian: Rachmany (Holy) Ukranian Rachmanya (Priest Holy) Hebrew: Ram (Supreme Leader) Norwegian From (Godly). A sacred word among the Hindus was and is the mystic syllable OM. It is associated eternally with the earth, sky, and heaven, the Triple Universe. It is also a name of Brahm. The Aztecs also worshiped and chanted the syllable OM as the dual principal of all creation: OMeticuhlti (Male Principle) and OMelcihuatl (Female Principle). The Mayan priestly caste was called Balam (pronounced B'lahm). Had an "R" sound existed in Mayan, it would have been Brahm. The Peruvian Incas worshiped the sun as Inti Raymi (Hindu Ram).

Names that undeniably derive from Rama literally pepper Native-American languages, especially the languages of those tribes extending from our American Southwest, to Mexico, and all the way to South America, beyond Peru. The Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua are an ideal example. Their real name is Ra-Ram-Uri. As in Sumeria and Northern India, the Ra-Ram-Uri "Uri" = "People." Because the Spanish "R" is trilled, this "Uri" could also be Udi or Yuddhi, the Sanskrit name for "Warrior Conqueror." Many Mexican tribes mention that a foreign race of Yuri once invaded their part of the world. The Ra-Ram-Uri sun god is Ono-R ame. In Kashmiri, Ana = "Favorite Son" The Ra-Ram-Uri moon goddess, the consort of Ono-R ame, is Eve-Ruame. Kashmiri Hava = "Eve, or The Female Principle."

A Ra-Ram-Uri governor is called Si-Riame. In Sanskrit/Kashmiri, Su-Rama = "Great Rama." According to ancient Mexican legends, the Yoris belonged to a tribe called Surem (Su-Ram?) Before the conquest, Central Mexico and the American Southwest, as far as Eastern Colorado, were known as Sur . Sur = "Sun" in Kashmiri. The Tarahumara cure doctor or spiritual guide is an Owi-Ruame. In Sanskrit, Oph = "Hope." Their devil is called Repa-Bet-Eame. Kashmiri: Riphas (Appearance) + Buth (Malignant Spirit) + Yama (Angel of Death). Many other astonishing Kashmiri/Sanskrit correspondences appear in the Ra-Ram-Uri language. Their relation to ancient Phoenicia, Sumeria, and Northern India is beyond question.

The Phoenicians. global navigators.

Most people think of the Phoenicians as a tribe of sailor-traders that inhabited what is now Lebanon. However, the Pancika or Pani as the Hindus called them, or Puni, by the Romans (a name also derived from Rama), were, like gypsies, scattered all over the globe.

The Spaniards called the land of the Ra-Ram-Uri Chiahuahua, pronounced as Shivava by the natives themselves. In Sanskrit, Shivava = "Shiva's Temple." According to Hindu religious scholars, Ram and God Shiva were once the same deity. Shiva and Yah's (the same one we read about in the Bible) name are also prominent in Native-American religious practices and can be found inscribed as petroglyphs all over the American Southwest. (Refer to my book India Once Ruled the Americas! )

Ayodhya was also another name for Dar-es-Salam in African Tanzania and Jerusalem (Judea). It is true that the Jerusalemites were known as Yehudiya or Judeans (Warriors of Yah), a fact making the Jews' Indian origins incontrovertible.

There was no part of the ancient world, including China, that wasn't influenced by Ram's religious views. For example, Christians and Jews have been brainwashed to believe that Mohammed copied his teachings from Jewish sources. The truth is that in Mohammed's time, Ram or Abraham's theology was the foundation stone of all religious sects. All Mohammed did was to purge them of idol worship.

". the Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India.it was a sacred place before the time of Mohamed, and.they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it for several centuries after his time. Its great celebrity as a sacred place long before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted." (Anacalypsis, Vol. I, p. 421.)

". the city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built by a colony from India and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indus language, would be called Ishmaelistan." (Ibid, p. 424.)

Before Mohammed's time, The Hinduism of the Arab peoples was called Tsaba. Tsaba or Saba is a Sanskrit word, meaning "Assembly of the Gods ". Tsaba was also called Isha-ayalam (Shiva's Temple). The term Moslem or Moshe-ayalam (Shiva's Temple) is just another name of Sabaism. The word has now shrunk to Islam. Mohammed himself, being a member of the Quaryaish family, was at first a Tsabaist. The Tsabaists did not regard Abraham as an actual god, but as an avatar or divinely ordained teacher called Avather Brahmo (Judge of the Underworld).

At the time of Jesus, the respective languages, religious symbolism, and traditions of the Arabs and Jews were nearly identical. If we could take a time machine to the past, most of us would not see any real differences between the Arabs and Jews. History tells us that the Arabs of Christ's time worshiped idols. So did the lower class and rural Jews. For this reason, the Middle Eastern squabble between the Jews and the Moslems and the hate between the Moslems and Hindus in India are ridiculous. The Moslems are fighting the Jews and Hindus, or vice-versa, over nothing. All three groups sprang from the same source.

The Kashmiri-Sanskrit equivalent of Hebron (Khev'run in Hebrew) screams out the Indian origins of Jerusalem's earliest inhabitants: Khab'ru (grave tomb). (See Grierson's Dictionary. p. 382.) Even in Hebrew, Kever = "Tomb."

Indian linguist and orientalist Maliti J. Shendge's The Languages of Harappans welds together, once and for all, West Asia and the Indus Valley civilization. Not only does she prove that Harappa was Akkadian and Sumerian, she also proves that the first "Abraham" was none other than Adam before Eve was created from one of his ribs.

". it may be said that the region from Tigris-Euphrates to the Indus and its east was inhabited by the Akkadian speaking Semites who later called themselves as Asshuraiu. Their Indian name as known from Rgveda is 'Asura' which is not far removed. That this region should be inhabited by different clans of the same ethos is not very surprising. It would however be wrong to think that it was a racially homogenous group. As our linguistic evidence shows it was a mixed population of the Akkadians and Sumerians. The other ethnic groups also may have been present, whose traces may be looked for in future work. This mixed composition of the population is not inconsistent with the present state of knowledge, as the presence of these ethnic elements in the Indus valley only confirms and extends an identical demographic pattern, which was in existence probably from the earliest times of prehistory and civilization.

"If these Akkadians were the same as the West Asian clan, there should have been an equal preponderance of this primaeval couple in the Vedic mythology. However, beyond one cryptic reference, there is no reference to them. This was baffling. It seemed unlikely that this clan was without the primaeval parents, though their god was Asura. The predominance of Brahman in RV as the primaeval father is there which is also inadequate as he is male principle alone. A close look at Brahman revealed its ancestry to be made of two words Abu + Rahmu which is the primaeval pair in the Semitic mythology. The Akkadian counterpart of Rahmu is Lahmu which later became goddess Laksmi, born in the sea and courted by both gods and demons. Lahmu is a dragon in Akkadian but in Ugaratic Rahmu is the lass of Abu. Brahma (abu + rahmu = abrahma = brahma) all the changes postulated here being covered in the above correspondences, or lass of Abu, the supreme Semitic godhood, has undergone many transformations and has many counterparts in the Indian pantheon, amongst whom is Laksmi one of the important ones being worshipped as the goddess of all material creation. Thus the Asura clan of the Indus valley worshipped Abu-Rahmu as the primaeval couple."

Ms. Shendge's research really strengthens my conviction that the remains of Abraham and Sarai in Hebron may really be those of the real Brahm and Saraisvati. Our Abraham was evidently a priest, perhaps even the founder, of the Abu-Rahmu (Adam and Eve) cultus, who brought his monotheistic religion to West Asia. Though he and Sarai were deified in various forms back in their native India, they remained as humans in Judaism.