Romas imperators Commodus, Palazzo Massimo

Romas imperators Commodus, Palazzo Massimo


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Romas imperators Commodus, Palazzo Massimo - Vēsture

Kapitolija muzejs ir vecākā publiskā mākslas kolekcija pasaulē, kas aizsākās 1471. gadā, un, manuprāt, tas ir absolūti labākais muzejs Romā. Ja jūs interesē artefakti un skulptūras no senās Romas līdz aptuveni 1700. gadiem, jums arī tas patiks. Tas ir piepildīts ar senās Romas vēsturi un seno grieķu skulptūru romiešu kopijām. Lai palīdzētu jums novērtēt, cik ilgi jums būs jāpavada šajā muzejā, es jums pastāstīšu savu pieredzi. Pirmajā apmeklējuma reizē muzejā pavadīju apmēram divas stundas, un es pilnībā izbaudīju svarīgākos notikumus (varbūt 50 priekšmetus), bez iepriekšējām zināšanām par Romu blakus tam, kas, manuprāt, ir lielākajai daļai cilvēku. Pēc šī ceļojuma uz Romu es iemācījos diezgan daudz romiešu vēstures, tāpēc otrās Romas vizītes laikā muzejā pavadīju apmēram 6 stundas. Pēc plašākas izpētes mana trešā vizīte bija pilna diena. Jo vairāk jūs saprotat un varat novērtēt, jo vairāk laika varat pavadīt muzejā. Bet, ja jūs neko nesaprotat, tomēr ejiet un izbaudiet dažas stundas skaistu skulptūru.

Kapitolija muzejs sastāv no 3 ēkām, kas ieskauj Piazza del Campidoglio uz Kapitolija kalna. Jūs varat nokļūt no metro pieturas Colosseo, ejot pa Via dei Fori Imperiali līdz Romas foruma beigām, pagriežoties pa kreisi pie ielas, pirms nokļūstat milzīgajā baltajā Viktora Emanuela piemineklī, un ejot kalnā uz lielo laukumu labā puse. Vai arī, ja jūs tuvojaties no Viktora Emanuela pieminekļa otras puses, paejiet pa kāpnēm, kas ved uz Santa Maria baznīcu Aracoeli, un uzkāpiet pa kāpnēm (patiesībā vairāk uz rampas) līdz laukumam. Biļešu kase, audio gidu noma un ieeja atrodas Palazzo dei Conservatori (1. foto zemāk), ēkā, kas atrodas vistālāk no milzīgā baltā Viktora Emanuela pieminekļa. Šajā ēkā atrodas arī slavenākie muzeja darbi. Ēka pāri laukumam (vistuvāk Viktora Emanuela piemineklim) ir Palazzo Nuovo, kurā atrodas skulptūras, un tā, iespējams, būs pēdējā redzamā muzeja daļa. Ēkas savieno pazemes eja, kas iet zem laukuma trešās ēkas Palazzo Senatorio, un tajā atrodas milzīga uzrakstu kolekcija. Neviens no muzejiem šajā ēkā neatrodas virs zemes, bet pazemes ejā atrodas sānu zars, kas ved gar senu templi uz Tabularium, Senās Romas publisko ierakstu ēku, no kuras paveras lielisks skats uz romiešu Forums. (Komplektistiem Centrālais Montemartini muzejs, kas atrodas jūdžu attālumā, ir arī daļa no Kapitolija muzeja)

Vienā no šīm dienām es ceru šeit izveidot virtuālu ekskursiju pa muzeju, sīki aprakstot katru gabalu. Pagaidām to esmu darījis tikai dažiem darbiem.

No Markusa Aurēlijam veltītās triumfa arkas joprojām pastāv vienpadsmit reljefi. Astoņi no tiem atrodas Konstantīna arkā, bet pārējie trīs atrodas Kapitolija muzejā.

'Upura' reljefs (1. foto zemāk) parāda Markusu Aurēliju viņa lomā pontifex maximus vai galvenais priesteris, viena no tradicionālajām Romas imperatora lomām. Šajā lomā Augusts ir veidots Palazzo Massimo. Parasti šīs lomas imperatora skulptūras valkā togu ar kapuci, kas sedz galvu, un tur rokās patera, trauks, ko izmanto upurēšanas laikā. Ņemot vērā to, cik svarīga reliģija un tradīcijas bija romiešu tautai, imperatoram bija svarīgi parādīt savu pārliecību par šiem ideāliem. Templis šī reljefa fonā varētu būt Jupitera Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, kas atrodas Kapitolija kalna virsotnē.

Reljefs “iekarošana un apžēlošana” (2. fotoattēls zemāk) parāda Markusu Aurēliju, kas ģērbies ķirzā, zirga mugurā. Koki fonā liek domāt, ka viņš pēc uzvaras pārskata kaujas lauku. Barbāri padodas pie viņa kājām un lūdz žēlastību. Markusa Aurēlija poza šajā reljefā atgādina imperatora jāšanas statuju Kapitolija muzejā.

Triumfa reljefs (3. fotoattēls zemāk) parāda, ka Markuss Aurēlijs brauc ar četru zirgu ratiem un vainagojas ar uzvaru pārstāvošo Nike. Ratiņus rotā reljefi, kuros redzamas Neptūna un Minervas figūras, kas atrodas blakus romu figūrai. Fonā redzams templis, bet labajā pusē - triumfa arka, iespējams, arka, kurai imperatora rati tikko izgājuši cauri, jo viņa triumfa gājiens tikko sācies. Iespējams, ka Commodus sākotnēji atradās ratiņos, kā to ieteica lielais ratu izmērs un Nike figūra, kura, iespējams, bija centrēta virs abām rakstzīmēm un abiem turēja vainagus. Pēc tam, kad Commodus kļuva traks un kļuva ārkārtīgi nepopulārs un tika nogalināts, viņa atmiņa tika sasodīta (damnatio memoriae) Senāts, liekot viņam noņemt visus uzrakstus, statujas, frīzes utt., it kā to darot, viņi varētu likt viņam nekad nepastāvēt.

Ir ļoti grūti sašaurināt Kapitolija muzeja krājumus līdz dažiem labākajiem, bet zemāk esošie ir mans dūriens.


Agrīnā dzīve Rediģēt

Faustina, kas nosaukta mātes vārdā, bija vecāku ceturtais un jaunākais bērns, bet otrā meita - arī viņu vienīgais bērns, kurš izdzīvoja līdz pilngadībai. Viņa ir dzimusi un augusi Romā.

Viņas lielais onkulis, imperators Hadrians, ar tēvu bija sarunājis, ka Faustīna apprecēs Lūciju Verusu. 138. gada 25. februārī viņu un Verusu saderināja. Verusa tēvs bija Hadriāna pirmais adoptētais dēls un viņa paredzētais mantinieks, tomēr, kad Verusa tēvs nomira, Adriāns par savu otro adoptēto dēlu izvēlējās Faustīnas tēvu, un galu galā viņš kļuva par Adriāna pēcteci. Faustīnas tēvs pārtrauca saderināšanos starp meitu un Verusu un noorganizēja Faustīnas saderināšanos ar māsīcu mātes radinieku, Markusu Aurēliju Aurēliju adoptēja arī viņas tēvs.

Imperatora mantiniece Edit

145. gada aprīlī vai maijā [4] Faustina un Markuss Aurēlijs apprecējās, kā tas bija plānots kopš 138. gada. Tā kā Aurēlijs līdz adopcijai bija Antonīna Pija dēls, saskaņā ar romiešu tiesībām viņš apprecējās ar savu māsu Antonīnu būtu oficiāli jāatbrīvo. viens vai otrs no viņa tēva varas (viņa patria potestas), lai notiktu ceremonija. [5] Par ceremoniju ir zināms maz, taču teikts, ka tā bijusi "ievērības cienīga". [6] Monētas tika izdotas ar pāra galvām, un Antoninus, kā Pontifex Maximus, būtu vadījis. Markuss savās izdzīvojušajās vēstulēs nenorāda uz laulību un tikai saudzē Faustinu. [7] Faustinai tika piešķirts tituls Augusta 147. gada 1. decembrī pēc pirmā bērna Domitijas Faustinas piedzimšanas. [8]

Ķeizariene Rediģēt

Kad Antonīns 161. gada 7. martā nomira, Markuss un Lūcijs Veruss uzkāpa tronī un kļuva par līdzvaldniekiem. Pēc tam Faustina kļuva par ķeizarieni.

No romiešu avotiem nav daudz saglabājies attiecībā uz Faustīnas dzīvi, bet tas, kas ir pieejams, nesniedz labu ziņojumu. Cassius Dio un neuzticamais Vēsturija Augusta apsūdz Faustinu nāves pasūtīšanā ar indēm un nāvessodu, viņa arī apsūdzēta par Avidija Kasija sacelšanās ierosināšanu pret savu vīru. The Vēsturija Augusta piemin laulības pārkāpšanu ar jūrniekiem, gladiatoriem un ranga vīriešiem, tomēr Faustina un Aurēlijs, šķiet, ir bijuši ļoti tuvi un savstarpēji veltīti.

Faustina pavadīja savu vīru dažādās militārās kampaņās un izbaudīja romiešu karavīru pārmērīgo mīlestību un godbijību. Aurēlijs viņai piešķīra titulu Mater Castrorum vai “Nometnes māte”. Viņa mēģināja izvest savas mājas no armijas nometnes. No 170. līdz 175. gadam viņa atradās ziemeļos, un 175. gadā viņa pavadīja Aurēliju uz austrumiem.

Avidija Kasija sacelšanās un nāve Rediģēt

Tajā pašā 175. gadā Aurēlija ģenerālis Avidijs Kasijs tika pasludināts par Romas imperatoru pēc kļūdainajām ziņām par Markusa nāvi [9]. nāves sliekšņa, un uzskatīja, ka Kasejam šajā gadījumā jārīkojas kā aizsargam, jo ​​viņas dēls Komods, 13 gadus vecs, vēl bija jauns. [9] [10] Viņa arī vēlējās kādu, kas darbotos kā pretsvars Tibērija Klaudija Pompejana apgalvojumiem, kurš Markusas nāves gadījumā bija spēcīgā stāvoklī ieņemt Prinča amatu. [11] Pierādījumi, tostarp paša Markusa Meditācijas, atbalsta domu, ka Markuss patiešām bija diezgan slims [11], bet līdz Markusa atveseļošanai Kasijs jau bija pilnībā atzīts Ēģiptes leģionos II Traiana Fortis un XXII Deiotariana. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

"Pēc sapņa par impēriju, kas ilga trīs mēnešus un sešas dienas", Kasiju noslepkavoja simtnieks [12], viņa galva tika nosūtīta Markusam Aurēlijam, kurš atteicās to redzēt un lika to apglabāt. [10] Ēģipte līdz 175. gada 28. jūlijam atzina Markusu par imperatoru. [12]

Fakti par Faustina nāvi nav noteikti. Viņa nomira 175. gada ziemā militārajā nometnē Halalā (pilsēta Taurus kalnos Kapadokijā). Viņas nāves cēloņi ir zinātnieku spekulācijas, un tie ir dažādi - no nāves dabisku iemeslu dēļ, pašnāvības, nelaimes gadījuma vai pat, iespējams, slepkavības, atriebjoties par viņas iespējamo romānu ar Kasiju, atkarībā no avota. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Aurēlijs ļoti apbēdināja savu sievu un apglabāja viņu Hadriāna mauzolejā Romā. Viņa tika dievināta: viņas statuja tika novietota Romas Venēras templī, un viņai par godu tika veltīts templis. Halala vārds tika mainīts uz Faustinopolis un Aurēlijs atvēra labdarības skolas bāreņu meitenēm, kuras sauca Puellae Faustinianae vai 'Faustīnas meitenes'. [13] Faustīnas pirtis Milētā ir nosauktas viņas vārdā.


Intriga, ārprāts un Commodus valdīšana

(Attēls: Palazzo Massimo alle Terme/Publiskais domēns)

Tik apdomīgam un uzmanīgam valdniekam kā Markuss izrādījās katastrofāla izvēle. Zēns izrādīja satraucošas tieksmes: viņam patika viņa dziedāšana, dejošana un rupji joki. Viņam patika uzstāties (privāti, kā paredzēts) kā gladiatoram. 11 gadu vecumā viņš bija tik saniknots par nepietiekamo vannas siltumu, ka bija pavēlējis pirtniekam dzīvu iemest krāsnī. Tā vietā uz uguns bija uzmesta aitādas, un tad, apmānījis degošas ādas smaku, Komods uzskatīja, ka viņa zemiskais rīkojums ir izpildīts.

Kāpēc Markuss bija tik akls pret šīm dēla rakstura iezīmēm, joprojām nav skaidrs. Varbūt tā bija nevēlēšanās uzskatīt savu dēlu par mežonīgu. 180. gada martā neviens nevarēja apstrīdēt Commodus pievienošanos, it īpaši pēc tam, kad armijas uz vietas pauda atbalstu. Jaunais imperators nekavējoties atcēla jebkuru plānu, kas paredzēja impērijai anektēt Transdanubijas teritoriju (ja tas tiešām būtu bijis Markusa plāns). Forts un ceļi aiz upes tika pamesti, tika noslēgts miers ar Jazižiem un nostiprināta pierobežas sistēma.

Romas ērtības

Avoti liecina, ka Commodus vēlējās atgriezties Romas priekos, kas, iespējams, bija taisnība, taču ir arī iespējams, ka viņš atzina sava tēva plānu anektēt Romas ziemeļu teritoriju nepareizi. Mainīgās cilšu migrācijas straumes blīvajos Vācijas mežos padarīja jaunas teritorijas pievienošanu tur par papildu slogu impērijai. Papildus gadījuma nemieriem tādās vietās kā Lielbritānija un Āfrika, Commodus valdīšanas gadi provincēs bija salīdzinoši klusi. Imperatoram savukārt bija savas prioritātes.

Šis ir stenogramma no video sērijas Emperors of Rome. Skatieties to tagad, Lielajos kursos.

Commodus bija dīkstāvē un bezgaumīgs. Abas īpašības, iespējams, bija reakcija uz viņa strādīgo, pieticīgo tēvu. Vēlāk savā valdīšanas laikā Commodus pat mainīja savu oficiālo vārdu, lai izdzēstu jebkādu Markusa vai Antonīna pieminēšanu. Tas liecina par spēcīgu vēlmi atbrīvoties no tēva ēnas. Dio, iepazīstinot mūs ar Commodus, saka, ka viņš pēc savas būtības nebija ļauns, bet viņš bija nesaprātīgs, viņam nebija viltības un ar viņu viegli manipulēja. Neinteliģents un viegli manipulējams valdnieks ir bīstams valdnieks, kuram pievienošanās laikā bija tikai 19 gadu. Neskatoties uz to, ka Commodus lielāko daļu savu pēdējo gadu atradās Markusa pusē, viņam bija neliela praktiska pieredze pārvaldībā vai komandēšanā, vai pat impērijas varas novērošanā darbībā.

Sazvērestība, vara un slepkavība

Šie apstākļi atstāja laukumu plaši atvērtu negodīgiem zemniekiem, un galvenais no tiem bija čalis, ko sauca Grieķijas padomnieks Aelius Saoterus. Galu galā Saotēru izpostīja, un to nomainīja pretoriešu prefekti Seksts Tigidijs Perennis un Markuss Aurēlijs Klīnders, iespējams, ap 182. gadu.

Kleandrs nāk kā kaut kas neo-Sejanus. Viņš bija mazdzimis (viņš bija bijušais vergs), ambiciozs un viltīgs-un viņa augšāmcelšanās laikā, kas ilga aptuveni no 182. līdz 189. Gadam, viņš bija praktiski imperators, kamēr Commodus nododas savām privātajām nodarbēm. Arī Perennis un Kleanders krita no žēlastības un gāja bojā apstākļos, kas paliek neskaidri, pēc tam Commodus lēma pēc savas iniciatīvas. Tas, ka šis viņa valdīšanas periods no 189 līdz 192 bija katastrofa, parāda, ka Commodus bija ļoti nepiemērots varai.

Citi cilvēki pie šāda secinājuma nonāca daudz agrāk viņa valdīšanas laikā. 181. vai 182. gadā tika atklāta sazvērestība, kurā piedalījās Commodus māsa Lucilla un viņas vīrs Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus. Ja mēs ticam saviem avotiem, sižetu Commodus atklāja tā galvenā aģenta - cilvēka vārdā Pompejans Kvintians - satriecošais stulbums.

Sazvērnieki bija izvēlējušies Kvintianu par slepkavu viņa drosmīgā temperamenta dēļ, taču viņa uzvārds liecina par kādu neskaidru saistību ar Lusiljas vīru. Kvintjans izrādījās dults. Slēpdams dunci zem halāta, viņš gaidīja Commodus tumšā amfiteātra ieejā. Bet pārsteiguma uzbrukuma vietā Kvintjans pamāja ar ieroci un kliedza, ka viņu ir nosūtījis viss Senāts, lai nogalinātu Commodus, un tad viņš tika arestēts un notiesāts. Lucilla tika izraidīta uz Kapri un vēlāk sodīta ar nāvi. Viņas vīrs Pompejans, dīvainā kārtā, izdzīvoja neskarts.

Kvintjans apgalvoja, ka ir visa Senāta aģents, kas pasliktināja attiecības starp imperatoru un šo iestādi. Tagad sākās pazīstamās un šausmīgās inkvizīcijas un denonsēšanas kārtas, kas senatoru nostādīja pret senatoru. Daudzi gāja bojā Commodus rokās, un viņu īpašums tika konfiscēts.

Dominējošās aizdomas un bailes atklājas dīvainajā stāstā par Sextus Condianus, pēc Commodus pavēles noslepkavota senatora dēlu. Kondians, apzinoties savu iespējamo likteni, viltus savu nāvi un pēc tam klejoja pa zemi maskējoties. Commodus tik ļoti vēlējās viņu aizturēt, ka daudzi vīrieši tika arestēti un nogalināti tikai tāpēc, ka izskatījās pēc Condianus. Viņu galvas tika izstādītas Romā.

Kondiana galīgais liktenis nekur nav ierakstīts, bet fakts, ka imperators vērsās pret cilvēkiem, jo ​​viņi izskatījās kā kāds cits, daudz runā par Commodus valdīšanu. Pret Commodus ir reģistrēti vēl vismaz divi neveiksmīgi sižeti, kuru detaļas ir neskaidras un apstrīdētas, bet viens acīmredzot bija saistīts ar prefektu Perennisu un izraisīja viņa nāvi 185. gadā.

Izklaidējot imperatoru

Savukārt Commodus nodevās savām privātajām kaislībām, galvenokārt gladiatoru cīņām un ratu sacīkstēm. Pēdējo viņš praktizēja privāti, jo kauns neļāva viņam sacensties publiski. Bet, kā Dio pieraksta pēc personīga novērojuma, imperators arēnā veica gladiatoru cīņas un zvēru medības, pirms pielūdza pūļus.

Šķiet, ka viņš bija diezgan labs. Privāti viņš cīnījās ar asiem ieročiem, nogalinot un kropļojot savus pretiniekus, bet publiski - tikai ar strupiem ieročiem - izredzes, ka Romas imperators mirs smiltīs savas tautas acu priekšā, bija pārāk briesmīgas pat Commodusam. apdomāt. Dio atzīmē, ka Commodus bija kreilis gladiators, ar ko viņš ļoti lepojās. Šķiet, ka viņš ir uzvarējis katrā cīņā.

Senatori un bruņinieki bija ne tikai spiesti apmeklēt katru reizi, kad Commodus pacēla smiltis, bet arī viņiem bija jādzied: “Tu esi kungs un tu esi pirmais, no visiem cilvēkiem visvairāk paveicies. Jūs uzvarēsit un uzvarēsit, mūžīgi, Amazones, jūs uzvarēsit. ”

Reiz, nogalinājis strausu, Commodus stūrēja, vicinot strausa galvu un viņa asiņaino zobenu, un draudīgi smīnēja pret senatoriem. Dio stāsta, ka viņš un viņa kolēģi uzskatīja, ka šī izrāde nav draudīga, bet dumja, un viņi smējās - bet, lai neriskētu ar nāvi, viņi slēpa savu jautrību, košļājot vainagu laurus, ko viņi valkāja.

Vienā dīvainā skatē Commodus savāca no pilsētas vīriešus, kuri bija zaudējuši kājas, un viņš izveidoja čūskas astes viņu apakšstilbiem tā, lai tie atgādinātu mitoloģiskos milžus.

Pēc tam viņš deva viņiem sūkļus, nevis akmeņus, lai mestos uz viņu, pirms viņš visus ar nūju sita līdz nāvei.

Es esmu Hercules

Šīs izrādes palīdzēja sabiedrībai veidot un nostiprināt Commodus dievišķos sakarus. Ievērojamie romieši kopš republikas visi bija saistīti ar dieviem, un imperatori nebija izņēmums. 2. gadsimtā Jupiters, Romas valsts galvenais dievs, bija iemīļots, tāpat kā Hercules.

Hērakls bija grieķu padievs, Zeva dēls (jeb romiešiem Jupiters), kurš, cīnoties par labo pret ļauno, atbrīvoja vienkāršo cilvēku no briesmām un galu galā pēc nāves tika paaugstināts līdz pilnam dievišķam statusam. Tāpēc Hērakla pievilcība impērijas prātam nav tālu jāmeklē. Nogalinot lielus un draudīgus dzīvniekus arēnā, nemaz nerunājot par izdomātiem milžiem tieši no mīta, Commodus aizveda mājās asociāciju ar Herkulesu.

Atšķirība no citiem ievērojamiem romiešiem ir tāda, ka vismaz uz beigām Commodus uzskatīja, ka viņš patiesībā ir Hercules. Identifikācija pārsniedz vienkāršu izsaukšanu, līdz uz monētām tika pasludināts “Hercules Commodianus”. Ņemiet vērā, ka šādā formā Hercules ir primārais vārds, un Commodianus ir tam pievienotais īpašības vārds.

Commodus viņa portretos ir attēlots tieši kā Herkuless, kas ir pilns ar lauvas ādu un nūju, un tika izveidots kults, lai pielūgtu imperatoru kā Herkulesu. Viņš bija izmainījis Nero kolosu, lai tas atgādinātu sevi kā Herkulesu, un tam bija pievienots uzraksts: “Jupitera dēls, uzvarējušais Hērakls esmu es, nevis Lūcijs, kaut arī bija spiests nest šo vārdu.”

Impērijas pārdēvēšana

Tas viss, protams, atklāj plašu un strauju megalomāniju. Mūža beigās viņš pat pārdēvēja Romu par “Colonia Lucia Aelia Nova Commodiana”, kas nozīmē kaut ko līdzīgu “Jaunajai Commodus kolonijai”. Viņam arī visi gada mēneši bija nosaukti viņa vārdā, un viņam patika, ja viņu uzrunā kā Amazoniju vai Exsuperatoriusu - divus nosaukumus ir grūti pārvērst angļu valodā, taču tiem piemīt cīņas prasmju un pārpasaulīgas superlativitātes pieskaņa.

Senāts tika pārdēvēts par “laimīgo komēdijas senātu”, romiešu tauta tika pārdēvēta par “komēdijas tautu”, un visiem leģioniem bija jāpiešķir “komēdijas” tituls. Commodus tika pasludināts par "Zelta", un viņa valdīšanas laiks bija "Zelta laikmets". Tas viss padarīja Commodus dziļi nepopulāru senatoru aprindās, taču tas bezgalīgi uzjautrināja masas. Viņa Herculean personība apsolīja viņiem aizsardzību, bet viņa ekstravagantais dāsnums (naudas izdales materiāli tiek pasludināti par deviņiem monētu izdevumiem) un smalkās brilles, kuras viņš iestudēja un pēc tam reiz piedalījās pats, tas viss papildināja viņa populāro pievilcību.

Vājprātīgā nāve

Tomēr galu galā viņa nāvi veica tuvākie cilvēki. Jaunie padomdevēji, piemēram, jaunais pretorijas prefekts Aemilius Laetus vai viņa palāts Eclectus, baidījās par savu dzīvību. Viņi bija redzējuši, kas notika ar Commodus iepriekšējiem padomdevējiem, piemēram, Klenderu. Šķiet, ka ir iesaistīta arī viņa ilggadējā saimniece Mārsija.

Kad parādījās šausminošs plāns, ka Commodus 1933. gada 1. janvārī vajadzētu nogalināt abus jaunos konsulus un pēc tam izkāpt no gladiatoru kazarmām, kas tērpušās viņa cīnītāja ekipējumā, lai uzņemtos pašu konsulu, šī grupa nolēma rīkoties. Citā versijā grupa atklāja mirušo sarakstu ar viņu vārdiem.

Damnatio memoriae of ‘Commodus ’ uz uzraksta Osterburkenas Romas vēstures muzejā. Saīsinājums “CO ” vēlāk tika atjaunots ar krāsu. (Attēls: DerHexer/Publiskais domēns)

Neatkarīgi no tā, kā šis sižets radās, Commodus tika barots ar saindētu liellopu gaļu, bet viņš to izvemja un tādējādi izglāba sevi. Pēc tam tika nosūtīts sportists vārdā Narciss, lai viņa vannā nožņaugtu imperatoru. Tas tika izdarīts 1922. gada 31. decembrī. Commodus bija 31 gadu vecs un valdīja gandrīz 13 gadus. Kopš Commodus nomira Antonīnu dinastija, jo mantošanai bija paredzēti minimāli noteikumi. Kopš Nervas Antonīni vadīja bezprecedenta stabilitāti un labklājību. Bet labie gadi bija beigušies, un pilsoņu kara ēna atkal parādījās pār valstību.

Bieži uzdotie jautājumi par Commodus

Starp visnežēlīgākajiem Romas imperatoriem bija paranoiskais Tibērijs, kurš izpildīja nāvessodu ikvienam, kurš izraisīja viņa aizdomas, Nerons, kurš vajāja kristiešus un nebija augstāk par savu ģimenes locekļu nogalināšanu, un korumpētais Commodus, kura pilsoņi tika sodīti ar kļūdainu pamatojumu, lai viņš varētu nozagt viņu bagātību.

Lai gan reālajā dzīvē Commodus nenogalināja savu tēvu Markusu Aurēliju, kā tas notiek filmā Gladiators, filma ir līdzīga patiesajam stāstam ar to, ka abi attēlo Commodus ’s māsas slepkavības mēģinājumu, kam seko Commodus's nolaišanās trakumā un veidu, kādā viņa ego noveda pie neapdomības un bezjēdzīgas vardarbības.

Commodus tika nogalināts nožņaugšanās rezultātā, izbeidzot viņa haotisko un brutālo valdīšanu.


Saturs

Gaius Julius Caesar (nosaukts par godu savam slavenajam radiniekam) dzimis Antiumā (mūsdienu Anzio un Nettuno [2]) mūsu ēras 12. augustā, trešajā no sešiem izdzīvojušajiem bērniem, kas dzimuši Germanicusam un viņa otrai brālēnei Agrippinai vecākajai, [3] ] kura bija Markusa Vipsanija Agripas un Jūlijas vecākās meita, padarot viņu par Augusta mazmeitu. [3] Gaijam bija divi vecāki brāļi Nero un Drusus [3], kā arī trīs jaunākās māsas - Agripīna Jaunākā, Džūlija Drusilla un Džūlija Livilla. [3] [4] Viņš bija arī Klaudija, Germanika jaunākā brāļa un topošā imperatora brāļadēls. [5]

Gaijs, būdams tikai divu vai trīs gadu vecs zēns, pavadīja savu tēvu Germaniku kampaņās Vācijas ziemeļos. [6] Karavīrus uzjautrināja tas, ka Gaijs bija ģērbies miniatūrā karavīra tērpā, ieskaitot zābakus un bruņas. [6] Drīz viņam tika dots sirsnīgs segvārds, Kaligula, kas latīņu valodā nozīmē "mazs (karavīra) zābaks", pēc mazajiem zābakiem (caligae), ko viņš valkāja. [7] Tomēr, kā ziņots, Gaijs nepatika pret šo segvārdu. [8]

Suetonijs apgalvo, ka Germaniku Sīrijā saindējis Tibērija aģents, kurš uzskatījis Germaniku par politisku sāncensi. [9] Pēc tēva nāves Kaligula dzīvoja kopā ar māti, līdz viņas attiecības ar Tibēriju pasliktinājās. [10] Tibērijs neļāva Agripinai vēlreiz apprecēties, baidoties, ka viņas vīrs būs sāncensis. [11] Agripina un Kaligulas brālis Nero 29. gadā tika izraidīti, apsūdzot nodevībā. [12] [13]

Pusaudzis Kaligula tika nosūtīts dzīvot pie vecvecmāmiņas (un Tibērija mātes) Livijas. [10] Pēc viņas nāves viņš tika nosūtīts dzīvot pie vecmāmiņas Antonijas Minoras. [10] 30. gadā viņa brālis Drusus tika ieslodzīts apsūdzībā par nodevību, un viņa brālis Nero nomira trimdā no bada vai pašnāvības. [13] [14] Suetonijs raksta, ka pēc mātes un brāļu izraidīšanas Kaligula un viņa māsas bija nekas vairāk kā Tibērija ieslodzītie karavīru rūpīgā uzraudzībā. [15]

31. gadā Kaligula tika nodota personīgajai Tibērija aprūpei Kaprī, kur viņš nodzīvoja sešus gadus. [10] Daudziem par pārsteigumu Kaligulu saudzēja Tibērijs. [16] Pēc vēsturnieku domām, Kaligula bija izcils dabas aktieris un, apzinoties briesmas, slēpa visu savu aizvainojumu pret Tibēriju. [10] [17] Novērotājs par Kaligulu teica: "Nekad nebija labāka kalpa vai sliktāka saimnieka!" [10] [17]

Kaligula apgalvoja, ka plānoja nogalināt Tibēriju ar dunci, lai atriebtu mātei un brālim: tomēr, ievedis ieroci Tibērija guļamistabā, viņš nenogalināja imperatoru, bet tā vietā iemeta dunci uz grīdas. Domājams, ka Tibērijs par to zināja, bet nekad neuzdrošinājās neko darīt. [18] Suetonijs apgalvo, ka Kaligula jau bija nežēlīga un ļauna: viņš raksta, ka tad, kad Tibērijs atveda Kaligulu uz Kapri, viņa nolūks bija ļaut Kaligulai dzīvot, lai viņš „pierādītu savu un visu cilvēku bojāeju, un ka viņš audzēja odzi romiešu tautai un faetonu pasaulei. " [19]

33. gadā Tibērijs Kaligulai piešķīra goda kvestoru amatu - šo amatu viņš ieņēma līdz brīdim, kad viņš kļuva par imperatoru. [20] Tikmēr cietumā nomira gan Kaligulas māte, gan viņa brālis Drusus. [21] [22] Kaligula 33. gadā neilgi apprecējās ar Džūniju Klaudillu, lai gan nākamajā gadā viņa nomira dzemdībās. [18] Kaligula pavadīja laiku, draudzējoties ar pretoriešu prefektu Naeviju Sutoriju Makro, svarīgu sabiedroto. [18] Makro labi runāja par Kaligulu Tibērijam, cenšoties apslāpēt imperatora slikto gribu vai aizdomas pret Kaligulu. [23]

35. gadā Kaligula kopā ar Tibēriju Gemellu tika nosaukta par Tibērija īpašuma mantinieku. [24]

Agrīnā valdīšana Rediģēt

Kad Tibērijs nomira mūsu ēras 37. gada 16. martā, viņa īpašums un prinča tituli tika atstāti Kaligulai un paša Tibērija mazdēlam Gemellusam, kuriem bija jākļūst par mantiniekiem. Lai gan Tibērijam bija 77 gadi un viņš gulēja uz nāves gultas, daži senie vēsturnieki joprojām uzskata, ka viņš ir nogalināts. [18] [25] Tacitus raksta, ka Makro apslāpēja Tibēriju ar spilvenu, lai paātrinātu Kaligulas pievienošanos, par lielu prieku romiešu tautai [25], savukārt Suetonijs raksta, ka slepkavību, iespējams, veikusi Kaligula, lai gan tas nav ierakstīts. jebkurš cits senais vēsturnieks. [18] Seneka Vecākā un Filons, kuri abi rakstīja Tibērija valdīšanas laikā, kā arī Džozefs, pieraksta, ka Tibērijs mirst dabiskā nāvē. [26] Makro atbalstīts, Kaligula ārprātības dēļ atcēla Tibērija testamentu attiecībā uz Gemellu, bet citādi izpildīja Tibērija vēlmes. [27]

Senāts 18. martā Kaligulu pasludināja par imperatoru. [28] Viņš pieņēma prinča pilnvaras un 28. martā iebrauca Romā, pūļa vidū, kas viņu slavēja kā “mūsu mazuli” un “mūsu zvaigzni”, citu iesauku vidū. [28] [29] Kaligula tiek raksturota kā pirmais imperators, kuru apbrīnoja visi “visā pasaulē, sākot no uzlecošas līdz rietošai saulei”. [30] Daudzi Kaligulu mīlēja tāpēc, ka viņš bija populārā ģermānika mīļotais dēls [29], un tāpēc, ka viņš nebija Tibērijs. [31] Suetonijs sacīja, ka trīs mēnešu sabiedriskās gaviles laikā tika upurēti vairāk nekā 160 000 dzīvnieku, lai ievadītu jauno valdīšanas laiku. [32] [33] Pirmos septiņus Kaligulas valdīšanas mēnešus Filons raksturo kā pilnīgi svētlaimīgus. [34]

Par Kaligulas pirmajām darbībām tika teikts, ka tās ir dāsnas, lai gan daudzas no tām bija politiskas. [27] Lai iegūtu atbalstu, viņš piešķīra prēmijas militārajiem spēkiem, tostarp pretorijas gvardei, pilsētas karaspēkam un armijai ārpus Itālijas. [27] Viņš iznīcināja Tibērija nodevības dokumentus, paziņoja, ka nodevības tiesas procesi ir pagātne, un atsauca atmiņā tos, kuri tika nosūtīti trimdā. [35] Viņš palīdzēja tiem, kuriem impērijas nodokļu sistēma bija nodarījusi kaitējumu, izraidīja dažus seksuālos novirzienus un uzlika sabiedrībai greznas brilles, tostarp gladiatoru spēles. [36] [37] Kaligula savāca un atveda mātes un brāļu kaulus un nogādāja to mirstīgās atliekas Augusta kapā. [38]

37. oktobrī Kaligula smagi saslima vai varbūt tika saindēta. Drīz viņš atveseļojās no savas slimības, taču daudzi uzskatīja, ka slimība jauno imperatora pusi pievērš velnišķīgam: viņš sāka nogalināt vai izsūtīt trimdā tos, kas viņam bija tuvu vai kurus viņš uzskatīja par nopietniem draudiem. Varbūt viņa slimība viņam atgādināja viņa mirstību un citu vēlmi virzīties uz priekšu viņa vietā. [39] Viņš lika izpildīt savu brālēnu un adoptēto dēlu Tibēriju Gemellu - darbība, kas sašutusi par Kaligulas un Gemelu kopīgo vecmāmiņu Antoniju Minoru. Tiek apgalvots, ka viņa izdarījusi pašnāvību, lai gan Svetonijs norāda, ka Kaligula viņu patiešām saindējusi. Viņam tika izpildīts nāvessods arī viņa sievastēvam Markusam Jūnijam Silanusam un viņa svainam Markusam Lepidusam. Viņa tēvocis Klaudijs tika izglābts tikai tāpēc, ka Kaligula labprātāk paturēja viņu kā smieklu. Viņa mīļākā māsa Jūlija Drusilla nomira 38 gadu vecumā no drudža: pārējās divas māsas - Livilla un Agrippina Jaunākā - tika izsūtītas. Viņš ienīda būt Agripas mazdēls un apmeloja Augustu, atkārtojot nepatiesību, ka viņa māte patiesībā tika ieņemta kā Augusta un viņa meitas Jūlijas vecākās incestu attiecības. [40]

Valsts reforma Rediģēt

38. gadā Kaligula pievērsa uzmanību politiskajām un valsts reformām. Viņš publicēja publisko līdzekļu pārskatus, kas Tiberija valdīšanas laikā nebija publiskoti. Viņš palīdzēja tiem, kuri ugunsgrēkos zaudēja īpašumus, atcēla noteiktus nodokļus un vingrošanas pasākumos pasniedza sabiedrībai balvas. Viņš pieļāva jaunus locekļus jāšanas un senatoru kārtās. [41]

Varbūt vissvarīgākais ir tas, ka viņš atjaunoja vēlēšanu praksi. [42] Cassius Dio teica, ka šī rīcība "kaut arī iepriecināja muldēšanu, bet apbēdināja saprātīgos, kas apstājās, lai pārdomātu, ka, ja biroji atkal nonāktu daudzu rokās, tas izraisītu daudzas katastrofas". [43]

Tomēr tajā pašā gadā Kaligula tika kritizēta par cilvēku sodīšanu ar nāvi bez pilnīgas tiesas un par piespiešanu pretorijas prefektam Makro izdarīt pašnāvību. Makro bija izgājis no ķeizara labvēlības, iespējams, tāpēc, ka viņš mēģināja savienoties ar Džemelu, kad izrādījās, ka Kaligula varētu mirt no drudža. [44]

Finanšu krīze un bads Rediģēt

Saskaņā ar Cassius Dio teikto, finanšu krīze radās 39. gadā. [44] Suetonijs šīs krīzes sākumu novieto 38. [45] Kaligulas politiskie maksājumi par atbalstu, dāsnumu un izšķērdību bija izsmēluši valsts kasi. Senie vēsturnieki apgalvo, ka Kaligula sāka nepatiesi apsūdzēt, sodīt un pat nogalināt indivīdus, lai sagrābtu viņu īpašumus. [46]

Vēsturnieki apraksta vairākus citus Kaligulas izmisuma pasākumus. Lai iegūtu līdzekļus, Kaligula lūdza sabiedrību aizdot valstij naudu. [47] Viņš iekasēja nodokļus tiesas prāvām, kāzām un prostitūcijai. [48] ​​Kaligula izstādēs sāka izsolīt gladiatoru dzīvības. [46] [49] Testamenti, kas atstāja priekšmetus Tibērijam, tika interpretēti atkārtoti, tā vietā atstājot priekšmetus Kaligulai. [50] Simtnieki, kuri bija ieguvuši īpašumu laupīšanas ceļā, bija spiesti valstij nodot laupījumu. [50]

Pašreizējie un bijušie autoceļu komisāri tika apsūdzēti nekompetencē un piesavināšanā un bija spiesti atmaksāt naudu. [50] Saskaņā ar Svetonija teikto, Kaligula valdīšanas pirmajā gadā viņš izšķērdēja 2,7 miljardus sesteru, ko Tibērijs bija sakrājis. [45] Viņa brāļadēls Nero gan apskauda, ​​gan apbrīnoja to, ka Gaijs bija skrējis cauri milzīgajai bagātībai, kuru Tibērijs bija atstājis tik īsā laikā. [51]

Tomēr daži vēsturnieki ir izrādījuši skepsi pret Suetonija un Dio citēto lielo sesteru skaitu. According to Wilkinson, Caligula's use of precious metals to mint coins throughout his principate indicates that the treasury most likely never fell into bankruptcy. [52] He does point out, however, that it is difficult to ascertain whether the purported 'squandered wealth' was from the treasury alone due to the blurring of "the division between the private wealth of the emperor and his income as head of state." [52] Furthermore, Alston points out that Caligula's successor, Claudius, was able to donate 15,000 sesterces to each member of the praetorian guard in 41, [25] suggesting the Roman treasury was solvent. [53]

A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius claims it resulted from Caligula's seizure of public carriages [46] according to Seneca, grain imports were disrupted because Caligula re-purposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge. [54]

Construction Edit

Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself.

Josephus describes Caligula's improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily, allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions. [55] These improvements may have been in response to the famine. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta. [56] He expanded the imperial palace. [57] He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder considered engineering marvels. [58] He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the "Vatican Obelisk") transported by sea and erected in the middle of Rome. [59]

At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods. [56] He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition. [60] He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus and to found a city high up in the Alps. [56] He planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work. [56]

In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighbouring port of Puteoli. [61] [62] It was said that the bridge was to rival the Persian king Xerxes' pontoon bridge crossing of the Hellespont. [62] Caligula, who could not swim, [63] then proceeded to ride his favourite horse Incitatus across, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great. [62] This act was in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius's soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae". [62]

Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself (which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi around 1930). The ships were among the largest vessels in the ancient world. The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana. The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace with marble floors and plumbing. [64] The ships burned in 1944 after an attack in the Second World War almost nothing remains of their hulls, though many archaeological treasures remain intact in the museum at Lake Nemi and in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) at Rome. [65]

Feud with the senate Edit

In 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated. [66] The subject of their disagreement is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius for Capri in 26 and Caligula's accession. [67] Additionally, Tiberius' treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Asinius Gallus. [67]

Caligula reviewed Tiberius' records of treason trials and decided, based on their actions during these trials, that numerous senators were not trustworthy. [66] He ordered a new set of investigations and trials. [66] He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death. [68] Suetonius reports that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot. [68]

Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula faced a number of additional conspiracies against him. [69] A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was foiled in late 39. [69] Soon afterwards, the Governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy. [69]

Western expansion Edit

In 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia. (Due to the novel I, Claudius, it is commonly believed that Caligula attempted war against Neptune at this time. This is not mentioned in any ancient source, however.) [3] The conquest of Britannia was later achieved during the reign of his successor, Claudius.

Mauretania Edit

Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then suddenly had him executed. [70] Mauretania was annexed by Caligula and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, separated by the river Malua. [71] Pliny claims that division was the work of Caligula, but Dio states that in 42 an uprising took place, which was subdued by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, and the division only took place after this. [72] This confusion might mean that Caligula decided to divide the province, but the division was postponed because of the rebellion. [73] The first known equestrian governor of the two provinces was Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, in office in 44. [73]

Details on the Mauretanian events of 39–44 are unclear. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. [74] Caligula's move seemingly had a strictly personal political motive – fear and jealousy of his cousin Ptolemy – and thus the expansion may not have been prompted by pressing military or economic needs. [75] However, the rebellion of Tacfarinas had shown how exposed Africa Proconsularis was to its west and how the Mauretanian client kings were unable to provide protection to the province, and it is thus possible that Caligula's expansion was a prudent response to potential future threats. [73]

Britannia Edit

There seems to have been a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted. [74] This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect seashells as "spoils of the sea". [76] The few primary sources disagree on what precisely occurred. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. [77] The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius. [78] "Seashells", or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats). [79]

Claims of divinity Edit

When several client kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he allegedly cried out the Homeric line: [80] "Let there be one lord, one king." [57] In 40, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo. [81] Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as "Jupiter" on occasion in public documents. [82] [83]

A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome. [83] The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the forum was linked directly to the imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula. [83] [84] He would appear there on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. [85] It is said that he wished to be worshipped as Neos Helios, the "New Sun". Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins. [86]

Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. [87] Augustus had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from. [87] Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including senators, worship him as a tangible, living god. [88]

Eastern policy Edit

Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in 37. [89]

The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and the rights of Jews in the empire.

Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. [90] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. [91] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews. [92] As a result, riots broke out in the city. [93] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him. [94]

In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. [95]

Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks. [96] Jews were accused of not honouring the emperor. [96] Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia. [97] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it. [97] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, [98] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. [99] In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his". [99]

The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. [100] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order. [96] However, Caligula issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple of Jerusalem. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The Temple of Jerusalem was then transformed into a temple for Caligula, and it was called the Temple of Illustrious Gaius the New Jupiter. [101]

Scandals Edit

Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger, contemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, short-tempered, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. [102] He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it, [103] killing for mere amusement, [104] deliberately wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation, [54] and wanting a statue of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship. [98] Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he was said to have ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the audience into the arena during the intermission to be eaten by the wild beasts because there were no prisoners to be used and he was bored. [105]

While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men. [106] They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises, [74] [107] turned the palace into a brothel, [47] and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul, [108] [109] and actually appointed him a priest. [83]

The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government. [110]

Assassination and aftermath Edit

Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order. [111] According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. [112] Eventually, officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea succeeded in murdering the emperor. [113] The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it. [114]

The situation had escalated when, in 40, Caligula announced to the Senate that he planned to leave Rome permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshipped as a living god. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus, to put their plot into action quickly.

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. [115] Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. [116] Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection. [117] Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus". [118]

On 24 January 41, [120] Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula as he addressed an acting troupe of young men beneath the palace, during a series of games and dramatics being held for the Divine Augustus. [121] Details recorded on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea stabbed Caligula first, followed by a number of conspirators. [122] Suetonius records that Caligula's death resembled that of Julius Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea respectively). [123] By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the Emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike. [124] These wounded conspirators were treated by the physician Arcyon.

The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in 2008. [125]

The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic. [126] Chaerea tried to persuade the military to support the Senate. [127] The military, though, remained loyal to the idea of imperial monarchy. [127] Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and killed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall. [128] They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius. After a soldier, Gratus, found Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [129] to their nearby camp. [130]

Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. Claudius granted a general amnesty, although he executed a few junior officers involved in the conspiracy, including Chaerea. [131] According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus in 410, during the Sack of Rome, the ashes in the tomb were scattered.

Historiogrāfija Rediģēt

The facts and circumstances of Caligula's reign are mostly lost to history. Only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived – the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius un Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators. [132]

At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. [133] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. [134] Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula. [135]

Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against him. [69] The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost.

The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.

A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder's Natural History has a few brief references to Caligula.

There are few surviving sources on Caligula and none of them paints Caligula in a favourable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula's military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate. According to legend, during his military actions in Britannia Caligula grew addicted to a steady diet of European sea eels, which led to their Latin name being Coluber caligulensis. [136]

Veselība Rediģēt

All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. [137] The question of whether Caligula was insane (especially after his illness early in his reign) remains unanswered. [137]

Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. [95] [138] [139] Seneca states that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once he became emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from. [140] According to Josephus, power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god. [95] Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in 37. [141] Juvenal reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane.

Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from "falling sickness", or epilepsy, when he was young. [142] [143] Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures. [144] Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim. [145] Epileptics are discouraged from swimming in open waters because unexpected fits could lead to death because a timely rescue would be difficult. [146] Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon: [68] Epilepsy was long associated with the moon. [147]

Suetonius described Caligula as sickly-looking, skinny and pale: "he was tall, very pale, ill-shaped, his neck and legs very slender, his eyes and temples hollow, his brows broad and knit, his hair thin, and the crown of the head bald. The other parts of his body were much covered with hair . He was crazy both in body and mind, being subject, when a boy, to the falling sickness. When he arrived at the age of manhood he endured fatigue tolerably well. Occasionally he was liable to faintness, during which he remained incapable of any effort". [148] [149] Based on scientific reconstructions of his official painted busts, Caligula had brown hair, brown eyes, and fair skin. [150]

Some modern historians think that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism. [151] This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder.

Possible rediscovery of burial site Edit

On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. [152] The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard. [153]

Quadrans celebrating the abolition of a tax in AD 38 by Caligula. [154] The obverse of the coin contains a picture of a Pileus which symbolizes the liberation of the people from the tax burden. Caption: C. CAESAR DIVI AVG. PRON[EPOS] (great-grandson of) AVG. / PON. M., TR. P. III, P. P., COS. DES. RCC. (probably Res Civium Conservatae, i.e. the interests of citizens have been preserved)

Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai, India, examples of Indo-Roman trade during the period. One coin of Caligula (AD 37–41), and two coins of Nero (AD 54–68). Britu muzejs. Caption: C. CAESAR AVG. PON. M., TR. POT. III, COS. III. - NERO CAESAR. AVG. IMP. - NERO CAESAR AVG. IMP.


The Wonders of the Horti Lamiani

The Horti Lamiani (Lamian Gardens) was a luxurious complex of an ancient Roman villa with large gardens and outdoor rooms located on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, in the area around the present Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. They were created by the consul Lucius Aelius Lamia, a friend of Emperor Tiberius, and they soon became imperial property. Along with other ancient Roman horti on the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills, they were discovered during the construction work for the expansion of Rome at the end of 1800s.

The villa and gardens were scenically divided into pavillions and terraces adapted to the landscape, on a model of Hellenistic tradition. They were eventually filled with exceptional works of art, from original ancient Greek sculptures to exquisite frescoes and marble floors. A museum of the nymphaeum excavations is planned to open in 2021.

The land for the horti Lamiani was originally a cemetery just outside the ancient Servian Wall but was purchased by Lucius Aelius Lamia, the Roman consul in 3 CE, who developed the property. He seems to have bequeathed the property to the emperor probably during the reign of Tiberius, and it became imperial state property. Emperor Caligula loved the place so much he established his residence there and further developed the property. In an evocative eyewitness account, the philosopher Philo visited the gardens in 40 CE and accompanied Caligula inspecting the elaborate residence ordering them to be made more sumptuous. After his assassination, Caligula was briefly buried at the site.

The Horti Lamiani adjoined the Gardens of Maecenas and the Gardens of Maiani. Under Claudius (41-54 CE) the Horti Lamiani and Maiani were united and administered by a special superintendent (procurator hortorum Lamianorum et Maianorum).

The property survived until at least the Severan dynasty (193-235 CE) when it became the emperor's private property as shown by a stamped lead water pipe. By the 4th c. the gardens were no longer in use as evidenced by the statuary found broken in pieces and used in the foundations of a number of spas.


Vēsture

Campitelli district is one of the oldest Roman neighborhoods. It takes its name after the Capitoline hill it resides on (Capitolium), where once Rome’s major temple dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood. Despite this, this Roman neighborhood is the least populated, amounting to 600 residents. This is due to the fact of many governmental buildings and historical sites being located on its territory.

Mūsdienu vēsture

Today, in Campitelli district tourists will find tons of historical attractions. As it was mentioned before, this district hosts the largest number of historical sites on its territory. Therefore, be ready to immerse yourself into a real Roman holiday.


Caligula’s Garden of Delights, Unearthed and Restored

Relics from the favorite hideaway of ancient Rome’s most infamous tyrant have been recovered and put on display by archaeologists.

The fourth of the 12 Caesars, Caligula — officially, Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus — was a capricious, combustible first-century populist remembered, perhaps unfairly, as the empire’s most tyrannical ruler. As reported by Suetonius, the Michael Wolff of ancient Rome, he never forgot a slight, slept only a few hours a night and married several times, lastly to a woman named Milonia.

During the four years that Caligula occupied the Roman throne, his favorite hideaway was an imperial pleasure garden called Horti Lamiani, the Mar-a-Lago of its day. The vast residential compound spread out on the Esquiline Hill, one of the seven hills on which the city was originally built, in the area around the current Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II.

There, just on the edge of the city, villas, shrines and banquet halls were set in carefully constructed “natural” landscapes. An early version of a wildlife park, the Horti Lamiani featured orchards, fountains, terraces, a bath house adorned with precious colored marble from all over the Mediterranean, and exotic animals, some of which were used, as in the Colosseum, for private circus games.

When Caligula was assassinated in his palace on the Palatine Hill in 41 A.D., his body was carried to the Horti Lamiani, where he was cremated and hastily buried before being moved to the Mausoleum of Augustus on the Campus Martius, north of the Capitoline Hill. According to Suetonius, the elite garden was haunted by Caligula’s ghost.

Historians have long believed that the remains of the lavish houses and parkland would never be recovered. But this spring, Italy’s Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Cultural Activities and Tourism will open the Nymphaeum Museum of Piazza Vittorio, a subterranean gallery that will showcase a section of the imperial garden that was unearthed during an excavation from 2006 to 2015. The dig, carried out beneath the rubble of a condemned 19th-century apartment complex, yielded gems, coins, ceramics, jewelry, pottery, cameo glass, a theater mask, seeds of plants such as citron, apricot and acacia that had been imported from Asia, and bones of peacocks, deer, lions, bears and ostriches.

“The ruins tell extraordinary stories, starting with the animals,” said Mirella Serlorenzi, the culture ministry’s director of excavations. “It is not hard to imagine animals, some caged and some running wild, in this enchanted setting.” The science of antiquities department of the Sapienza University of Rome collaborated on the project.

The objects and structural remnants on display in the museum paint a vivid picture of wealth, power and opulence. Among the stunning examples of ancient Roman artistry are elaborate mosaics and frescoes, a marble staircase, capitals of colored marble and limestone, and an imperial guard’s bronze brooch inset with gold and mother-of-pearl. “All the most refined objects and art produced in the Imperial Age turned up,” Dr. Serlorenzi said.

The classicist Daisy Dunn said the finds were even more extravagant than scholars had anticipated. “The frescoes are incredibly ornate and of a very high decorative standard,” noted Dr. Dunn, whose book “In The Shadow of Vesuvius” is a dual biography of Pliny the Elder — a contemporary of Caligula’s — and his nephew Pliny the Younger. “Given the descriptions of Caligula’s licentious lifestyle and appetite for luxury, we might have expected the designs to be quite gauche.”

The Horti Lamiani were commissioned by Lucius Aelius Lamia, a wealthy senator and consul who bequeathed his property to the emperor, most likely during the reign of his friend Tiberius from A.D. 14 to 37. When Caligula succeeded him — it is rumored that Caligula and the Praetorian Guard prefect Macro hastened the death of Tiberius by smothering him with a pillow — he moved into the main house.

In an evocative eyewitness account, the philosopher Philo, who visited the estate in A.D. 40 on behalf of the Jews of Alexandria, and his fellow emissaries had to trail behind Caligula as he inspected the sumptuous residences “examining the men’s rooms and the women’s rooms … and giving orders to make them more costly.” The emperor, wrote Philo, “ordered the windows to be filled up with transparent stones resembling white crystal that do not hinder the light, but which keep out the wind and the heat of the sun.”

Evidence suggests that after Caligula’s violent death — he was hacked to bits by his bodyguards — the house and garden survived at least until the Severan dynasty, which ruled from A.D. 193 to 235. By the fourth century, the gardens had apparently fallen into desuetude, and statuary in the abandoned pavilions was broken into pieces to build the foundations of a series of spas. The statues were not discovered until 1874, three years after Rome was made the capital of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. With the Esquiline Hill in the midst of a building boom, the Italian archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani nosed around freshly excavated construction sites and uncovered an immense gallery with an alabaster floor and fluted columns of giallo antico, considered the finest of the yellow marbles.

He later stumbled upon a rich deposit of classical sculptures that, at some point in the horti’s history, had been deliberately hidden to protect them. The treasures included the Lancellotti Discobolus, now housed at the National Museum of Rome the Esquiline Venus and a bust of Commodus depicted as Hercules, now at the Capitoline Museums. In short time, the sculptures were carted off, the foundation of an apartment building was laid, and the ancient ruins were reburied.


7. Caracalla And Citizenship

Portrait of Caracalla, 212-17, via The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Perhaps the most enduring legacy of Caracalla’s reign was not his palatial termas, nor his bellicose reputation, nor even the stain on his reputation as a fratricide. Rather, it is to be found in a scrap of papyrus and in the single sentence of the Digest, the collection of Roman laws. There, it states: “All persons throughout the Roman world were made Roman citizens by an edict of the Emperor Antoninus Caracalla.” This edict, known as the Constitutio Antoniniana, issued on 11th July AD 212, transformed the Roman Empire. It declared that all free men within the Roman Empire were granted Roman citizenship, whilst all free women were granted the same status as their Roman counterparts.

The emperor’s motivation for this edict remains contested. One prevailing interpretation suggests that the emperor was compelled by financial pressures to enact the edict. This was the interpretation of Cassius Dio, the only historian to comment on the edict, who claimed that the edict was passed not so much to honor the inhabitants of the empire, but, “to increase his revenues… inasmuch as aliens did not have to pay most of these taxes.” This is a tempting interpretation – wars, the favored past time of Caracalla – are of course expensive.

Nevertheless, given that as emperor, Caracalla exercised total control over the finances of the empire, such a significant social and political development seems to extend beyond basic fiscal wants. Regardless of the emperor’s motivations, the impact is most clearly indicated in the epigraphic record. In the immediate aftermath of the edict, a whole host of ‘Marcus Aurelius’ appear on inscriptions around the empire, as the newly enfranchised men paid homage to their new patron by adopting his nomenclature.


Humans into gods

The Emperor Vespasian, as he was expiring, declared, "Oh, I think I am becoming a god."

But most Romans thought "no god arises from man." Julius Caesar, who thought he was descended from Venus, upset this stricture. He had politically powerful friends who declared him "divine."

First Julius Caesar. Next, his successor Augustus, whose wife Livia rewarded a senator with an outrageous fortune for stating he saw Augustus ascend to heaven. After that, divinity for any Emperor was almost a done-deal.

The slippery slope eventually included non-rulers: a wife or other female relative of an Emperor was often declared divine, "suggested" by the Emperor and declared so by the Senate.

What an augur did: augurs observed natural phenomena. T he flight and activity of birds, thunder and lightning, and feeding patterns of the sacred chickens held special status. The augur had to follow written instruction from his manual. The manuals contained the proper techniques for the ritual and how to interpret the results. Signs given by the gods to the augur were good only for one day.

Duoviri, decemviri, and quindecimiviri: a group of distinguished Senator-priests who advised the Senate on reports of prodigies. Prodigies were events which the Romans considered "unnatural," such as "rains of blood" or "monstrous births."

Epulones : specialized priests in charge of the rituals of the Roman games and of the feast of Jupiter, Rome's most important god. Along with the pontifices, the augurs, and the duoviri, the epulones made up the four major 'colleges' of priests.

Fetiales: Priests who prayed to the gods for success in war.

Flamines: a special group of pontifices. Originally flamines were individual priests for the Roman gods Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. As a distinguishing mar k , the flamines wore a cap with a piece of olive wood projecting from its top.

Haruspex: A highly specialized prophet, commonly Etruscan. Prophets tended to communicate with the gods about more distant events in the future. The haruspex did his magic by inspecting the liver of the sacrificed animal, normally a sheep. After the slave who had killed the sheep handed its liver to the haruspex, the prophet held it in his left hand, with his left foot on a stone and his right foot on the ground , and "read" the liver in a clockwise direction. Haruspices could also be personal advisors--Julius Caesar had one.

Luperci: these priests ran the Festival of the Lupercalia, when near-naked young men ran around the City, striking the young women they met with a goat thong. A fertility rite? A purification ritual?

Ordinary priests: Their job was to lead the sacrificial process, initiate the sacrifice, and watch. Evidently, they weren't expected to know what to do, even the right form of prayer to offer. Their real role was to represent their aristocratic class, to show the Roman people that the aristocratic oligarchy was at the top of the social, political, and religious orders.

Pontifex, pontifices: Their original function was to look after Rome's first bridge across the Tiber, the City's most critical crossing point. From there, the pontifices assumed oversight over other major "crossing points," for example those between life and death, or communications between the humans and the gods.

One of the pontifices' most important authority was control of the calendar, which determined many aspects of Roman life. They could be powerful decision-makers, especially in moments of crisis. Less dramatically, they kept the annual record of public events and gave legal advice on family matters, such as wills, inheritances, family property, adoptions, and burials.

Prodigy: An event which the Romans considered "unnatural," such as "rains of blood" or "monstrous births." Would-be prodigies had to be reported to the Senate for evaluation and consultation with the priests.

Vestal Virgins: The only female priesthood in Rome, its six members were chosen in childhood. They lived in a special house next to the temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum and could ride in a wagon. Their various rituals connected the fertility of the earth, the safety of the flocks of animals, and human fertility. They were the guardians of ancient, ancient talismans, including it was said, sacred objects brought by Aeneas from Troy.

With special privileges went special responsibilities: if a Virgin let the sacred fire go out, or was unchaste, she could be buried alive.

Specialized or advanced

Boatwright,Mary, Hadrian and the City of Rome (Princeton UP, 1987)

Fox, Robin Lane, Pagans and Christians (Knopf, 1986)

Potter, David S., "Roman Religion: Ideas and Actions," in Potter, D.S. and Mattingly, D.J., Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (U of Michigan Press,
1999).

Price, Simon, The Birth of Classical Europe: A History from Troy to Augustine (Penguin, 2011)

Stamper, John, The Architecture of Roman Temples: the Republic to the Middle Empire (Cambridge U. Press, 2004)


Skatīties video: Gladiator 2000 - Commodus enters Rome