Kad cilvēki saprata, no kurienes nāk bērni?

Kad cilvēki saprata, no kurienes nāk bērni?


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Kāds ir vecākais avots, ko cilvēki droši zināja, kas padara sievieti stāvoklī?

Šādam avotam es saprotu, ka autore zināja, ko vīrietis un sieviete darīja 9 mēnešus pirms dzemdībām, un ka šī rīcība bija tiešs bērna cēlonis. Pietiek ar teikto "viņi gulēja kopā". Pornogrāfija būtu pieņemama, ja teikts par saistību starp aktu un apsēklošanu. Nav pieņemami, ja bērns bija kāda “dievišķa dāvana”, “Zeva svētība” utt.

Es domāju, ka tas būtu ļoti vecs, jo gani zinātu, kā padarīt savus ganāmpulkus lielākus.

Vecākā, ko varēju atrast, ir Svētā Bībele, 1. Mozus grāmatas 4. nodaļas 1. un pēc tam 17. pantā:

Un Ādams pazina Ievu, savu sievu; un viņa ieņēma bērnu un dzemdēja Kainu un sacīja: Es esmu dabūjis vīrieti no Tā Kunga. (…) Un Kains pazina savu sievu; un viņa ieņēma bērnu un dzemdēja Ēnohu (…)

Ja kāds varētu paskaidrot, vai "zināja savu sievu" nozīmē "bija ar viņu seksuālas attiecības". Ja nē, mēs varam iet tālāk (6. nodaļas 4. pants):

Tajos laikos uz zemes bija milži; un arī pēc tam, kad Dieva dēli ienāca pie cilvēku meitām un dzemdēja viņiem bērnus, tie kļuva par vareniem vīriem, kas bija veci, slaveni.

(19. nodaļa :)

Un Lots izgāja no Coāras un apmetās kalnā ar abām meitām. jo viņš baidījās dzīvot Coarā, un viņš dzīvoja kopā ar abām meitām alā. Un pirmdzimtais sacīja jaunākajam: „Mūsu tēvs ir vecs, un uz zemes nav neviena cilvēka, kas nāktu pie mums pēc visas zemes veida: Nāc, lieciet mūsu tēvam dzert vīnu, un mēs melosim. kopā ar viņu, lai mēs saglabātu sava tēva sēklu. " Un viņi lika savam tēvam dzert vīnu tajā naktī. Un pirmdzimtais iegāja un gulēja kopā ar savu tēvu; un viņš to nesaprata, kad viņa apgūlās, ne kad viņa piecēlās. Un notika, ka rīt pirmdzimtais sacīja jaunākajam: "Redzi, es vakar gulēju kopā ar savu tēvu: liecim viņam dzert vīnu arī šonakt, un ej iekšā un apgulies kopā ar viņu, lai mēs varētu saglabāt mūsu tēva sēklas. " Un viņi lika tēvam dzert vīnu arī tajā naktī. Un jaunākais piecēlās un gulēja pie viņa; un viņš to nesaprata, kad viņa apgūlās, ne kad viņa piecēlās. Tā bija abas Lotas meitas, kurām tēvs piedzima. Un pirmdzimtais dzemdēja dēlu un nosauca viņu par Moābu. Tas ir moābiešu tēvs līdz šai dienai. Un jaunākā dzemdēja dēlu un nosauca viņu par Benammi. Tas ir Amona bērnu tēvs līdz šai dienai.

Vikipēdijā teikts, ka 1. Mozus grāmata ir apm. 6-5 gadsimtā pirms mūsu ēras:

Tādējādi paliek jautājums, kad šie darbi tika radīti. Zinātnieki 20. gadsimta pirmajā pusē nonāca pie secinājuma, ka jahvists tika ražots monarhijas periodā, īpaši Zālamana galmā, un priesteru darbs 5. gadsimta vidū pirms mūsu ēras (autors pat tika identificēts kā Ezra) ), bet jaunāka domāšana ir tāda, ka jahvists tika uzrakstīts vai nu tieši pirms 6. gadsimta Babilonijas trimdas, vai tās laikā, un priesteru galīgais izdevums tika izdots trimdas beigās vai drīz pēc tam.

Vai ir kādi citi, vecāki avoti, kas apstiprina, ka cilvēki zināja, no kurienes nāk bērni?

(visi Bībeles citāti no KJV)


Senie ēģiptieši diezgan labi apzinājās vispārējo dzemdību mehāniku.

Agrākais avots, ko es varēju atrast, ir viens no Kahuna papīriem, Kahuna ginekoloģiskais papiruss (~ 1850.g.pmē.). Tas attiecas uz sieviešu veselību, tostarp grūtniecību, auglību, menstruāciju problēmām un medicīnisko kontracepciju. Šis pēdējais jautājums, kontracepcija, atklāj ēģiptiešu izpratni par dzemdībām. Kontracepcija un dzimstības kontrole kopumā nevar būt efektīva, ja nav vismaz vispārēja priekšstata par to, no kurienes nāk bērni.

Papiruss mudina izmantot krokodila izkārnījumus kā kontracepcijas līdzekli. Metode balstās uz ekskrementu pielietošanu maksts iekšpusē un sienas izveidošanu, kas bloķētu spermu. Turklāt krokodila izkārnījumi ir nedaudz sārmaini, piemēram, mūsdienu spermicīdi, tāpēc šī metode, iespējams, piedāvāja otro kontracepcijas līmeni.

Berlīnes papiruss (Vidējā Karaliste: ~ 2000.g.pmē. Līdz ~ 1700.g.pmē.) Iesaka līdzīgu metodi, aizvietojot krokodila izkārnījumus ar pelniem, kas iegūti no degošām emmeru (kviešu) sēklām. Neatkarīgi no izmantotā materiāla, metode izdzīvoja gandrīz 3 tūkstošus gadu. Tas parādās Avicennas medicīnas kanonā (~ 1025 AD), un Avicenna dod priekšroku ziloņu ekskrementiem.

Medicīnas zinātnieks Ebers Papyrus (~ 1550.g.pmē.) Liecina par lēcienu medicīnas zinībās kopš Kahuna papirusa, cita starpā apspriežot abortus un sniedzot formulas maksts pesarijai.

Avoti:

  • "Kahun medicīnas papiruss" vai "ginekoloģiskais papiruss", Stīvena Kvera tulkojums
  • Kontracepcija: vēsture, Robert Jütte
  • Ievas garšaugi: kontracepcijas un abortu vēsture Rietumos, Džons M. Ridls

Tomass Džefersons

Toms Džefersons (1743-1826), Neatkarības deklarācijas autors un trešais ASV prezidents, bija vadošā persona Amerikas un#x2019 agrīnajā attīstībā. Amerikas Revolucionārā kara laikā (1775-83) Džefersons kalpoja Virdžīnijas likumdevēju un kontinentālajā kongresā un bija Virdžīnijas gubernators. Vēlāk viņš bija ASV ministrs Francijā un ASV valsts sekretārs, kā arī bija Džona Adamsa (1735-1826) viceprezidents. Džefersons, demokrātisks republikānis, kurš uzskatīja, ka valsts valdībai vajadzētu būt ierobežotai lomai pilsoņu dzīvē, tika ievēlēts par prezidentu 1800. gadā. Savu divu pilnvaru termiņa laikā (1801-1809) ASV iegādājās Luiziānas teritoriju un Lūisu un Klārku izpētīja plašo jauno iegādi. Lai gan Džefersons veicināja personas brīvību, viņš bija arī vergu īpašnieks. Pēc amata atstāšanas viņš aizgāja uz savu Virdžīnijas plantāciju Monticello un palīdzēja dibināt Virdžīnijas universitāti.


Saturs

Intelektuālā invaliditāte (ID) kļūst acīmredzama bērnībā un ietver garīgo spēju, sociālo prasmju un ikdienas dzīves pamatdarbības (ADL) trūkumus, salīdzinot ar viena vecuma vienaudžiem. [10] Bieži vien nav vieglu ID formu fizisku pazīmju, lai gan var būt raksturīgas fiziskas iezīmes, ja tās ir saistītas ar ģenētiskiem traucējumiem (piemēram, Dauna sindroms). [11]

Traucējumu līmenis katrai personai svārstās pēc smaguma pakāpes. Dažas no agrīnajām pazīmēm var ietvert: [11]

  • Aizkavēšanās sasniegt vai nespēja sasniegt pagrieziena punktus motorisko prasmju attīstībā (sēžot, rāpojot, ejot)
  • Lēna mācīšanās runāt, vai arī grūtības ar runu un valodas prasmēm pēc sarunas sākuma
  • Grūtības ar pašpalīdzību un pašaprūpes prasmēm (piemēram, ģērbšanās, mazgāšanās un barošana)
  • Sliktas plānošanas vai problēmu risināšanas spējas
  • Uzvedības un sociālās problēmas [12]
  • Nespēja augt intelektuāli vai turpināt mazuļa uzvedību
  • Problēmas neatpalikt no skolas
  • Nespēja pielāgoties vai pielāgoties jaunām situācijām
  • Grūtības saprast un ievērot sociālos noteikumus [10]

Agrīnā bērnībā viegls ID (IQ 50–69) var nebūt acīmredzams vai identificēts, kamēr bērni nesāk iet skolā. [7] Pat ja tiek atzīts slikts akadēmiskais sniegums, var būt nepieciešams eksperta vērtējums, lai atšķirtu vieglas intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus no specifiskiem mācīšanās traucējumiem vai emocionāliem/uzvedības traucējumiem. Cilvēki ar vieglu ID spēj apgūt lasīšanas un matemātikas prasmes aptuveni tādā pašā līmenī kā tipisks bērns vecumā no deviņiem līdz divpadsmit gadiem. Viņi var apgūt pašaprūpi un praktiskas iemaņas, piemēram, gatavot ēdienu vai izmantot vietējo masveida tranzīta sistēmu. Kad cilvēki ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem sasniedz pilngadību, daudzi mācās dzīvot patstāvīgi un saglabāt algotu darbu. [7] Aptuveni 85% personu ar ID, iespējams, ir viegls ID.

Mērens ID (IQ 35–49) gandrīz vienmēr ir redzams pirmajos dzīves gados. Runas kavēšanās ir īpaši izplatīta mērena ID pazīme. Cilvēkiem ar vidēji smagiem intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem ir vajadzīgs ievērojams atbalsts skolā, mājās un sabiedrībā, lai viņi varētu pilnībā piedalīties. Lai gan viņu akadēmiskais potenciāls ir ierobežots, viņi var apgūt vienkāršas veselības un drošības prasmes un piedalīties vienkāršās aktivitātēs. Cilvēki ar mērenu ID spēj apgūt lasīšanas un matemātikas prasmes aptuveni tādā pašā līmenī kā tipisks bērns vecumā no sešiem līdz deviņiem gadiem. Kā pieaugušie viņi var dzīvot kopā ar vecākiem, atbalstošā grupu mājā vai pat daļēji patstāvīgi, sniedzot nozīmīgus atbalsta pakalpojumus, lai palīdzētu viņiem, piemēram, pārvaldīt savas finanses. Kā pieaugušie viņi var strādāt aizsargātā darbnīcā. [7] Aptuveni 10% personu ar ID, iespējams, būs mērens ID.

Cilvēki ar smagiem (IQ 20–34). 3,5% personu ar ID vai dziļu ID (IQ 19 vai zemāk), kas veido 1,5% personu ar ID, ir vajadzīgs intensīvāks atbalsts un uzraudzība visu mūžu. Viņi var iemācīties dažus ADL, bet intelektuālā invaliditāte tiek uzskatīta par smagu vai dziļu, ja indivīdi nespēj patstāvīgi rūpēties par sevi bez pastāvīgas būtiskas aprūpētāja palīdzības visā pieaugušā vecumā. [7] Personas ar dziļu ID ir pilnīgi atkarīgas no citiem visiem ADL un lai saglabātu savu fizisko veselību un drošību. Viņi var iemācīties ierobežotā mērā piedalīties dažās no šīm aktivitātēm. [11]

Vienlaicīga saslimstība

Autisms un intelektuālās attīstības traucējumi

Intelektuālajai invaliditātei un autisma spektra traucējumiem (ASD) ir kopīgas klīniskās pazīmes, kas var izraisīt apjukumu diagnozes noteikšanas laikā. [13] Šo divu traucējumu pārklāšanās, lai gan bieži sastopama, var kaitēt cilvēka labklājībai. Tie, kuriem ir ASD un kuriem ir ID simptomi, var tikt grupēti kopdiagnozē, kurā viņi ārstējas no traucējumiem, kas viņiem nav. Tāpat tiem, kam ir ID, kuriem kļūdaini ir ASD, var ārstēt slimības simptomus, kas viņiem nav. Atšķirība starp šiem diviem traucējumiem ļaus ārstiem piegādāt vai izrakstīt atbilstošu ārstēšanu. Saslimstība starp ID un ASD ir ļoti izplatīta, aptuveni 40% pacientu ar ID ir arī ASD, un aptuveni 70% ASD slimnieku ir arī ID. [14] Gan ASD, gan ID kā kritēriji ir nepieciešami trūkumi komunikācijā un sociālajā izpratnē. [13] Gan ASD, gan ID ir klasificēti pēc smaguma pakāpes: viegla, mērena, smaga. Papildus šiem trim līmeņiem ID ir ceturtā klasifikācija, kas pazīstama kā dziļa.

Atšķirību noteikšana

Pētījumā, kas tika veikts 2016. gadā un kurā tika aptaujāti 2816 gadījumi, tika konstatēts, ka galvenās apakškopas, kas palīdz atšķirt personas ar ID un ASD, ir: ". Traucēta neverbālā sociālā uzvedība un sociālās savstarpības trūkums, [.] Ierobežotas intereses, stingra ievērošana." rutīnām, stereotipiem un atkārtotām motoriskām manierēm un rūpēm par objektu daļām. " [13] Tie, kuriem ir ASD, mēdz uzrādīt lielāku trūkumu neverbālā sociālajā uzvedībā, piemēram, ķermeņa valodā un izpratnē par sociālajiem norādījumiem. Pētījumā, kas 2008. gadā tika veikts ar 336 indivīdiem ar atšķirīgu ID līmeni, tika konstatēts, ka personas ar ID parāda mazāk atkārtotas vai rituālas uzvedības gadījumu. Tā arī atzina, ka tie, kuriem ir ASD, salīdzinot ar tiem, kuriem ir ID, visticamāk izolējās un mazāk saskārās ar acīm. [15] Attiecībā uz klasifikāciju ID un ASD ir ļoti atšķirīgas vadlīnijas. ID ir standartizēts novērtējums, ko sauc par atbalsta intensitātes skalu (SIS), kas nosaka sistēmas nopietnību sistēmā, kuras pamatā ir individuāls atbalsts. Lai gan ASD arī klasificē smagumu pēc nepieciešamā atbalsta, nav standarta novērtējuma, ārsti var brīvi diagnosticēt smagumu pēc saviem ieskatiem. [16]

Bērnu vidū intelektuālās invaliditātes cēlonis nav zināms trešdaļai līdz pusei gadījumu. [7] Aptuveni 5% gadījumu tiek mantoti no personas vecākiem. [8] Ģenētiskus defektus, kas izraisa intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus, bet nav iedzimti, var izraisīt nelaimes gadījumi vai ģenētiskās attīstības mutācijas. Šādu negadījumu piemēri ir papildu 18. hromosomas (18. trisomija) attīstība un Dauna sindroms, kas ir visizplatītākais ģenētiskais cēlonis. [8] Velokardiofaciālais sindroms un augļa alkohola spektra traucējumi ir divi nākamie izplatītākie cēloņi. [7] Tomēr ir daudz citu iemeslu. Visizplatītākie ir:

    nosacījumiem. Dažreiz invaliditāti izraisa patoloģiski gēni, kas mantoti no vecākiem, kļūdas, kad gēni apvienojas, vai citi iemesli. Visizplatītākie ģenētiskie apstākļi ir Dauna sindroms, Klinefeltera sindroms, trauslais X sindroms (bieži sastopams zēniem), neirofibromatoze, iedzimta hipotireoze, Viljamsa sindroms, fenilketonūrija (PKU) un Pradera -Villi sindroms. Citi ģenētiskie apstākļi ietver Phelan-McDermid sindromu (22q13del), Mowat-Wilson sindromu, ģenētisko ciliopātiju [17] un ar Sideriusu saistītu intelektuālo invaliditāti (OMIM: 300263), ko izraisa mutācijas. PHF8 gēns (OMIM: 300560). [18] [19] Retākos gadījumos X vai Y hromosomas novirzes var izraisīt arī invaliditāti. Tetrasomija X un pentasomijas X sindroms ietekmē nelielu skaitu meiteņu visā pasaulē, bet zēnus var ietekmēt 49, XXXXY vai 49, XYYYY. 47, XYY nav saistīts ar ievērojami pazeminātu IQ, lai gan skartajām personām IQ var būt nedaudz zemāks nekā vidēji neietekmētajiem brāļiem un māsām. [20] [21]
  • Problēmas grūtniecības laikā. Intelektuālās attīstības traucējumi var rasties, ja auglis neattīstās pareizi. Piemēram, var rasties problēmas ar augļa šūnu dalīšanās procesu, kad tas aug. Grūtniecei, kura grūtniecības laikā lieto alkoholu (sk. Augļa alkohola spektra traucējumus) vai saslimst ar infekciju, piemēram, masaliņām, var piedzimt arī bērns ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem.
  • Problēmas dzimšanas brīdī. Ja bērnam ir problēmas dzemdību un dzemdību laikā, piemēram, nepietiekams skābekļa daudzums, viņam var būt attīstības traucējumi smadzeņu bojājumu dēļ.
  • Atsevišķu slimību vai toksīnu iedarbība. Tādas slimības kā garais klepus, masalas vai meningīts var izraisīt intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus, ja medicīniskā aprūpe ir novēlota vai nepietiekama. Indes, piemēram, svina vai dzīvsudraba, iedarbība var ietekmēt arī garīgās spējas. , kas skar aptuveni 2 miljardus cilvēku visā pasaulē, ir galvenais novēršamais intelektuālās attīstības traucējumu cēlonis jaunattīstības valstu apgabalos, kur joda deficīts ir endēmisks. Joda trūkums izraisa arī goiteru, vairogdziedzera palielināšanos. Biežāk nekā pilnvērtīgs kretinisms, kā sauc intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus, ko izraisa smags joda deficīts, ir viegls intelekta traucējums. Dabas trūkuma un valdības bezdarbības dēļ dažu pasaules reģionu iedzīvotāji ir smagi ietekmējuši joda trūkumu. Indijā ir 500 miljoni cilvēku, kas cieš no trūkuma, 54 miljoni - no goiteriem un 2 miljoni - no kretinisma. Starp citām valstīm, kuras skāris joda deficīts, Ķīna un Kazahstāna ir ieviesušas plaši izplatītas sāls jodēšanas programmas. Bet kopš 2006. gada Krievija to nebija darījusi. [22] ir izplatīts intelekta samazināšanās cēlonis pasaules daļās, ko skāris bads, piemēram, Etiopija un valstis, kas cīnās ar ilgstošiem karadarbības periodiem, kas traucē lauksaimniecības ražošanu un izplatīšanu. [23]
  • Lokveida fasciculus neesamība. [24]

Saskaņā ar Amerikas Intelektuālo un attīstības traucējumu asociāciju [25] (Intelektuālā invaliditāte: atbalsta definīcija, klasifikācija un sistēmas (11. izdevums)) un Amerikas Psihiatru asociācija [26] Psihisko traucējumu diagnostikas un statistikas rokasgrāmata (DSM-IV), lai diagnosticētu intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus, ir jāizpilda trīs kritēriji: ievērojams vispārējo garīgo spēju ierobežojums (intelektuālā darbība), būtiski ierobežojumi vienā vai vairākās adaptīvās uzvedības jomās dažādās vidēs (ko mēra ar adaptīvās uzvedības novērtējumu) mērogs, ti, komunikācija, pašpalīdzības prasmes, starppersonu prasmes un daudz kas cits), un pierādījumi tam, ka ierobežojumi kļuva acīmredzami bērnībā vai pusaudža vecumā. Kopumā cilvēkiem ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem IQ ir zemāks par 70, bet klīniskā rīcības brīvība var būt nepieciešama personām, kurām ir nedaudz augstāks IQ, bet ir smagi adaptīvās darbības traucējumi. [11]

To oficiāli diagnosticē, novērtējot IQ un adaptīvo uzvedību. Trešais nosacījums, kas jāuzsāk attīstības periodā, tiek izmantots, lai atšķirtu intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus no citiem apstākļiem, piemēram, traumatiskiem smadzeņu ievainojumiem un demenci (ieskaitot Alcheimera slimību).

Intelekta koeficients

Pirmais angļu valodas intelekta koeficienta tests-Stenfordas – Binetas izlūkošanas skalas-tika pielāgots no testa akumulatora, kas paredzēts Alfrēda Bineta izvietošanai skolā Francijā. Lūiss Termans pielāgoja Binet testu un reklamēja to kā testu, kas mēra "vispārējo intelektu". Termana tests bija pirmais plaši izmantotais garīgais tests, kurā tika paziņoti rezultāti "intelekta koeficienta" formā ("garīgais vecums" dalīts ar hronoloģisko vecumu, reizināts ar 100). Pašreizējie testi tiek vērtēti "novirzes IQ" formā, un testa izpildītājs ar veiktspējas līmeni divas standarta novirzes ir zemāks par vidējo punktu skaitu testu veicēju vecuma grupā, kas definēta kā IQ 70. Līdz pēdējai diagnostikas standartu pārskatīšanai IQ 70 vai zemāks bija galvenais faktors intelektuālās invaliditātes diagnostikā, un IQ rādītāji tika izmantoti, lai klasificētu intelektuālās invaliditātes pakāpes.

Tā kā pašreizējā intelektuālās invaliditātes diagnoze nav balstīta tikai uz IQ rādītājiem, bet jāņem vērā arī personas adaptīvā darbība, diagnoze netiek noteikta stingri. Tas ietver intelektuālos rādītājus, adaptīvās darbības rādītājus no adaptīvās uzvedības vērtēšanas skalas, pamatojoties uz zināmu spēju aprakstiem, ko sniedzis kāds, kurš ir pazīstams ar šo personu, kā arī vērtētāja eksaminētāja novērojumus, kurš spēj tieši no personas uzzināt, ko viņš vai viņa ir var saprast, sazināties un tamlīdzīgi. IQ novērtējumam jābalstās uz pašreizējo testu. Tas ļauj diagnosticēt, lai izvairītos no Flynn efekta slazdiem, kas ir sekas iedzīvotāju IQ testa veiktspējas izmaiņām laika gaitā mainoties IQ testa normām.

Atšķirība no citiem traucējumiem

Klīniski intelektuālā invaliditāte ir kognitīvā deficīta vai invaliditātes apakštips, kas ietekmē intelektuālās spējas, kas ir plašāks jēdziens un ietver intelektuālos trūkumus, kas ir pārāk viegli, lai tos varētu kvalificēt kā intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus, vai pārāk specifiski (piemēram, ar īpašiem mācīšanās traucējumiem) vai iegūti vēlāk dzīvē ar iegūtiem smadzeņu ievainojumiem vai neirodeģeneratīvām slimībām, piemēram, demenci. Kognitīvie traucējumi var parādīties jebkurā vecumā. Attīstības invaliditāte ir jebkura invaliditāte, kas rodas izaugsmes un attīstības problēmu dēļ. Šis termins ietver daudzus iedzimtus veselības stāvokļus, kuriem nav garīgu vai intelektuālu komponentu, lai gan arī to dažreiz lieto kā eifēmismu intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem. [27]

Ierobežojumi vairāk nekā vienā jomā

Adaptīvā uzvedība vai adaptīvā darbība attiecas uz prasmēm, kas nepieciešamas, lai dzīvotu neatkarīgi (vai vecumam minimāli pieņemamā līmenī). Lai novērtētu adaptīvo uzvedību, speciālisti salīdzina bērna funkcionālās spējas ar citu līdzīga vecuma bērnu spējām. Lai novērtētu adaptīvo uzvedību, profesionāļi izmanto strukturētas intervijas, ar kurām viņi sistemātiski iegūst informāciju par personu darbību sabiedrībā no cilvēkiem, kuri viņus labi pazīst. Ir daudz adaptīvās uzvedības skalu, un, lai precīzi novērtētu kāda adaptīvās uzvedības kvalitāti, ir vajadzīgs arī klīnisks vērtējums. Dažas prasmes ir svarīgas adaptīvai uzvedībai, piemēram:

    , piemēram, ģērbties, izmantot vannas istabu un pabarot savas prasmes, piemēram, saprast teikto un atbildēt ar vienaudžiem, ģimenes locekļiem, laulātajiem, pieaugušajiem un citiem

Citas īpašas prasmes var būt būtiskas indivīda iekļaušanai sabiedrībā un atbilstošas ​​sociālās uzvedības veidošanai, piemēram, apzinoties dažādās sociālās cerības, kas saistītas ar galvenajiem dzīves posmiem (t.i., bērnību, pieaugušo vecumu, vecumu). Šveices pētījuma rezultāti liecina, ka pieaugušo ar ID sniegums dažādu dzīves posmu atpazīšanā ir saistīts ar īpašām kognitīvām spējām un materiāla veidu, kas izmantots šīs veiktspējas pārbaudei. [28]

Lielākajā daļā definīciju intelektuālā invaliditāte tiek precīzāk uzskatīta par a invaliditāte nevis a slimība. Intelektuālo invaliditāti var daudzējādā ziņā atšķirt no garīgām slimībām, piemēram, šizofrēnijas vai depresijas. Pašlaik nav "izārstēt" konstatētu invaliditāti, lai gan ar atbilstošu atbalstu un mācībām lielākā daļa cilvēku var iemācīties darīt daudzas lietas. Cēloņi, piemēram, iedzimta hipotireoze, ja tie tiek atklāti savlaicīgi, var tikt ārstēti, lai novērstu intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus. [29]

Pasaulē ir tūkstošiem aģentūru, kas sniedz palīdzību cilvēkiem ar attīstības traucējumiem. Tajos ietilpst valsts pārvaldītas, bezpeļņas un bezpeļņas privātās aģentūras. Vienā aģentūrā varētu būt nodaļas, kurās ir pilnībā nokomplektētas dzīvojamās mājas, dienas rehabilitācijas programmas, kas aptver skolas, darbnīcas, kurās cilvēki ar invaliditāti var iegūt darbu, programmas, kas palīdz cilvēkiem ar attīstības traucējumiem iegūt darbu sabiedrībā, programmas, kas sniedz atbalstu cilvēkiem ar attīstības traucējumiem, kuriem ir savi dzīvokļi, programmas, kas palīdz viņiem audzināt savus bērnus, un vēl daudz vairāk. Ir arī daudzas aģentūras un programmas bērnu ar attīstības traucējumiem vecākiem.

Papildus tam ir īpašas programmas, kurās var piedalīties cilvēki ar attīstības traucējumiem, kur viņi apgūst dzīves pamatprasmes. Šo "mērķu" sasniegšana var aizņemt daudz ilgāku laiku, bet galīgais mērķis ir neatkarība. Tas var būt jebkas, sākot no neatkarības zobu tīrīšanā līdz patstāvīgai dzīvesvietai. Cilvēki ar attīstības traucējumiem mācās visu mūžu un var iegūt daudzas jaunas prasmes pat dzīves beigās, palīdzot savai ģimenei, aprūpētājiem, ārstiem un cilvēkiem, kuri koordinē visu šo cilvēku centienus.

Ir četras plašas intervences jomas, kas ļauj aktīvi piedalīties aprūpētājiem, kopienas locekļiem, ārstiem un, protams, indivīdam (-iem) ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem. Tie ietver psihosociālu ārstēšanu, uzvedības ārstēšanu, kognitīvi-uzvedības ārstēšanu un uz ģimeni vērstas stratēģijas. [30] Psihosociālās procedūras galvenokārt ir paredzētas bērniem pirmsskolas vecumā un pirmsskolas laikā, jo tas ir optimālais laiks iejaukšanai. [31] Šai agrīnai iejaukšanās jāietver izpētes veicināšana, padomdošana par pamatprasmēm, attīstības sasniegumu atzīmēšana, vadīts mēģinājums un jauniegūto prasmju paplašināšana, aizsardzība pret negatīvu noraidījumu, ķircināšanu vai sodīšanu, kā arī bagātīgu un atsaucīgu cilvēku pakļaušana. valodas vidē. [32] Lielisks veiksmīgas iejaukšanās piemērs ir Karolīnas Abecedarian projekts, kas tika īstenots ar vairāk nekā 100 bērniem no ģimenēm ar zemu sociālekonomisko stāvokli, sākot no zīdaiņa vecuma līdz pirmsskolas gadiem. Rezultāti liecināja, ka līdz 2 gadu vecumam bērniem ar nosacījumu, ka intervencei bija augstāki testa rezultāti nekā kontroles grupas bērniem, un tie palika aptuveni par 5 punktiem augstāki 10 gadus pēc programmas beigām. Līdz jaunam pieaugušajam bērniem no intervences grupas bija labāks izglītības līmenis, nodarbinātības iespējas un mazāk uzvedības problēmu nekā viņu kontroles grupas kolēģiem. [33]

Uzvedības ārstēšanas galvenās sastāvdaļas ir valodas un sociālo prasmju apgūšana. Parasti tiek piedāvātas individuālas apmācības, kurās terapeits izmanto veidošanas procedūru kombinācijā ar pozitīviem pastiprinājumiem, lai palīdzētu bērnam izrunāt zilbes, līdz vārdi ir pabeigti. Dažreiz terapeiti, izmantojot attēlus un vizuālos palīglīdzekļus, cenšas uzlabot runas spēju, lai bērns varētu efektīvi sazināties ar īsiem teikumiem par svarīgiem ikdienas uzdevumiem (piemēram, vannas istabas lietošanu, ēšanu utt.). [34] [35] Līdzīgi vecāki bērni gūst labumu no šāda veida apmācības, jo viņi mācās uzlabot savas sociālās prasmes, piemēram, dalīties, pārmaiņus, sekot norādījumiem un smaidīt. [36] Tajā pašā laikā kustība, kas pazīstama kā sociālā iekļaušana, mēģina palielināt vērtīgu mijiedarbību starp bērniem ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem un viņu vienaudžiem bez invaliditātes. [37] Kognitīvi-uzvedības ārstēšana, kas apvieno divus iepriekšējos ārstēšanas veidus, ietver stratēģiski metastratisku mācību metodi [ nepieciešams skaidrojums ] kas bērniem māca matemātiku, valodu un citas pamatprasmes, kas saistītas ar atmiņu un mācīšanos. Apmācības pirmais mērķis ir iemācīt bērnam būt stratēģiski domājošam, veidojot izziņas sakarus un plānus. Pēc tam terapeits māca bērnam būt metastātiskam, mācot viņus diskriminēt dažādus uzdevumus un noteikt, kurš plāns vai stratēģija atbilst katram uzdevumam. [38] Visbeidzot, uz ģimeni vērstās stratēģijas iedziļina ģimeni ar prasmēm, kas nepieciešamas, lai atbalstītu un iedrošinātu savu bērnu vai bērnus ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem. Kopumā tas ietver pašpārliecinātības prasmju vai uzvedības vadības metožu mācīšanu, kā arī to, kā lūgt palīdzību kaimiņiem, paplašinātai ģimenei vai dienas aprūpes personālam. [39] Bērnam novecojot, vecākiem tiek mācīts, kā pievērsties tādām tēmām kā mājoklis/aprūpe mājās, nodarbinātība un attiecības. Katras iejaukšanās vai tehnikas galvenais mērķis ir dot bērnam autonomiju un neatkarības sajūtu, izmantojot iegūtās prasmes. 2019. gada Cochrane pārskatā par lasīšanas iejaukšanās uzsākšanu bērniem un pusaudžiem ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem, kad šie elementi bija daļa no mācīšanas, tika atzīmēti nelieli vai mēreni uzlabojumi fonoloģiskajā izpratnē, vārdu lasīšanā, dekodēšanā, izteiksmīgās un uztverošās valodas prasmēs un lasīšanas procesā. [40]

Lai gan intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem nav īpašu medikamentu, daudziem cilvēkiem ar attīstības traucējumiem ir papildu medicīniskas komplikācijas, un viņiem var izrakstīt vairākus medikamentus. Piemēram, bērniem ar autismu ar attīstības kavēšanos var izrakstīt antipsihotiskus līdzekļus vai garastāvokļa stabilizatorus, lai palīdzētu viņu uzvedībā. Psihotropo zāļu, piemēram, benzodiazepīnu, lietošana cilvēkiem ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem prasa uzraudzību un modrību, jo blakusparādības rodas bieži un bieži tiek nepareizi diagnosticētas kā uzvedības un psihiskas problēmas. [41]

Intelektuālā invaliditāte skar apmēram 2–3% iedzīvotāju. 75–90% skarto cilvēku ir viegla intelektuālā invaliditāte. Nesindromisks vai idiopātisks ID veido 30–50% gadījumu. Apmēram ceturto daļu gadījumu izraisa ģenētiski traucējumi. [7] Gadījumi, kuru cēlonis nav zināms, 2013. gadā skar aptuveni 95 miljonus cilvēku [atjauninājums]. [9] Tas ir biežāk vīriešiem un valstīs ar zemiem un vidējiem ienākumiem. [29]

Intelektuālā invaliditāte vēstures gaitā ir dokumentēta ar dažādiem nosaukumiem. Lielā cilvēces vēstures laikā sabiedrība bija nelaipna tiem, kam bija jebkāda veida invaliditāte, un cilvēki ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem parasti tika uzskatīti par slogu viņu ģimenēm.

Grieķu un romiešu filozofi, kuri novērtēja spriešanas spējas, noniecināja cilvēkus ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem kā tikko cilvēkus. [42] Senākais fizioloģiskais uzskats par intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem ir Hipokrāta rakstos piektā gadsimta beigās pirms mūsu ēras, kurš uzskatīja, ka to izraisījusi četru smadzeņu humora nelīdzsvarotība.

Kalifs Al-Valids (705. – 715. G.) Uzcēla vienu no pirmajām personām ar garīgās attīstības traucējumiem un uzcēla pirmo slimnīcu, kurā kā pakalpojumus tika uzņemti cilvēki ar garīgās attīstības traucējumiem. Turklāt Al-Walid katram intelektuālās attīstības traucējumam piešķīra aprūpētāju. [43]

Līdz apgaismībai Eiropā aprūpi un patvērumu nodrošināja ģimenes un baznīca (klosteros un citās reliģiskās kopienās), koncentrējoties uz fizisko pamatvajadzību nodrošināšanu, piemēram, pārtiku, pajumti un apģērbu. Negatīvie stereotipi bija redzami tā laika sociālajā attieksmē.

13. gadsimtā Anglija pasludināja cilvēkus ar garīgās attīstības traucējumiem par nespējīgiem pieņemt lēmumus vai pārvaldīt savas lietas. [42] Aizbildnības tika izveidotas, lai pārņemtu viņu finanšu lietas.

17. gadsimtā Tomass Viliss sniedza pirmo aprakstu par intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem kā slimību. [42] Viņš uzskatīja, ka to izraisījušas smadzeņu strukturālas problēmas. Pēc Vilisa domām, anatomiskās problēmas var būt vai nu iedzimts stāvoklis, vai arī iegūtas vēlāk.

18. un 19. gadsimtā mājokļi un aprūpe pārcēlās no ģimenēm uz patvēruma modeli. Cilvēki tika ievietoti viņu ģimenēs vai tika izņemti no tām (parasti bērnībā) un izmitināti lielās profesionālās iestādēs, no kurām daudzas bija pašpietiekamas ar iedzīvotāju darbu. Dažas no šīm iestādēm nodrošināja ļoti pamatizglītības līmeni (piemēram, krāsu atšķirības un vārdu atpazīšanas pamatprasmes un skaitļošanas prasmes), bet lielākā daļa turpināja koncentrēties tikai uz pārtikas, apģērba un pajumtes pamatvajadzību nodrošināšanu. Nosacījumi šādās iestādēs bija ļoti atšķirīgi, taču sniegtais atbalsts parasti nebija individualizēts, un neparasta uzvedība un zems ekonomiskās produktivitātes līmenis tika uzskatīts par slogu sabiedrībai. Cilvēki ar augstāku labklājību bieži varēja atļauties augstāku aprūpi, piemēram, aprūpi mājās vai privātus patvērumus. [44] Smagas trankvilizācijas un montāžas līnijas atbalsta metodes bija norma, un dominēja invaliditātes medicīniskais modelis. Pakalpojumi tika sniegti, pamatojoties uz pakalpojumu sniedzēja relatīvo vieglumu, nevis uz indivīda vajadzībām. 1891. gadā Keiptaunā, Dienvidāfrikā veiktā aptauja parāda sadalījumu starp dažādām iekārtām. No 2046 aptaujātajām personām 1 281 atradās privātmājā, 120-ieslodzījuma vietās un 645-patversmē, un vīrieši pārstāvēja gandrīz divas trešdaļas no aptaujātajiem. Izmitināšanas trūkuma situācijās priekšroka tika dota baltajiem vīriešiem un melnādainiem vīriešiem (kuru ārprāts apdraudēja balto sabiedrību, izjaucot darba attiecības un tabu seksuālo kontaktu ar baltajām sievietēm). [44]

19. gadsimta beigās, atbildot uz Čārlza Darvina Par sugu izcelsmiFrancis Galtons ierosināja selektīvu cilvēku audzēšanu, lai samazinātu intelektuālās attīstības traucējumus. [42] 20. gadsimta sākumā eigēnikas kustība kļuva populāra visā pasaulē. Tas noveda pie piespiedu sterilizācijas un laulību aizliegšanas lielākajā daļā attīstīto valstu, un vēlāk Ādolfs Hitlers to izmantoja kā pamatojumu masveida slepkavībām cilvēkiem ar intelektuālās attīstības traucējumiem holokausta laikā. Vēlāk eigēnika tika pamesta kā ļauns cilvēktiesību pārkāpums, un līdz 20. gadsimta vidum lielākā daļa attīstīto valstu pārtrauca piespiedu sterilizācijas un laulības aizlieguma praksi.

1905. gadā Alfrēds Binets izveidoja pirmo standartizēto testu bērnu intelekta mērīšanai. [42]

Although ancient Roman law had declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of the deliberate intent to harm that was necessary for a person to commit a crime, during the 1920s, Western society believed they were morally degenerate. [42]

Ignoring the prevailing attitude, Civitans adopted service to people with developmental disabilities as a major organizational emphasis in 1952. Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for children with disabilities, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent. [45] The segregation of people with developmental disabilities was not widely questioned by academics or policy-makers until the 1969 publication of Wolf Wolfensberger's seminal work "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models", [46] drawing on some of the ideas proposed by SG Howe 100 years earlier. This book posited that society characterizes people with disabilities as deviant, sub-human and burdens of charity, resulting in the adoption of that "deviant" role. Wolfensberger argued that this dehumanization, and the segregated institutions that result from it, ignored the potential productive contributions that all people can make to society. He pushed for a shift in policy and practice that recognized the human needs of those with intellectual disability and provided the same basic human rights as for the rest of the population.

The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation. Successful lawsuits against governments and increasing awareness of human rights and self-advocacy also contributed to this process, resulting in the passing in the U.S. of the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act in 1980.

From the 1960s to the present, most states have moved towards the elimination of segregated institutions. Normalization and deinstitutionalization are dominant. [42] Along with the work of Wolfensberger and others including Gunnar and Rosemary Dybwad, [47] a number of scandalous revelations around the horrific conditions within state institutions created public outrage that led to change to a more community-based method of providing services. [48]

By the mid-1970s, most governments had committed to de-institutionalization and had started preparing for the wholesale movement of people into the general community, in line with the principles of normalization. In most countries, this was essentially complete by the late 1990s, although the debate over whether or not to close institutions persists in some states, including Massachusetts. [49]

In the past, lead poisoning and infectious diseases were significant causes of intellectual disability. Some causes of intellectual disability are decreasing, as medical advances, such as vaccination, increase. Other causes are increasing as a proportion of cases, perhaps due to rising maternal age, which is associated with several syndromic forms of intellectual disability. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Along with the changes in terminology, and the downward drift in acceptability of the old terms, institutions of all kinds have had to repeatedly change their names. This affects the names of schools, hospitals, societies, government departments, and academic journals. For example, the Midlands Institute of Mental Sub-normality became the British Institute of Mental Handicap and is now the British Institute of Learning Disability. This phenomenon is shared with mental health and motor disabilities, and seen to a lesser degree in sensory disabilities. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Terminology

The terms used for this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. The terms mental retardation un mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which included "imbecile" [50] [51] and "moron" [52] and are now considered offensive. By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging, politically incorrect, and in need of replacement. [53] The term intellectual disability is now preferred by most advocates and researchers in most English-speaking countries. [4] [5]

The term "mental retardation" was used in the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV (1994) and in the World Health Organization's ICD-10 (codes F70–F79). In the next revision, the ICD-11, this term has been replaced by the term "disorders of intellectual development" (codes 6A00–6A04 6A00.Z for the "unspecified" diagnosis code). [54] [55] The term "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)" is used in DSM-5 (2013). [11] As of 2013 [update] , "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)" is the term that has come into common use by among educational, psychiatric, and other professionals over the past two decades. [11] Because of its specificity and lack of confusion with other conditions, the term "mental retardation" is still sometimes used in professional medical settings around the world, such as formal scientific research and health insurance paperwork. [56]

The several traditional terms that long predate psychiatry are simple forms of abuse in common usage today they are often encountered in such old documents as books, academic papers, and census forms. For example, the British census of 1901 has a column heading including the terms imbecile un feeble-minded. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Vaguer expressions like developmentally disabled, [57] special, or challenged have been used instead of the term mentally retarded. The term developmental delay was popular among caretakers and parents of individuals with intellectual disability because delay suggests that a person is slowly reaching his or her full potential, rather than having a lifelong condition. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Usage has changed over the years and differed from country to country. For example, mental retardation in some contexts covers the whole field but previously applied to what is now the mild MR group. Feeble-minded used to mean mild MR in the UK, and once applied in the US to the whole field. "Borderline intellectual functioning" is not currently defined, but the term may be used to apply to people with IQs in the 70s. People with IQs of 70 to 85 used to be eligible for special consideration in the US public education system on grounds of intellectual disability. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

  • Cretin is the oldest and comes from a dialectal French word for Christian. [58] The implication was that people with significant intellectual or developmental disabilities were "still human" (or "still Christian") and deserved to be treated with basic human dignity. Individuals with the condition were considered to be incapable of sinning, thus "Christ-like" in their disposition. This term has not been used in scientific endeavors since the middle of the 20th century and is generally considered a term of abuse. Lai gan cretin is no longer in use, the term cretinism is still used to refer to the mental and physical disability resulting from untreated congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Amentia has a long history, mostly associated with dementia. The difference between amentia and dementia was originally defined by time of onset. Amentia was the term used to denote an individual who developed deficits in mental functioning early in life, while dementia included individuals who develop mental deficiencies as adults. Theodor Meynert in the 1890s lectures described amentia as a form of sudden-onset confusion (German: Verwirrtheit), often with hallucinations. [59] This term was long in use in psychiatry in this sense. Emil Kraepelin in the 1910s wrote that “acute confusion (amentia)” is a form of febrile delirium. [59] By 1912, amentia was a classification lumping "idiots, imbeciles, and feeble minded" individuals in a category separate from a dementia classification, in which the onset is later in life. In Russian psychiatry the term “amentia” defines a form of clouding of consciousness, which is dominated by confusion, true hallucinations, incoherence of thinking and speech and chaotic movements. [60] In Russia “amentia” (Russian: аменция ) is not associated with intellectual disability and mean only clouding of consciousness.
  • Idiot indicated the greatest degree of intellectual disability, where the mental age is two years or less, and the person cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers. The term was gradually replaced by the term profound mental retardation (which has itself since been replaced by other terms).
  • Imbecile indicated an intellectual disability less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe intellectual disability un moderate intellectual disability.
  • Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-minded in 1910, following work by Henry H. Goddard, as the term for an adult with a mental age between eight and twelve mild intellectual disability is now the term for this condition. Alternative definitions of these terms based on IQ were also used. This group was known in UK law from 1911 to 1959–60 as feeble-minded.
  • Mongolism un Mongoloid idiot were medical terms used to identify someone with Down syndrome, as the doctor who first described the syndrome, John Langdon Down, believed that children with Down syndrome shared facial similarities with Blumenbach's "Mongolian race". The Mongolian People's Republic requested that the medical community cease the use of the term as a referent to intellectual disability. Their request was granted in the 1960s when the World Health Organization agreed that the term should cease being used within the medical community. [61]
  • In the field of special education, educable (or "educable intellectual disability") refers to ID students with IQs of approximately 50–75 who can progress academically to a late-elementary level. Trainable (or "trainable intellectual disability") refers to students whose IQs fall below 50 but who are still capable of learning personal hygiene and other living skills in a sheltered setting, such as a group home. In many areas, these terms have been replaced by use of "moderate" and "severe" intellectual disability. While the names change, the meaning stays roughly the same in practice.
  • Retarded comes from the Latin retardare, "to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder," so mental retardation meant the same as mentally delayed. The term was recorded in 1426 as a "fact or action of making slower in movement or time". The first record of retarded in relation to being mentally slow was in 1895. The term mentally retarded was used to replace terms like idiot, moron, un imbecile because retarded was not then a derogatory term. By the 1960s, however, the term had taken on a partially derogatory meaning as well. The noun retard is particularly seen as pejorative a BBC survey in 2003 ranked it as the most offensive disability-related word, ahead of terms such as spastic (or its abbreviation spaz) and mong. [62] The terms mentally retarded un mental retardation are still fairly common, but currently the Special Olympics, Best Buddies, and over 100 other organizations are striving to eliminate their use by referring to the word retard and its variants as the "r-word", in an effort to equate it to the word nigger and the associated euphemism "n-word", in everyday conversation. These efforts resulted in federal legislation, known as Rosa's Law, which replaced the term mentally retarded with the term intellectual disability in federal statutes. [4][63][64]
    The term mental retardation was a diagnostic term denoting the group of disconnected categories of mental functioning such as idiot, imbecile, un moron derived from early IQ tests, which acquired pejorative connotations in popular discourse. It acquired negative and shameful connotations over the last few decades due to the use of the words retarded un retard as insults. This may have contributed to its replacement with euphemisms such as mentally challenged vai intellectually disabled. Kamēr developmental disability includes many other disorders, developmental disability un developmental delay (for people under the age of 18) are generally considered more polite terms than mental retardation.

Albert Julius Levine and Louis Marks proposed a set of categories in their 1928 book Testing Intelligence and Achievement. [65] Some of the terminologies in the table came from contemporary terms for classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities.

Levine and Marks 1928 IQ classification [66] [67]
IQ Range ("ratio IQ") IQ Classification
175 and over Precocious
150–174 Very superior
125–149 Superior
115–124 Very bright
105–114 Bright
95–104 Average
85–94 Dull
75–84 Borderline
50–74 Morons
25–49 Imbeciles
0–24 Idiots

Savienotās Valstis

  • In North America, intellectual disability is subsumed into the broader term developmental disability, which also includes epilepsy, autism, cerebral palsy, and other disorders that develop during the developmental period (birth to age 18). Because service provision is tied to the designation "developmental disability", it is used by many parents, direct support professionals, and physicians. In the United States, however, in school-based settings, the more specific term mental retardation or, more recently (and preferably), intellectual disability, is still typically used, and is one of 13 categories of disability under which children may be identified for special education services under Public Law 108–446.
  • The phrase intellectual disability is increasingly being used as a synonym for people with significantly below-average cognitive ability. These terms are sometimes used as a means of separating general intellectual limitations from specific, limited deficits as well as indicating that it is not an emotional or psychological disability. It is not specific to congenital disorders such as Down syndrome.

The American Association on Mental Retardation changed its name to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) in 2007, and soon thereafter changed the names of its scholarly journals [68] to reflect the term "intellectual disability". In 2010, the AAIDD released its 11th edition of its terminology and classification manual, which also used the term intellectual disability. [69] [70]

United Kingdom

In the UK, mental handicap had become the common medical term, replacing mental subnormality in Scotland and mental deficiency in England and Wales, until Stephen Dorrell, Secretary of State for Health for the United Kingdom from 1995 to 1997, changed the NHS's designation to learning disability. [71] The new term is not yet widely understood, and is often taken to refer to problems affecting schoolwork (the American usage), which are known in the UK as "learning difficulties". British social workers may use "learning difficulty" to refer to both people with intellectual disability and those with conditions such as dyslexia. [72] In education, "learning difficulties" is applied to a wide range of conditions: "specific learning difficulty" may refer to dyslexia, dyscalculia or developmental coordination disorder, while "moderate learning difficulties", "severe learning difficulties" and "profound learning difficulties" refer to more significant impairments. [73] [74]

In England and Wales between 1983 and 2008, the Mental Health Act 1983 defined "mental impairment" and "severe mental impairment" as "a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant/severe impairment of intelligence and social functioning and is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct on the part of the person concerned." [75] As behavior was involved, these were not necessarily permanent conditions: they were defined for the purpose of authorizing detention in hospital or guardianship. The term mental impairment was removed from the Act in November 2008, but the grounds for detention remained. However, English statute law uses mental impairment elsewhere in a less well-defined manner—e.g. to allow exemption from taxes—implying that intellectual disability without any behavioral problems is what is meant.

A BBC poll conducted in the United Kingdom came to the conclusion that 'retard' was the most offensive disability-related word. [76] On the reverse side of that, when a contestant on Celebrity Big Brother live used the phrase "walking like a retard", despite complaints from the public and the charity Mencap, the communications regulator Ofcom did not uphold the complaint saying "it was not used in an offensive context [. ] and had been used light-heartedly". It was, however, noted that two previous similar complaints from other shows were upheld. [77]

Australia

In the past, Australia has used British and American terms interchangeably, including "mental retardation" and "mental handicap". Today, "intellectual disability" is the preferred and more commonly used descriptor. [78]

People with intellectual disabilities are often not seen as full citizens of society. Person-centered planning and approaches are seen as methods of addressing the continued labeling and exclusion of socially devalued people, such as people with disabilities, encouraging a focus on the person as someone with capacities and gifts as well as support needs. The self-advocacy movement promotes the right of self-determination and self-direction by people with intellectual disabilities, which means allowing them to make decisions about their own lives.

Until the middle of the 20th century, people with intellectual disabilities were routinely excluded from public education, or educated away from other typically developing children. Compared to peers who were segregated in special schools, students who are mainstreamed or included in regular classrooms report similar levels of stigma and social self-conception, but more ambitious plans for employment. [79] As adults, they may live independently, with family members, or in different types of institutions organized to support people with disabilities. About 8% currently live in an institution or a group home. [80]

In the United States, the average lifetime cost of a person with an intellectual disability amounts to $223,000 per person, in 2003 US dollars, for direct costs such as medical and educational expenses. [80] The indirect costs were estimated at $771,000, due to shorter lifespans and lower than average economic productivity. [80] The total direct and indirect costs, which amount to a little more than a million dollars, are slightly more than the economic costs associated with cerebral palsy, and double that associated with serious vision or hearing impairments. [80] Of the costs, about 14% is due to increased medical expenses (not including what is normally incurred by the typical person), and 10% is due to direct non-medical expenses, such as the excess cost of special education compared to standard schooling. [80] The largest amount, 76%, is indirect costs accounting for reduced productivity and shortened lifespans. [80] Some expenses, such as ongoing costs to family caregivers or the extra costs associated with living in a group home, were excluded from this calculation. [80]

The law treats person with intellectual disabilities differently than those without intellectual disabilities. Their human rights and freedoms, including the right to vote, the right to conduct business, enter into a contract, enter into marriage, right to education, are often limited. The courts have upheld some of these limitations and found discrimination in others. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which sets minimum standards for the rights of persons with disabilities, has been ratified by more than 180 countries. In several U.S. states, and several European Union states, persons with intellectual disabilities are disenfranchised. [81] [82] The European Court of Human Rights ruled in Alajos Kiss v. Hungary that Hungary violated the applicant's rights by a blank disenfranchisement of persons with intellectual disabilities who did not hold legal capacity. [83]

People with intellectual disabilities are usually at a higher risk of living with complex health conditions such as epilepsy and neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric problems compared to people without disabilities. [84] Adults also have a higher prevalence of poor social determinants of health, behavioral risk factors, depression, diabetes, and poor or fair health status than adults without intellectual disability.

In the United Kingdom people with intellectual disability live on average 16 years less than the general population. Some of the barriers that exist for people with ID accessing quality healthcare include: communication challenges, service eligibility, lack of training for healthcare providers, diagnostic overshadowing, and absence of targeted health promotion services. [85] [86] Key recommendations from the CDC for improving the health status for people with intellectual disabilities include: improve access to health care, improve data collection, strengthen the workforce, include people with ID in public health programs, and prepare for emergencies with people with disabilities in mind. [87]


Ancient Jewish Education of Children and Use of Scripture

How did the Ancient Jews learn the Bible? From an early age the Jews were taught to learn Scripture “by heart.” That is, they memorized Scripture.

The Jewish educational system sought to isolate itself from other cultural influences. An anecdotal story show that the Jewish community and school were not interested in propagating outside cultures, influences or educational methods inside their educational system:

“…In the Talmud there is a story of a progressive young Rabbi who wished to study Greek on the grounds that he had mastered the Law. An older Rabbi reminded him of the worlds of Joshua: ‘This book of the Law shall not depart out of thy mouth but thou shall meditate therein day and night.’ ‘Go then and consider’ he said, ‘which is the hour which is neither of the day or of the night, and in it thou mayest study Greek wisdom.’”

Education a Priority

In the ancient Jewish community, education for children took a high priority. Barclay goes so far as to state, “It would not be wrong to say that for the Jew the child was the most important person in the community.” Examining the words of Josephus, Barclay may be correct. Josephus writes, “Our ground is good, and we work it to the utmost, but our chief ambition is for the education of our children…We take most pains of all with the instruction of children, and esteem the observation of the laws, and the piety corresponding with them, the most important affair of our whole life.”

This dedication to education in the Jewish community made them one of the most literate communities during the time period, “So widespread and far-reaching was this education in New Testament times, that A.C. Bouquet says that it was an ‘age of the widest literacy for eighteen hundred years to come.’”
Memory of Scripture

Because Scripture is the Divine revelation of God, the Jewish community put emphasis on learning the Scripture from an early age, “Philo writes: ‘Since Jews esteem their laws as divine revelations, and are instructed in the knowledge of them from their earliest youth, they bear the image of the Law in their souls…’” The preservation of the divine writing was to be established not only on scrolls, but in the memory of every Israelite. As noted, this remembrance began at youth, “The ideal of instruction is oral teaching, and the worthiest shrine of truths that must not die is the memory and heart of the faithful disciple.”

Scripture Learned at an Early Age

The ancient Jews began the education of their children at the age of five to seven. “There is a late addendum to the fifth book of the Sayings of the Fathers, which sets out the ages of man:

‘At five years old, Scripture at ten years, Mishnah at thirteen, the commandments at fifteen, Talmud…’”

But the Rabbis felt that a child was never too young to begin hearing, learning and being impressed with the words of Scripture, and in fact recognized that this process of learning was most beneficial at an early age, “Rabbi Abujah said: ‘He who learns as a lad, to what is he like? To ink written on fresh paper. And he who learns when he is old, to what is he like? To ink written on paper that has already been used.’”

Religious Learning at Home

Even with their high value upon education in school, the true place of religious learning was to be the home. It was in the home that catechesis was to take place foremost with the father of the house teaching the children the Torah, “As soon as a child can speak (that is, after his third year) he is to be instructed in the Law by his father.” Barclay continues, “”From the fourth year it is the duty of the father to begin to initiate him into the great truths, for land and religion begin when the child can speak distinctly.”

Speaking Scripture

The first thing a Jewish child was taught, after he was old enough to speak, were two important texts from Scripture, “As for actual instruction, as soon as he could speak the child was taught to memorise and to say the two texts: ‘Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord,’ and, ‘Moses commanded us a law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob.’”

In addition, when attending religious festivals, the father was to explain to his children the meaning behind the festivals and instruct them God’s graciousness as shown in history. They synagogue services were also an opportunity to learn, “The characteristic word in connection with the Synagogue in the New Testament is didaskein, to teach.”

Scripture Alone the Textbook

The backbone of all ancient Jewish education was Scripture alone, “It has always to be remembered that Jewish education was entirely religious education. There was no text-book except the Scriptures all primary education was preparation for reading the Law and all higher education was the reading and the study of it.” Barclay continues, “The Jews were ‘the people of the book’ not because each individual one of them possessed the book, but because the book was the container of the law of life, which was inserted into their minds, and graven upon their hearts, by oral teaching.” This exemplifies what has been stated above under the exegesis of Deuteronomy 18:18-21.

Scripture Learned by Toil

Of course the learning ‘by heart’ of Scripture was no easy task, and required dedication and hard work, “The Jew never pretended that this was easy. Such knowledge was only to be won at the cost of toil. A man cannot inherit his father’s knowledge, as he might his fortune…Rabbi Joses the Priest said: ‘Give thyself trouble to learn the Law, for it is not obtained by inheritance.’”


Ancient Cities (6th Century B.C. — 4th Century AD)

Like their tribal ancestors, the Greeks displayed some preference for privacy. And, unlike their primitive ancestors, the Greeks had the means to do something about it. University of Leicester’ Samantha Burke found that the Greeks used their sophisticated understanding of geometry to create housing with the mathematically minimum exposure to public view while maximizing available light.

However, Athenians penchant for solitude was not without its influential critics:

“For where men conceal their ways from one another in darkness rather than light, there no man will ever rightly gain either his due honour or office or the justice that is befitting”

Athenian philosophy proved far more popular than their architecture. In Greece’s far less egalitarian successor, Rome, the landed gentry built their homes with wide open gardens. Turning one’s house into a public museum was an ostentatious display of wealth. Though, the rich seemed self-aware of their unfortunate trade-off:

“Great fortune has this characteristic, that it allows nothing to be concealed, nothing hidden it opens up the homes of princes, and not only that but their bedrooms and intimate retreats, and it opens up and exposes to talk all the arcane secrets”

Pliny the Elder, ‘The Natural History’, circa 77 A.D.

The majority of Romans lived in crowded apartments, with walls thin enough to hear every noise. “Think of Ancient Rome as a giant campground,” writes Angela Alberto in A Day in the life of Ancient Rome.

And, thanks to the Rome’s embrace of public sex, there was less of a motivation to make it taboo—especially considering the benefits.

“Baths, drink and sex corrupt our bodies, but baths, drink and sex make life worth living”


Scientists have had a difficult time identifying the cause of the epidemic

The first cocoliztli epidemic happened in 1545, and it was so devastating that it forced the abandonment of entire villages, including a Mixtec village in Oaxaca, where researchers uncovered skeletons believed to have been victims of the first occurrence of the disease. A second outbreak hit in 1576, right around the time survivors were probably starting to relax and think the pestilence was a thing of the past. According to Sargs, the second epidemic killed half of the region's surviving population.

It wasn't until this century that researchers finally started to put two and two together, based on historical accounts of the disease and the high death toll. In 2006, research published in FEMS Microbiology Letters examined census data from 1570 and 1580, and they found a population loss of 51.36 percent, which is pretty astonishing over such a short time period. The research also determined that the epidemic began in the valleys of central Mexico, and although losses were heavy in the indigenous population, the Spanish population was hardly affected at all. This research identified cocoliztli as a probable cause for the final collapse of the Aztec culture, though it was unable to precisely identify the pathogen responsible for the disease.


Why you should know the history of special education

If we were to travel back in time a little over 100 years ago, we would see a sight that would turn our stomachs. A child that had intellectual or physical disabilities would have had no access to school or would have been institutionalized.

The current special education system in the United States is a product of many different events and influences that have occurred throughout the years. Both political and social issues have played a significant role in the evolution of special education. Specifically, the key players have been parent advocates and the civil rights movement.

History of Special Education

In the 1920’s and 1930’s special classrooms began to be created within the schools. Classrooms were created for students who could not keep up with students in the general education class. This system continued through the 󈧶s. As time went on, negative outcomes became apparent.

Students in the special education classrooms were seen as unable to learn any academic skills. At that time, researchers stepped into to study the effectiveness of special education. Their findings revealed that those students who were integrated into the general education classroom were doing better learning more than those students in a separate classroom. (Friend, Bursuck 2015).

As a response, two game changers emerged. Parent advocacy and the civil rights movement changed the way we see our special education system as we see it today. Parents of groups of children with disabilities began to organize and unite. They started to speak out against the traditional practices and demanded that their children had a right to the same educational experiences as other children.

The second influence was the civil rights movement. If separate but equal was unconstitutional for race, it was unconstitutional when it came to ability.

As a result, three laws were created to protect children with disabilities and also to prevent discrimination.

Laws and Regulations

The first law that was created was section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504 was created to prevent discrimination against all individuals with disabilities in programs receiving federal funds.

To take the rehabilitation law one more step, in 1990, George H.W. Bush signed legislation called Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA goes beyond the classroom to protect individuals with disabilities in workplaces, buildings, and transportation. Even telecommunications are also required to make accommodations for individuals with disabilities. The ADA is seen today as one of the most significant legislation ever passed for individuals with disabilities (Friend, Bursuck. 2015).

The third law that was created was Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). As a parent of children with hearing loss, understanding IDEA is extremely important.

“As a parent of children with hearing loss, understanding IDEA is extremely important.”

The law was originally established under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 but has evolved throughout the years. Today, IDEA has six core principles that are in place as the foundation of the law.

Under this principle, students with a disability are “entitled” to attend public schools and receive educational services to address their specific needs. This includes technology, materials, and even set at no cost to the parent. (Friend, Bursuck. 2015).

LRE is the idea that students with a disability should not be placed in a separate classroom or school. The goal for each child is to have them in a classroom that will limit them the least. In some cases, a separate classroom or setting will be the best fit for a child, but for most children, the general education class setting will be the LRE.

Each child is entitled to their own individualized education plan (IEP). What is fair and equal to one child, will be different than for another child. A team of professionals writes an IEP with the child’s parents.

Nondiscriminatory evaluation refers to the tools that are used for evaluating a student. The tools should not discriminate based on race, culture or disability.

The individualized education plan for each child is seen as a legal document and cannot be changed. A specific set of informal and formal procedures must take place.

Under this principle, students are protected from being told that the school can not meet the needs of their child and should go to another school. The district is responsible for providing the services.

What does this mean for today?

There are a number of vital pieces that we walk away with after learning about the history of special education. The first is to know that change is possible. We have come a long way in the special education system from where it was over 100 years ago, but we still have a long way to go.

“We have come a long way in the special education system from where it was over 100 years ago, but we still have a long way to go.”

More horizons are still out there. Support for individuals with disabilities in private schools and universities are still needed. Equipping teachers to know how to teach both mainstream and special education is more important than ever. The fight is not over.

However, we can learn the vital role that parent advocates play. Parents not only have a voice, but they have legal rights to ensure that their children have a fair and equal education. With knowledge and persistence, parents can make change happen.

All advocates for individuals with disabilities, need to be informed and aware of how any new legislation will impact the access to a fair and equal education. For example, last February, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative serves wrote that Betsy DeVoss, Education Secretary, had a total of 72 guidance documents that have been rescinded due to being “outdated, unnecessary, or ineffective.” It has been unclear exactly how this will impact special education. But, as we move forward, it is vital to be vigilant about current events. We need to understand current law, including the rights of those with disabilities and the rights parents have and the impact that changes would have on the rights for ourselves and our children.

Today, there are many supports that are legally in place to accommodate students with hearing loss. Specifically, students are entitled to an IEP under the Individuals with Disability Education Act. Including access to technology such as FM systems at no cost to the parents. The law states that we are not looking for the “best” education, but “equal and fair.” Arguing that an FM system, sign language interpreter, or appropriate seating, are examples of accommodations that can be made to make for an equal and fair education. Even children with mild to moderate hearing loss need access to an FM system in the classroom.

Special Educator and advocate, Dr. Jennifer Buss at Lewis University, says the best way that parents can advocate for their children with hearing loss is to see their child as individuals and not compare them to other children.

“…the best way that parents can advocate for their children with hearing loss is to see their child as individuals and not compare them to other children.”

What is best for one child might not be best for your child even in the hearing loss world.

The ranges of hearing loss, type of hearing loss, and personal background will impact each child differently. Inclusion is best for some many, but not all. The way the law is currently set up, each child has their own IEP. Parents have a voice to advocate what they believe is most beneficial for their own child’s education.

Knowing the history of special education in the United States equips parents, teachers, and advocates to be aware of where we have come from.

Our special education system has transformed over the past century, but we still have a long way to go. For parents of children with disabilities, it is vital that they know their legal rights under federal law.

Furthermore, parents cannot underestimate their roles as advocates. Throughout history, they have created incredible and much-needed change in the US education system. Fighting for a child’s right to an equal education might be one of the most powerful roles a parent has.

Do you have any tips for fighting for your child’s education? Please let us know in the comments!


Historians confirm what the Bible says about Jesus.

Not only do we have well-preserved copies of the original manuscripts, we also have testimony from both Jewish and Roman historians.

The gospels report that Jesus of Nazareth performed many miracles, was executed by the Romans, and rose from the dead. Numerous ancient historians back the Bible's account of the life of Jesus and his followers:

Cornelius Tacitus (A.D. 55-120), an historian of first-century Rome, is considered one of the most accurate historians of the ancient world. 8 An excerpt from Tacitus tells us that the Roman emperor Nero "inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class. called Christians. . Christus [Christ], from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus. " 9

Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian (A.D. 38-100), wrote about Jesus in his Jewish Antiquities. From Josephus, "we learn that Jesus was a wise man who did surprising feats, taught many, won over followers from among Jews and Greeks, was believed to be the Messiah, was accused by the Jewish leaders, was condemned to be crucified by Pilate, and was considered to be resurrected." 10

Suetonius, Pliny the Younger, and Thallus also wrote about Christian worship and persecution that is consistent with New Testament accounts.

Even the Jewish Talmud, certainly not biased toward Jesus, concurs about the major events of his life. From the Talmud, "we learn that Jesus was conceived out of wedlock, gathered disciples, made blasphemous claims about himself, and worked miracles, but these miracles are attributed to sorcery and not to God." 11

This is remarkable information considering that most ancient historians focused on political and military leaders, not on obscure rabbis from distant provinces of the Roman Empire. Yet ancient historians (Jews, Greeks and Romans) confirm the major events that are presented in the New Testament, even though they were not believers themselves.


Nicolas's Crusade

There have also been accounts of a German Children’s Crusade taking place in 1212. This was purportedly led by a child called Nicolas, who said he had 20,000 followers. He was thought to have the same dream as Stephen, and planned to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims.

Nicolas’ crusade also included religious men and unmarried women, so it was not fully considered a Children’s Crusade. Despite that, their dangerous journey across the Alps led to many dying from cold, including the adults. However, those who made it across pushed onto Italy.

Having arrived in Rome, the remaining crusaders met with the pope who praised their bravery. However, he told them that they were too young to be successful in such a venture and sent them back to Germany. Sadly, many of them did not survive the journey back, while a group who boarded a ship in the Italian port of Pisa bound for the Hold Land were never heard from again.

Although both Children’s Crusades were a disaster, historians argue that they do highlight the importance of religion and Jerusalem in particular to everyday people living in the Middle Ages.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amit-Talai, Vered, and Helena Wulff, eds. 1995. Youth Cultures: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. London: Routledge.

Austin, Joe, and Michael Willard, eds. 1998. Generations of Youth: Youth Cultures and History in Twentieth-Century America. New York: New York University Press.

Brake, Michael. 1985. Comparative Youth Culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Fass, Paula S. 1977. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gelder, Ken, and Sarah Thornton, eds. 1997. The Subcultures Reader. London: Routledge.

Inness, Sherrie, ed. 1998. Delinquents and Debutantes: Twentieth Century American Girls' Culture. New York: New York University Press.

Kett, Joseph. 1977. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America 1790 to the Present. New York: Basic Books.

Levi, Giovanni, and Jean-Claude Schmitt, eds. 1997. A History of Young People in the West, Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Skatīties video: Why some of us dont have one true calling. Emilie Wapnick