Kā strādāja japāņu klani Heian Era? (piemēram, Taira pret Minamoto)

Kā strādāja japāņu klani Heian Era? (piemēram, Taira pret Minamoto)


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Vikipēdijā man teikts, ka daži imperatoru bērni tika pazemināti amatā (izņemti no karaliskās cilts) un iecelti Tairā, kā arī Minamoto "klanos" Heiānas periodā.

Kā tas darbojās?

  1. Vai bija īpašs pamatojums, lai cilvēkus norīkotu vienam pret otru?
  2. Vai klaniem vajadzēja būt viņu biedru sociālajai identitātei?
  3. Vai viņi sniedza/pieprasīja īpašus pakalpojumus?
  4. Kā paaudžu komponents (piemēram, sāga pret Seiwa Genji) ietekmēja situāciju? Piemēram, vai Saga un Seiwa Genji abi identificējās kā Minamoto un tāpēc, visticamāk, sadarbosies savā starpā, nevis ar citiem klaniem?

Gempejas karš

Gion shôja no kane no koe, shogyô mujô no hibiki ari. Shara sôju no hana no iro, shôsha hissui no koto wari wo arawasu. Ogoreru hito mo hisashikarazu, tada haru no yoru no yume no gotoshi. Takeki mono mo tsui ni horobinu, hitoe ni kaze no mae no akuta ni onaji.
Gion Shôja tempļa zvanu skaņa sasaucas ar visu lietu nepastāvību, un sala ziedu krāsa atklāj patiesību, ka uzplaukt nozīmē krist. Lepnie beidzot neiztur vareno kritienu, lai tie būtu tikai putekļi vēja priekšā.

  • Datumi: 1180-1185
  • Kaujinieki: Minamoto klans (un sabiedrotie) pret Taira klanu (un sabiedrotie)
  • Rezultāts: Minamoto uzvara Taira klans lielā mērā tika iznīcināts
  • Japāņi: 源 平 合 戦 (Genpei kassen)

Ģenpejas karš, kas 1180-1185. Gadā cīnījās starp Minamoto un Taira samuraju klaniem, iezīmē Tairas dominējošās imperatora tiesas valdīšanas beigas, un drīz pēc tam izveidoja Kamakura šogunātu kā tādu, un tas simbolizē krišanu. Taira un Minamoto uzplaukums, Heian perioda beigas un Kamakura perioda sākums, kā arī robeža starp klasisko aristokrāta/tiesas valdīšanas periodu un viduslaiku samuraju valdīšanas periodu.

Karš savu nosaukumu ieguvis no on-yomi vai "ķīniešu stila" divu klanu nosaukumu lasījumi - Genji un Heike (vai Heishi), kas attiecīgi nozīmē "Minamoto klans" un "Taira māja" (vai "Taira klans").

Kara notikumi bija slavenākie eposā Stāsts par Heiku, ko ceļojošie mūziķi stāstnieki kādu laiku nodeva kā mutisku tradīciju, pirms pirmo reizi tika pierakstīti 1371. gadā. Šo stāstu pamatā ir daudzas Noh, Kabuki un leļļu lugas, kā arī neskaitāmas gleznas un citi kultūras darbi, kas pāraugušas leģendās.


Saturs

Jōmon art Rediģēt

Pirmie Japānas kolonisti bija Jōmona tauta (aptuveni 10 500-aptuveni 300 p.m.ē.), [3] kas nosaukta pēc auklu marķējumiem, kas rotāja viņu māla trauku virsmas, bija nomadu mednieki-vācēji, kuri vēlāk praktizēja organizētu lauksaimniecību un uzcēla pilsētas ar simtiem, ja ne tūkstošiem iedzīvotāju. Viņi uzcēla vienkāršas koka un salmu mājas seklās zemes bedrēs, lai nodrošinātu siltumu no augsnes. Viņi izgatavoja grezni dekorētus keramikas uzglabāšanas traukus, māla figūriņas dogūun kristāla dārgakmeņi.

Agrīnais Džonona periods Rediģēt

Agrīnā Džonona periodā (5000–2500 p.m.ē.) [3] sāka atklāt ciematus un tika atrasti parastie ikdienas priekšmeti, piemēram, keramikas trauki, kas paredzēti verdošam ūdenim. Šajā laikā atrastajiem podiem bija plakans dibens un sarežģīts dizains, kas izgatavots no tādiem materiāliem kā bambuss. Turklāt vēl viens svarīgs atradums bija agrīnās Jōmon figūriņas, kuras, iespējams, izmantoja kā auglības priekšmetus, pateicoties viņu krūtīm un gūžas pietūkumam. [3]

Vidējais Jōmon periods Rediģēt

Vidusjōmona periods (2500. – 1500. G. P.m.ē.) [3] daudzējādā ziņā bija pretstatā agrīnajam Džonona periodam. Šie cilvēki kļuva mazāk nomadu un sāka apmesties ciematos. Viņi izveidoja noderīgus rīkus, kas spēja apstrādāt savākto un nomedīto pārtiku, kas viņiem atviegloja dzīvošanu. Pateicoties daudzajiem estētiski pievilcīgajiem keramikas izstrādājumiem, kas tika atrasti šajā laika posmā, ir skaidrs, ka šiem cilvēkiem bija stabila ekonomika un vairāk brīvā laika, lai izveidotu skaistus gabalus. Turklāt Vidusjōmona laikmeta cilvēki atšķīrās no saviem priekštečiem, jo ​​viņi izstrādāja traukus atbilstoši savām funkcijām, piemēram, ražoja podus priekšmetu uzglabāšanai. [3] Dekorācijas uz šiem traukiem sāka kļūt reālistiskākas, salīdzinot ar agrīno Jōmon keramiku. Kopumā šajā laikā darbu ražošana ne tikai pieauga, bet arī šīs personas padarīja tos dekoratīvākus un dabiskākus. [3]

Vēlais un pēdējais Jōmon periods Rediģēt

Vēlā un beigu Džonona periodā (1500–300 p.m.ē.) [3] laika apstākļi sāka kļūt vēsāki, tāpēc piespieda viņus attālināties no kalniem. Galvenais barības avots šajā laikā bija zivis, kas lika uzlabot zvejas krājumus un rīkus. Šis sasniegums šajā laikā bija ļoti svarīgs sasniegums. Turklāt kuģu skaits ievērojami palielinājās, kas, iespējams, varētu secināt, ka katrā mājā ir redzama sava figūriņa. Lai gan Jōmon vēlā un pēdējā periodā tika atrasti dažādi trauki, šie gabali tika atrasti bojāti, kas varētu liecināt, ka viņi tos izmantojuši rituāliem. Turklāt tika atrastas arī figūriņas, un tām bija raksturīgs gaļīgs ķermenis un brilles līdzīgas acīm. [3]

Dogū ("zemes figūra") ir nelielas humanoīdu un dzīvnieku figūriņas, kas izgatavotas Džonona perioda beigās. [4] Tie tika izgatavoti visā Japānā, izņemot Okinavu. [4] Daži zinātnieki teorē dogū darbojās kā cilvēku tēli, kas izpauda kaut kādu simpātisku maģiju. [5] Dogū ir izgatavoti no māla un ir mazi, parasti 10 līdz 30 cm augsti. [6] Šķiet, ka lielākā daļa figūriņu ir modelētas kā sievietes, un tām ir lielas acis, maza jostasvieta un plaši gurni. [4] Daudzi uzskata, ka viņi pārstāv dievietes. Daudziem ar grūtniecību ir saistīti lieli vēderi, kas liek domāt, ka Džomons viņus uzskatīja par dievietēm. [6]

Yayoi art Rediģēt

Nākamais imigrantu vilnis bija Yayoi cilvēki, kas nosaukti par rajonu Tokijā, kur vispirms tika atrastas viņu apmetņu paliekas. Šie cilvēki, ierodoties Japānā apmēram 300 p.m.ē., [7] sniedza zināšanas par mitrāju rīsu audzēšanu, vara ieroču un bronzas zvanu ražošanu (dōtaku), un ar riteņiem mestā, krāsnī apdedzinātā keramika.

Jajojas laika dōtaku zvans, 3. gs

Bronzas spogulis, kas izrakts Tsubai-otsukayama kofun, Yamashiro, Kioto

Karma burka no Jajojas perioda

Yayoi uzglabāšanas burka no 500 BCE - 200 CE

Kofun art Rediģēt

Japānas aizvēstures trešais posms, Kofuna periods (ap 300. - 710. gadu p.m.ē.) [3], ir Jajojas kultūras modifikācija, kas attiecināma vai nu uz iekšēju attīstību, vai uz ārēju spēku. Šis periods ir visievērojamākais ar savu kapu kultūru un citiem artefaktiem, piemēram, bronzas spoguļiem un māla skulptūrām haniwa kas tika uzcelti ārpus šīm kapenēm. Visā Kofun periodā šo kapu īpašības attīstījās no mazākām kapenēm, kas uzceltas kalna virsotnēs un grēdās, līdz daudz lielākām kapenēm, kas uzceltas uz līdzenas zemes. [8] Japānas lielākajā kapā, imperatora Nintoku kapā, ir 46 apbedījumu pilskalni un tas ir veidots kā atslēgas caurums [9], kas ir raksturīga īpašība vēlākos Kofun kapos. [8]

Asuka un Nara art Edit

Asukas un Naras periodā, kas tika nosaukts tāpēc, ka Japānas valdības mītne atradās Asukas ielejā no 542 līdz 645 [3] un Naras pilsētā līdz 784. gadam, Japānā notika pirmais ievērojamais kontinentālās Āzijas kultūras pieplūdums.

Budisma pārnešana deva sākotnējo impulsu kontaktiem starp Ķīnu un Japānu. Japāņi atzina Ķīnas kultūras šķautnes, kuras izdevīgi varētu iekļaut savās: sistēma ideju un skaņu pārvēršanai historiogrāfijas sarežģītu valdības teoriju rakstīšanā, piemēram, efektīva birokrātija un, mākslai vissvarīgākais, jaunas tehnoloģijas, jauna ēka tehnikas, progresīvākas bronzas liešanas metodes un jaunas krāsošanas tehnikas un nesēji.

Tomēr 7. un 8. gadsimtā Japānas un Āzijas kontinenta kontaktos galvenā uzmanība tika pievērsta budisma attīstībai. Ne visi zinātnieki ir vienisprātis par nozīmīgajiem datumiem un atbilstošajiem nosaukumiem, ko piemērot dažādiem laika periodiem no 552. gada - oficiālā budisma ieviešanas Japānā datuma - līdz 784. gadam, kad Japānas galvaspilsēta tika pārcelta no Naras. Visizplatītākie apzīmējumi ir Suiko periods, 552–645 Hakuhō periods, 645–710 un Tenpjo periods, 710–784.

Pagoda un Kondō pie Hōryū-ji, 8. gs

Agrākās japāņu Budas skulptūras datētas ar 6. un 7. gadsimtu. [10] Tās galu galā izriet no mūsu ēras 1.-3. gadsimta grieķu budistu Gandharas mākslas, ko raksturo plūstoši ģērbšanās modeļi un reālistiska atveidošana [11], uz kuras tika uzliktas ķīniešu mākslinieciskās iezīmes. Pēc tam, kad Ķīnas ziemeļu Vei budistu māksla bija iefiltrējusies Korejas pussalā, dažādas imigrantu grupas uz Japānu atveda budistu ikonas. [12] Īpaši daļēji sēdošā Maitreijas forma tika pielāgota augsti attīstītā sengrieķu mākslas stilā, kas tika pārnests uz Japānu, par ko liecina Kōryū-ji Miroku Bosatsu un Chūgū-ji Siddhartha statujas. [13] Daudzi vēsturnieki Koreju attēlo tikai kā budisma pārraidītāju. [14] Trīs karaļvalstis un jo īpaši Baekje bija aktīvas aģenti budistu tradīciju ieviešanā un veidošanā Japānā 538. vai 552. gadā. [15] Tie ilustrē zīda ceļa mākslas pārraides galapunktu pirmajā posmā. daži mūsu ēras gadsimti. Citi piemēri ir atrodami japāņu Fūjin vēja Dieva, [16] Niō aizbildņu [17], ikonogrāfijas un tempļu rotājumu gandrīz klasisko ziedu rakstu izstrādē. [18]

Agrākās budistu būves joprojām ir saglabājušās Japānā, un senākās koka ēkas Tālajos Austrumos atrodas Hōryū-ji uz dienvidrietumiem no Naras. Tā pirmo reizi tika uzcelta 7. gadsimta sākumā kā kroņprinča Šōtoku privātais templis, un to veido 41 neatkarīga ēka. Vissvarīgākie, galvenā dievkalpojumu zāle vai Kondō (Zelta zāle) un Gojū-no-tō (Piecstāvu pagoda), stāviet atklātas vietas centrā, ko ieskauj jumta klosteris. The Kondō, ķīniešu dievkalpojumu zāļu stilā, ir divstāvu konstrukcija pēc sijām un siju, kuru ierobežo irimoya, vai keramikas dakstiņu jumts ar divslīpju jumtu.

Iekšpusē Kondō, uz lielas taisnstūrveida platformas, ir dažas no vissvarīgākajām tā laika skulptūrām. Centrālais attēls ir Šaka Trīsvienība (623), vēsturiskā Buda, kurai blakus ir divi bodhisatvi, tēlnieka Torija Buši (uzplaukuma 7. gadsimta sākumā) bronzā ielieta skulptūra, godinot nesen mirušo princi Šōtoku. Četros platformas stūros atrodas četru virzienu sargi, kas cirsts kokā ap 650. Hōryū-ji atrodas arī Tamamushi svētnīca, koka kopija. Kondō, kas ir novietots uz augstas koka pamatnes, ko rotā figurālas gleznas, kas izpildītas minerālu pigmentu vidē, kas sajaukta ar laku.

Tempļa celtniecība 8. gadsimtā bija vērsta ap Tōdai-ji Nara. Tōdaiji, kas tika uzcelta kā tempļu tīkla galvenā mītne katrā no provincēm, ir vērienīgākais reliģiskais komplekss, kas uzcelts budistu pielūgsmes sākumā Japānā. Pienācīgi, 16,2 m (53 pēdas) Buda (pabeigta 752), kas nostiprināta galvenajā Budas zālē, vai Daibutsuden, ir Rushanas Buda, skaitlis, kas pārstāv Budas būtību, tāpat kā Tōdaiji pārstāvēja Imperiāli atbalstītā budisma centru un tā izplatīšanu visā Japānā. Izdzīvo tikai daži sākotnējās statujas fragmenti, un pašreizējā zāle un centrālais Buda ir Edo perioda rekonstrukcijas.

Ap Daibutsuden, uz viegli nogāzta kalna nogāzes, ir apvienotas vairākas sekundāras zāles: Hokke-dō (Lotus Sutra zāle) ar galveno tēlu - Fukukenjaku Kannon (不 空 羂 索 観 立 立, populārākā bodhisatva), kas izgatavots no sausas lakas (audums, kas iemērc lakā un veidots virs koka armatūras) Kaidanins (戒壇 院, Ordinācijas zāle) ar krāšņajām māla statujām no Četriem sargu ķēniņiem un noliktavu, ko sauc par Shōsōin. Šai pēdējai struktūrai ir liela nozīme kā mākslas vēstures kešatmiņai, jo tajā glabājas trauki, kas tika izmantoti tempļa iesvētīšanas ceremonijā 752. gadā, acu atvēršanas rituāls rushanas tēlam, kā arī valdības dokumenti un daudzi laicīgie Imperiālās ģimenes īpašumā esošie objekti.

Čukins (vai čokins), metāla gravēšanas vai tēlniecības māksla, domājams, sākusies Naras periodā. [19] [20]

Heian art Rediģēt

794. gadā Japānas galvaspilsēta tika oficiāli pārcelta uz Heian-kyō (mūsdienu Kioto), kur tā palika līdz 1868. gadam. Heiāna periods attiecas uz gadiem starp 794. un 1185. gadu, kad Dženpejas kara beigās tika izveidots Kamakura šogunāts. Šis periods ir vēl vairāk sadalīts agrīnajā Heianā un vēlīnā Heianā jeb Fudivara laikmetā, un galvenais datums ir 894. gads - gads, kad impērijas vēstniecības Ķīnā tika oficiāli pārtrauktas.

Agrīnā Heian māksla: Reaģējot uz organizētās budisma pieaugošo bagātību un spēku Narā, priesteris Kūkai (vislabāk pazīstams ar savu pēcnāves nosaukumu Kōbō Daishi, 774–835) devās uz Ķīnu, lai izpētītu Šingonu - Vadžrajana budisma formu, kuru viņš ieviesa Japānā. 806. Šingonu pielūgsmes pamatā ir mandalas, garīgā Visuma diagrammas, kas pēc tam sāka ietekmēt tempļa dizainu. Japāņu budistu arhitektūra ķīniešu stila pagodā pieņēma arī stupu, kas sākotnēji bija indiešu arhitektūras forma.

Šai jaunajai sektai uzceltie tempļi tika uzcelti kalnos, tālu no Galma un lajiem galvaspilsētā. Šo vietu neregulārā topogrāfija piespieda japāņu arhitektus pārdomāt tempļa celtniecības problēmas un tādējādi izvēlēties vairāk vietējo dizaina elementu. Kipreses mizas jumti nomainīja keramikas dakstiņu jumtus, zemes grīdu vietā tika izmantoti koka dēļi, un galvenās svētnīcas priekšā tika pievienota atsevišķa dievkalpojuma vieta lajiem.

Templis, kas vislabāk atspoguļo Heian Shingon agrīno tempļu garu, ir Murō-ji (9. gadsimta sākums), kas atrodas dziļi cipreses koku audzē kalnā uz dienvidaustrumiem no Naras. Koka tēls (arī 9. gadsimta sākumā) Šakjamuni, "vēsturiskais" Buda, kas nostiprināts sekundārajā ēkā Murō-ji, ir raksturīgs agrīnajai Heiānas skulptūrai, kuras dīvainais korpuss ir pārklāts ar biezām drapērijas krokām. honpa-shiki (ritošā viļņa) stils un tā askētiskā, savaldītā sejas izteiksme.

Fujiwara māksla: Fudivaras periodā populārs kļuva Tīras zemes budisms, kas piedāvāja vieglu pestīšanu caur ticību Amidai (Rietumu paradīzes Buda). Šis periods ir nosaukts Fujiwara ģimenes, kas tolaik bija visspēcīgākā valstī, vārdā, kas valdīja kā imperatora reģenti, faktiski kļūstot par pilsoņu diktatoriem. Vienlaikus Kioto muižniecība izveidoja sabiedrību, kas veltīta elegantiem estētiskiem meklējumiem. Viņu pasaule bija tik droša un skaista, ka viņi nevarēja iedomāties, ka Paradīze ir daudz atšķirīga. Viņi izveidoja jaunu Budas zāles formu - Amida zāli, kas apvieno laicīgo ar reliģisko, un tajā atrodas viens vai vairāki Budas attēli struktūrā, kas atgādina muižniecības savrupmājas.

The Hō-ō-dō (Fīniksas zāle, pabeigta 1053. gadā) no Byōdō-in, templis Uji uz dienvidaustrumiem no Kioto, ir Fujiwara Amida zāļu paraugs. Tas sastāv no galvenās taisnstūra struktūras, ko papildina divi L formas spārnu koridori un astes koridors, kas atrodas liela mākslīgā dīķa malā. Iekšpusē uz augstas platformas ir uzstādīts viens zelta Amīdas attēls (ap 1053). Amidas skulptūru izpildīja Jōchō, kurš izmantoja jaunu proporciju kanonu un jaunu tehniku ​​(Yosegi), kurā vairāki koka gabali ir izgriezti kā čaumalas un savienoti no iekšpuses. Zāles sienām ir piemēroti nelieli reljefi kokgriezumi no debess debesīm, un saimnieks, domājams, pavadīja Amidu, kad viņš nolaidās no Rietumu paradīzes, lai nāves brīdī savāktu ticīgo dvēseles un nogādātu tās lotosa ziedos uz Paradīzi. Raigō gleznas uz Hō-ō-dō koka durvīm, kas attēlo Amidas Budas nolaišanos, ir agrīns japāņu stila Yamato-e piemērs, un tajās ir iekļautas ainavas ap Kioto.

E-maki: Heiāna perioda pēdējā gadsimtā horizontālais, ilustrētais stāstījuma rokasgrāmata, kas pazīstama kā e-maki (絵 巻, lit. "Attēlu ritināšana"), parādījās priekšplānā. Iepazīšanās no aptuveni 1130. gada Genji Monogatari Emaki, slavens ilustrēts Stāsts par Džendži attēlo agrāko izdzīvojušo yamato-e rokasgrāmatu un ir viens no japāņu glezniecības augstākajiem punktiem. Par 1000. gadu uzrakstījis ķeizarienes Šōshi gaidāmā dāma Murasaki Šikibu, romāns stāsta par Džendži dzīvi un mīlestību, kā arī Heiānas galma pasauli pēc viņa nāves. 12. gadsimta mākslinieki e-maki versija izstrādāja attēlu konvenciju sistēmu, kas vizuāli nodod katras ainas emocionālo saturu. Gadsimta otrajā pusē populārs kļuva cits, dzīvāks nepārtrauktas stāstīšanas ilustrācijas stils. The Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (12. gadsimta beigas), rullītis, kas nodarbojas ar intrigām tiesā, akcentē figūras aktīvā kustībā, kas attēlotas ātri izpildāmos otas vilcienos un plānās, bet košās krāsās.

E-maki kalpo arī kā daži no agrākajiem un lielākajiem piemēriem otoko-e ("vīriešu attēli") un onna-e ("sieviešu attēli") glezniecības stili. Abos stilos ir daudz smalku atšķirību, kas piesaista dzimumu estētiskās vēlmes. Bet varbūt visvieglāk pamanāmas ir atšķirības priekšmetos. Onna-e, ko iemieso stāsts par Dženji rokdarbu, parasti aplūko tiesas dzīvi, īpaši galma dāmas, un romantiskas tēmas. Otoko-e bieži ierakstīja vēsturiskus notikumus, jo īpaši kaujas. Sanjō pils aplenkums (1160), kas attēlots Heiji Monogatari rokasspiediena sadaļā "Nakts uzbrukums Sanjō pilij", ir slavens šī stila piemērs.

Kamakura art Rediģēt

1180. gadā izcēlās karš starp diviem visspēcīgākajiem karavīru klaniem: Taira un Minamoto, piecus gadus vēlāk Minamoto uzvarēja un nodibināja de facto valdības krēslu piejūras ciematā Kamakura, kur tas palika līdz 1333. gadam. varas pāriešanai no muižniecības uz karavīru klasi, mākslai vajadzēja apmierināt jaunu auditoriju: vīriešus, kas veltīti karadarbības prasmēm, priesterus, kas apņēmušies padarīt budismu pieejamu analfabētiem vienkāršiem cilvēkiem, un konservatīvos, augstmaņus un dažus priesterības locekļus, kuri pauda nožēlu par tiesas pilnvaru samazināšanos. Tādējādi reālisms, popularizējoša tendence un klasiska atmoda raksturo Kamakura perioda mākslu. Kamakura periodā Kioto un Nara palika mākslinieciskās ražošanas un augstās kultūras centri.

Skulptūra: Kei tēlnieku skola, īpaši Unkei, radīja jaunu, reālistiskāku tēlniecības stilu. Divi Niō aizbildņa attēli (1203) Tōdai-ji Lielajos dienvidu vārtos Nara ilustrē Unkei dinamisko suprareālistisko stilu. Aptuveni 8 m (aptuveni 26 pēdas) augstie attēli tika izgriezti no vairākiem blokiem apmēram trīs mēnešu laikā, kas liecina par attīstītu amatnieku studijas sistēmu, kas strādā tēlnieka meistara vadībā. Unkei polihromētās koka skulptūras (1208, Kōfuku-ji, Nara) no diviem indiešu gudrajiem, Muchaku un Seshin, leģendārajiem Hossō sektas dibinātājiem, ir vieni no visvairāk paveiktajiem reālistiskajiem darbiem Unkei sniegtajā periodā, tie ir ievērojami individualizēti un ticami attēli. Viens no slavenākajiem šī perioda darbiem ir Amitabha triāde (pabeigta 1195. gadā), Džōdo-ji pilsētā Ono, ko radījis Kaikei, Unkei pēctecis.

Kaligrāfija un gleznošana: The Kegons Engi Emaki, ilustrētā Kegonas sektas dibināšanas vēsture, ir lielisks Kamakura glezniecības popularizēšanas tendences piemērs. Kegonas sekta, viena no vissvarīgākajām Nāras periodā, piedzīvoja grūtus laikus tīras zemes sektu uzplaukuma laikā. Pēc Dženpejas kara (1180–1185) Kōzan-ji priesteris Myōe centās atdzīvināt sektu un arī nodrošināt patvērumu kara atraitnēm. Samuraju sievas bija atturējušas mācīties vairāk nekā zilbju sistēmu skaņu un ideju pārrakstīšanai (skat. Kana), un vairums nespēja lasīt tekstus, kuros tika izmantoti ķīniešu ideogrāfi (kanji).

Tādējādi, Kegons Engi Emaki apvieno teksta fragmentus, kas rakstīti ar maksimāli viegli lasāmām zilbēm, un ilustrācijas, kurās dialogs starp personāžiem ir rakstīts blakus skaļruņiem - šī metode ir salīdzināma ar mūsdienu komiksiem. Sižets e-makiabu Korejas priesteru, kuri nodibināja Kegonas sektu, dzīve ir strauji ritējusi un piepildīta ar fantastiskiem varoņdarbiem, piemēram, ceļojumu uz Okeāna karaļa pili, un satriecošu mātes stāstu. [ nepieciešams skaidrojums ]

Darbs konservatīvākā veidā ir ilustrēta Murasaki Shikibu dienasgrāmatas versija. E-maki viņas romāna versijas turpināja ražot, bet muižniecība, kas bija pieskaņojusies jaunajai interesei par reālismu, tomēr bija nostaļģiska pēc pēdējām bagātības un varas dienām, atdzīvināja un ilustrēja dienasgrāmatu, lai atgūtu rakstnieces laiku krāšņumu. Viens no skaistākajiem fragmentiem ilustrē epizodi, kurā Murasaki Šikibu savā istabā rotaļīgi notur divi jauni galminieki, bet turpat ārā mēness gaisma mirdz impērijas dārza upes sūnainajos krastos.

Muromachi art Rediģēt

Muromachi periodā (1338–1573), ko dēvē arī par Ašikagas periodu, Japānas kultūrā notika pamatīgas pārmaiņas. Ašikaga klans pārņēma kontroli pār šogunātu un pārcēla savu štābu atpakaļ uz Kioto, uz pilsētas Muromachi rajonu. Līdz ar valdības atgriešanos galvaspilsētā, Kamakura perioda popularizēšanas tendences beidzās, un kultūras izpausme ieguva aristokrātiskāku, elitārāku raksturu. Dzenbudisms, Ch'an sekta, par kuru tradicionāli tika uzskatīts, ka tā tika dibināta Ķīnā 6. gadsimtā, otro reizi tika ieviests Japānā un iesakņojās.

Glezna: Laicīgo uzņēmumu un tirdzniecības misiju dēļ Ķīnā, ko organizēja zen tempļi, daudzas ķīniešu gleznas un mākslas priekšmeti tika importēti Japānā un dziļi ietekmēja japāņu māksliniekus, kas strādāja zen tempļos un šogunātā. Šis imports ne tikai mainīja glezniecības priekšmetu, bet arī mainīja krāsu izmantošanu, ko radīja Yamato-e spilgtās krāsas ķīniešu glezniecības monohromiem, kur gleznām parasti ir tikai melnbalts vai dažādi toņi viena krāsa.

Agrīnai Muromachi glezniecībai raksturīgs ir priestera gleznotāja Kao (aktīvs 15. gadsimta sākums) attēlojums leģendārā mūka Kensu (ķīniešu valodā-Hsien-tzu) brīdī, kad viņš sasniedza apgaismību. Šāda veida krāsošana tika veikta ar ātru otas triepienu un minimālu detaļu daudzumu. Samu ķeršana ar ķirbi (15. gadsimta sākums, Taizō-in, Myōshin-ji, Kioto), ko veica priesteris gleznotājs Josetsu (akt. ap 1400. gadu), iezīmē pagrieziena punktu Muromachi glezniecībā. Sākotnēji tas tika veikts zemu stāvošam ekrānam, un tas ir atkārtoti uzstādīts kā piekārts ritinājums ar iepriekš redzamu mūsdienu figūru uzrakstiem, no kuriem viens attiecas uz gleznu kā "jauno stilu". Priekšplānā vīrietis ir attēlots strauta krastā, turot rokās mazu ķirbi un skatoties uz lielu slidenu samu. Migla aizpilda vidusceļu, un fona kalni, šķiet, ir tālu tālumā. Parasti tiek pieņemts, ka gleznas "jaunais stils", kas izpildīts aptuveni 1413. gadā, attiecas uz ķīniskāku dziļās telpas sajūtu attēla plaknē.

Muromachi perioda izcilākie mākslinieki ir priesteri-gleznotāji Šūbuns un Sesshū. Šūbuns, mūks Kioto tempļa Shōkoku-ji, radīts gleznā Lasīšana Bambusa birzī (1446) reālistiska ainava ar dziļu lejupslīdi kosmosā. Sesshū, atšķirībā no vairuma tā laika mākslinieku, varēja doties uz Ķīnu un mācīties ķīniešu glezniecību tās avotā. Četru sezonu ainava (Sansui Chokan c. 1486) ir viens no Sesshu paveiktajiem darbiem, kas attēlo ainavas turpināšanos četros gadalaikos.

Azuchi-Momoyama art Rediģēt

Azuči – Momojama periodā (1573–1603) virkne militāro vadītāju, piemēram, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi un Tokugawa Ieyasu, mēģināja panākt mieru un politisko stabilitāti Japānā pēc gandrīz 100 gadu kara laikmeta. Oda, nepilngadīgs priekšnieks, ieguva varu, kas bija pietiekama, lai 1568. gadā faktiski pārņemtu kontroli pār valdību un pēc pieciem gadiem gāztu pēdējo Ašikaga šōgunu. Hidejoši pārņēma komandu pēc Odas nāves, bet viņa plānus izveidot iedzimtu varu izjauca Iejasu, kurš 1603. gadā nodibināja Tokugavas šogunātu.

Glezna: Vissvarīgākā glezniecības skola Momoyama periodā bija Kanō skola, un šī perioda lielākais jauninājums bija Kanō Eitoku izstrādātā formula monumentālu ainavu radīšanai uz bīdāmām durvīm, kas norobežo telpu. Galvenās istabas apdare, kas vērsta pret Džoķu dārzu, Daitoku-ji apakštempu (zen templis Kioto), iespējams, ir labākais saglabājies Eitoku darba piemērs. Masveida ume koku un dvīņu priedes ir attēlotas uz bīdāmo sietu pāriem pa diagonāli pretējiem stūriem, to stumbriem atkārtojot stūra stabu vertikāli un to zarus, kas stiepjas pa kreisi un pa labi, apvienojot blakus esošos paneļus. Eitoku ekrāns, Ķīnas lauvas, arī Kioto, atklāj drosmīgo, spilgto krāsu glezniecības stilu, kuram dod priekšroku samuraji.

Eitoku laikabiedrs Hasegava Tōhaku izstrādāja nedaudz atšķirīgu un dekoratīvāku stilu liela mēroga ekrāna gleznām. Viņa Kļavas ekrāns (楓 図), kas tagad atrodas Chishaku-in templī (ja: 智 積 院), Kioto, viņš novietoja koka stumbru centrā un izstiepa ekstremitātes gandrīz līdz kompozīcijas malai, radot plakanāku, mazāk arhitektonisku darbs nekā Eitoku, bet vizuāli krāšņa glezna. Viņa seškārtējais ekrāns, Priedes koks (松林 図), ir meistarīgs attēlojums ar vienkrāsainu tinti miglā ieskautu koku birzi.

Edo perioda māksla Rediģēt

Tokugavas šogunāts 1603. gadā ieguva neapstrīdamu valdības kontroli, apņemoties nodrošināt valstij mieru un ekonomisku un politisku stabilitāti lielā mērā, lai tā būtu veiksmīga. Šogunāts izdzīvoja līdz 1867. gadam, kad tas bija spiests kapitulēt, jo nespēja tikt galā ar Rietumu valstu spiedienu atvērt valsti ārējai tirdzniecībai. Viena no dominējošajām tēmām Edo periodā bija šogunāta represīvā politika un mākslinieku mēģinājumi izvairīties no šīm stingrībām. Galvenais no tiem bija valsts slēgšana ārzemniekiem un viņu kultūra, kā arī stingru uzvedības kodeksu noteikšana, kas ietekmēja visus dzīves aspektus, ģērbto apģērbu, laulāto, kā arī darbības, kuras varēja vai vajadzētu darīt. netiecas.

Tomēr Edo perioda pirmajos gados Tokugavas politikas pilnā ietekme vēl nebija jūtama, un tika radītas dažas no Japānas izcilākajām izpausmēm arhitektūrā un glezniecībā: Katsura pils Kioto un Tawaraya Sōtatsu gleznas. Rinpa skola.

Koka drukāšana: Koka bloku izdrukas sākotnēji tika izmantotas budistu rakstu tulkošanai astotajā gadsimtā Japānā. Koka drukāšana sastāv no attēlu vai attēlu iegravēšanas uz koka gabala, kas pēc tam tiek nospiests pret papīra lapu. Astotajā gadsimtā koka bloku uzskatīja par ērtu iespieddarbu reproducēšanas metodi, līdz turpmāki jauninājumi ļāva krāsas tulkot uz papīra vai labāk pazīstamas kā Nishik-e izdrukas. Koka bloku drukāšana bija izplatīta drukāšanas metode no vienpadsmitā līdz deviņpadsmitajam gadsimtam. Nishiki-e izdrukās tika ražotas tādas preces kā kalendāri, kas Edo periodā parasti tika pārdoti turīgiem sabiedrības locekļiem. Edo periodā šajās izdrukās tika attēloti notikumi un ievērojamu aktieru ainas. Tad Ukiyo bija saistīts ar koka drukāšanu agrīnajā Edo periodā. Šīs Ukiyo gleznas attēloja ievērojamu sabiedrības locekļu ikdienas dzīvi. Ukiyo vispirms sāka kā ar rokām veidoti ruļļi, kas attēloja dzīvi kā parasts vienkāršs cilvēks.

Arhitektūra: Katsura savrupmāju pils, kas uzcelta pēc Dženji pils imitācijas, satur virkni ēku, kas apvieno klasiskās japāņu arhitektūras elementus ar novatoriskiem atjauninājumiem. Visu kompleksu ieskauj skaists dārzs ar celiņiem pastaigām. Daudzi spēcīgi daimyōs (feodāļi) teritorijā uzcēla japāņu dārzu Circuit stilā un sacentās par skaistumu.

Glezna: Sōtatsu attīstīja lielisku dekoratīvo stilu, no jauna veidojot klasiskās literatūras tēmas, izmantojot izcili iekrāsotas figūras un dabas pasaules motīvus, kas veidoti uz zelta lapu fona. Viens no viņa izcilākajiem darbiem ir ekrānu pāris Viļņi Matsushima Freer galerijā Vašingtonā, D.C. Gadsimtu vēlāk Kōrin pārstrādāja Sōtatsu stilu un radīja vizuāli krāšņus darbus, kas ir unikāli savi. Varbūt viņa labākās ir sieta gleznas Sarkanbalto plūmju ziedi.

Skulptūra: Budistu mūks Enkū izgriezis 120 000 budistu attēlu raupjā, individuālā stilā.

Ukiyo-e un nanga (bunjinga): Mākslas skola, kas vislabāk pazīstama Rietumos, ir ukiyo-e gleznas un demimondes koka apdruka, kabuki teātra pasaule un izpriecu rajoni. Ukiyo-e izdrukas sāka ražot 17. gadsimta beigās 1765. gadā Harunobu ražoja pirmo polihromo apdruku. Nākamās paaudzes drukātie dizaineri, tostarp Torija Kijonaga un Utamaro, radīja elegantus un reizēm iespaidīgus kurtizānu attēlus.

19. gadsimtā dominējošās personības bija Hokusai un Hiroshige, pēdējais bija romantisku un nedaudz sentimentālu ainavu izdruku radītājs. Dīvainie leņķi un formas, caur kurām Hirošige bieži skatījās uz ainavu, kā arī Kijonagas un Utamaro darbi, liekot uzsvaru uz plakanām plaknēm un spēcīgām lineārām kontūrām, dziļi ietekmēja tādus rietumu māksliniekus kā Edgars Degā un Vinsents van Gogs. Izmantojot Rietumu muzejos glabātos mākslas darbus, šie paši drukas veidotāji vēlāk spēcīgi ietekmēs agrīno modernistu dzejnieku, piemēram, Ezras Poundas, Ričarda Aldingtona un H.D., izmantoto tēlu un estētisko pieeju. [21]

Mūsdienu glezniecības skola ar ukiyo-e bija nanga jeb bunjinga-stils, kura pamatā bija ķīniešu zinātnieku-gleznotāju izpildītas gleznas. Tāpat kā ukiyo-e mākslinieki izvēlējās attēlot figūras no dzīves ārpus Tokugavas šogunāta stingrībām, arī bunjin mākslinieki pievērsās ķīniešu kultūrai. Šī stila paraugi ir Ike no Taiga, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden un Yamamoto Baiitsu (ja: 山 本 梅 逸).

Traditional, mostly stoneware, styles continued in many parts of Japan, but Japanese ceramics were transformed around the start of the Edo period, by a large influx of Korean potters, captured or persuaded to emigrate in the course of the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s. Many of these were settled on the southern island of Kyushu, and they brought with them experience of versions of the Chinese-style chambered climbing kiln, called noborigama in Japan, which allowed high temperatures with more precise control. By around 1620 they had discovered deposits of kaolinite, and started to make porcelain for the first time in Japan. The early wares (called "Early Imari") were relatively small and imitated the Chinese underglaze blue and white porcelain, which Japan had been importing for some time. [22]

The porcelain industry greatly expanded in the late 1650s, as the collapse of the Chinese industry from civil war led to very large orders from the Chinese traders and the Dutch East India Company, by then the traders only permitted to do business in Japan. The first great period of Japanese export porcelain lasted until about the 1740s, and the great bulk of Japanese porcelain was made for export, mostly to Europe, but also the Islamic world to the west and south of Japan. [23]

Ko-Kutani (old Kutani) five colours Iroe type sake ewer with bird and flower design in overglaze enamel, Edo period, 17th century

With the development of economy and culture, the artistic quality of lacquered furniture has improved. Hon'ami Kōetsu and Ogata Kōrin brought the designs of the Rinpa school of painting into lacquerware. After the middle of the Edo period, inrō for portable medicine containers began to be decorated gorgeously with maki-e and raden, and it became popular among samurai class and wealthy merchants in the chōnin class, and at the end of the Edo period, it changed from practical accessories to art collections. [24] [25] The export of lacquerware continued following the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Marie Antoinette and Maria Theresa are known as collectors of Japanese lacquerware in this period. [2]

Inro un Netsuke, 18th century

Art of the Prewar period Edit

When the Emperor of Japan regained ruling power in 1868, Japan was once again invaded by new and alien forms of culture. During the Prewar period, The introduction of Western cultural values led to a dichotomy in Japanese art, as well as in nearly every other aspect of culture, between traditional values and attempts to duplicate and assimilate a variety of clashing new ideas. This split remained evident in the late 20th century, although much synthesis had by then already occurred, and created an international cultural atmosphere and stimulated contemporary Japanese arts toward ever more innovative forms.

The government took an active interest in the art export market, promoting Japanese arts at a succession of world's fairs, beginning with the 1873 Vienna World's Fair. [26] [27] As well as heavily funding the fairs, the government took an active role organising how Japan's culture was presented to the world. It created a semi-public company — the Kiritsu Kosho Kaisha (First Industrial Manufacturing Company) — to promote and commercialize exports of art [28] and established the Hakurankai Jimukyoku (Exhibition Bureau) to maintain quality standards. [27] For the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, the Japanese government created a Centennial Office and sent a special envoy to secure space for the 30,000 items that would be displayed. [29] The Imperial Household also took an active interest in arts and crafts, commissioning works ("presentation wares") as gifts for foreign dignitaries. [30] In 1890, the Teishitsu Gigeiin (Artist to the Imperial Household) system was created to recognise distinguished artists seventy were appointed from 1890 to 1944. [31] Among these were the painter and lacquer artist Shibata Zeshin, ceramicist Makuzu Kōzan, painter Hashimoto Gahō, and cloisonné enamel artist Namikawa Yasuyuki. [31]

As Western imports became popular, demand for Japanese art declined within Japan itself. [32] In Europe and America, the new availability of Japanese art led to a fascination for Japanese culture a craze known in Europe as Japonisme. [33] Imperial patronage, government sponsorship, promotion to new audiences, and Western technology combined to foster an era of Japanese artistic innovation. In the decorative arts, Japanese artists reached new levels of technical sophistication. [28]

Today, Masayuki Murata owns more than 10,000 Meiji art works and is one of the most enthusiastic collectors. From that time, most of the excellent works of Meiji Art were bought by foreign collectors and only a few of them remained in Japan, but because he bought back many works from foreign countries and opened the Kiyomizu Sannenzaka Museum, [34] the study and reevaluation of Meiji Art rapidly advanced in Japan after the 21st century. [35] Nasser Khalili is also one of the world's most dedicated collectors of Meiji art, and his collection encompasses many categories of Meiji art. The Japanese Imperial Family also owns excellent works of Meiji Art, some of which were donated to the state and are now stored in the Museum of the Imperial Collections.

Architecture and Garden Edit

By the early 20th century, European art forms were well introduced and their marriage produced notable buildings like the Tokyo Train Station and the National Diet Building that still exist today. Tokyo Station, a building of Giyōfū architecture, full of bricks and pseudo-European style. This style of building was built in urban areas.

Many artistic new Japanese gardens were built by Jihei Ogawa.

Painting Edit

The first response of the Japanese to Western art forms was open-hearted acceptance, and in 1876 the Technological Art School(ja:工部美術学校) was opened, employing Italian instructors to teach Western methods. The second response was a pendulum swing in the opposite direction spearheaded by Okakura Kakuzō and the American Ernest Fenollosa, who encouraged Japanese artists to retain traditional themes and techniques while creating works more in keeping with contemporary taste. This was a strategy that eventually served to extend the influence of Japanese art as far as Calcutta, London, and Boston in the years leading up to World War I. [36] Out of these two poles of artistic theory—derived from Europe and from East Asia respectively—developed yōga ("Western-style painting") and Nihonga ("Japanese painting"), categories that have maintained currency.

Enamels Edit

During the Meiji era, Japanese cloisonné enamel reached a technical peak, producing items more advanced than any that had existed before. [37] The period from 1890 to 1910 was known as the "Golden age" of Japanese enamels. [38] Artists experimented with pastes and with the firing process to produce ever larger blocks of enamel, with less need for klozoni (enclosing metal strips). [37] Thus enamels became a more pictorial medium, with designs similar to, or copied from, traditional paintings. [39] Enamels with a design unique to Japan, in which flowers, birds and insects were used as themes, became popular. In particular, the works of Namikawa Yasuyuki and Namikawa Sōsuke were exhibited at world's fairs and won many awards. [40] [41] [42] [43] Along with the two Namikawa, the Ando Cloisonné Company has produced many high-quality cloisonne. Japanese enamels were regarded as unequalled thanks to the new achievements in design and colouring. [44]

Lacquerware Edit

The Meiji era saw a renewed interest in lacquer as artists developed new designs and experimented with new textures and finishes. [45] Maki-e (decorating the lacquer in gold or silver dust) was the most common technique for quality lacquerware in this period. [46] Shibata Zeshin was a lacquerer who gained a high reputation for his works from the Bakumatsu to the Meiji period. Lacquerware called Shibayama un Somada, created in the Edo period, became popular for its showy style, inlaid with gold, silver, shellfish, ivory, and colorful metal and glass, and reached its peak during this period. [47] Lacquer from Japanese workshops was recognised as technically superior to what could be produced anywhere else in the world. [48]

Metalwork Edit

At the start of the Meiji era, Japanese metalwork was almost totally unknown outside the country, unlike lacquer and porcelain which had previously been exported. [49] Metalwork was connected to Buddhist practice, for example in the use of bronze for temple bells and incense cauldrons, so there were fewer opportunities for metalworkers once Buddhism was displaced as the state religion. [49] International exhibitions brought Japanese cast bronze to a new foreign audience, attracting strong praise. [49] The past history of samurai weaponry equipped Japanese metalworkers to create metallic finishes in a wide range of colours. By combining and finishing copper, silver and gold in different proportions, they created specialised alloys including shakudō and shibuichi. With this variety of alloys and finishes, an artist could give the impression of full-colour decoration. [50]

Ivory carving Edit

In the Meiji period, Japanese clothes began to be westernized and the number of people who wore kimono decreased, so the craftsmen who made netsuke un kiseru with ivory and wood lost their demand. Therefore, they tried to create a new field, ivory sculptures for interior decoration, and many elaborate works were exported to foreign countries or purchased by the Imperial Family. In particular, the works of Ishikawa Komei and Asahi Gyokuzan won praise in Japan. [51]

Porcelain and Earthenware Edit

Technical and artistic innovations of the Meiji era turned porcelain into one of the most internationally successful Japanese decorative art forms. [52] Satsuma ware was a name originally given to pottery from Satsuma province, elaborately decorated with gilt and enamel. These wares were highly praised in the West. Seen in the West as distinctively Japanese, this style actually owed a lot to imported pigments and Western influences, and had been created with export in mind. [53] Workshops in many cities raced to produce this style to satisfy demand from Europe and America, often producing quickly and cheaply. So the term "Satsuma ware" came to be associated not with a place of origin but with lower-quality ware created purely for export. [54] Despite this, artists such as Yabu Meizan and Makuzu Kōzan maintained the highest artistic standards while also successfully exporting. [55] From 1876 to 1913, Kōzan won prizes at 51 exhibitions, including the World's fair and the National Industrial Exhibition. [56]

Textiles Edit

The 1902 edition of Enciklopēdija Britannica wrote, "In no branch of applied art does the decorative genius of Japan show more attractive results than that of textile fabrics, and in none has there been more conspicuous progress during recent years." [57] Very large, colourful pictorial works were being produced in Kyoto. Embroidery had become an art form in its own right, adopting a range of pictorial techniques such as chiaroscuro and aerial perspective. [57]

Art of the Postwar period Edit

Immediately following Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945, large numbers of Japanese artists fell under the influence of, or even joined, the Japan Communist Party, which had just been legalized by the U.S.-led military occupation of Japan after many years of suppression by the prewar and wartime Japanese police. [58] This had to do with the success of the Communist Party had in peddling the notion in the early postwar years that the party had been the only group in Japan to have resisted wartime militarism. [59] In addition, the Japanese word for "vanguard" (前衛, zen'ei), as in "vanguard of the communist revolution," happens to be the same word used for "avant-garde" as in the artistic avant-garde. [60] The Japan Communist Party soon came to dominate the major art societies and exhibitions in Japan, and thus the predominant form of art in the immediate aftermath of the war was socialist realism that depicted the suffering of the poor and the nobility of the working class, in line with Communist Party doctrine that all art should serve the purpose of advancing the cause of revolution. [59] In 1952, the Communist Party even ordered artists such as Hiroshi Katsuragawa and other members of the newly formed Avant-Garde Art Association (前衛美術会, Zen'ei Bijutsukai) out into the mountains to produce socialist realist art in support of "mountain guerrilla squads" that were attempting to foment a violent revolution in Japan. [61]

The 1950s: Struggling to break free of socialist realism Edit

Over the course of the 1950s, many Japanese artists became increasingly disillusioned with the rigid and limited definition of "art" enforced by the Communist Party. [62] However, due to the ongoing preeminence of Communist Party members and supporters in the senior ranks of artistic societies and exhibition juries, artists found it extremely difficult to even show their art unless they conformed to the Party's guidelines. [63] Some artists shied away from formal public exhibitions. Others sought recognition, financial support, and opportunities to show their art overseas, such as the Gutai group of conceptual artists, founded in 1954. Still other artists made use of the few unjuried, "independent" exhibitions in Japan, such as the Yomiuri Independent Exhibition sponsored by the Yomiuri Shinbun, which anyone could enter. [64]

A final straw came with the massive 1960 Anpo Protests against the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty (known as "Anpo" in Japanese"), due to the extremely passive role played by the supposedly "vanguard" Communist Party. When the protests failed to stop the treaty, a round of recriminations led to further disillusionment with the Communist Party and socialist realist art, causing many more artists to break away from the Party's influence. [65]

The 1960s: An explosion of new genres Edit

With the dominance of socialist realism fading, the 1960s witnessed an explosion of new art forms in Japan, as the arts expanded in new directions that might best be termed "postmodern." [66] Artist collectives such as Neo-Dada Organizers, Zero Dimension, and Hi-Red Center explored concepts such as "non-art" and "anti-art," and conducted a variety of audacious "events," "happenings," and other forms of performance art designed to erode the boundaries between art and daily life. The Mono-ha group similarly pushed the boundaries dividing art, space, landscape, and the environment. Other artists, such as graphic designer Tadanori Yokoo, drew inspiration from 1960s counterculture and the explosion of new forms of adult-oriented manga comics. In the performing arts, Tatsumi Hijikata pioneered a new form of postmodern dance called Butoh, and playwrights such as Jūrō Kara and Satō Makoto created the Angura style of radical "underground" theater. [67] And in photography, photographers such as Daidō Moriyama pioneered an extremely influential new school of postwar photography that emphasized spontaneity over carefully staged composition and celebrated the characteristics "are, bure, bokeh" (literally "rough, blurred, out-of-focus"). [68] [69]

The proliferation of new types of art was supported by the tremendous growth of Japan's economy in the 1960s, remembered as the "Japanese economic miracle." Over the course of the 1960s, the Japanese economy grew by over 10% per year. Rising wealth created a new class of consumers who could afford to spend money on art and support different types of art and artists. For the first time in Japan's modern history, it became viable for significant numbers of artists to make a living purely through selling their art. The 1960s construction boom in Japan, which leveled the old wood-and-paper traditional Japanese architecture and replaced it with sparkling mega-cities of glass and steel, helped inspire brand new schools of Japanese architecture, such as the Metabolism (architecture) movement led by Kenzō Tange, that boldly broke free from conventional models and proved influential around the world.

At the same time, however, the art world remained dominated by cliques that promoted the works of certain (usually male) artists over others. As it became much easier for Japanese to travel overseas in the 1960s, some female artists such as Yayoi Kusama and Yoko Ono found better reception overseas, and decamped for artistic centers such as London, Paris, and New York, as did many male artists as well.

The triumph of the new forms of Japanese art was cemented at the 1970 Osaka World's Fair, where dozens of avant-garde and conceptual artists were hired to design pavilions and artistic experiences for fair-goers. [70] Japanese avant-garde art had gone global, and had become something even the conservative government was proud to display to the world.

The 1970s and 1980s: Riding the economic bubble Edit

The 1970s and 1980s saw Japanese art continue in many of the directions begun in the 1950s and 1960s, but often with much bigger budgets and more expensive materials. As Japan's economy kept rapidly expanding, and eventually grew into one of the largest economic bubbles in history. With Japanese currency becoming incredibly strong in the wake of the 1985 Plaza Accord, Japanese individuals and institutions became major players in the international art market. Extraordinarily wealthy Japanese mega-corporations began constructing their own private art museums and acquiring collections of modern and contemporary art, and Japanese artists greatly benefited from these expenditures as well.

In particular, artistic production continued to trend away from traditional painting and sculpture in the direction of graphic design, pop art, wearable art, performance art, conceptual art, and installation art. Various types of "hybrid" art increasingly came into vogue. As technology advanced, artists increasingly incorporated electronics, video, computers, synthesized music and sounds, and video games into their art. The aesthetics of manga and anime, which so many younger artists had grown up immersed in, exerted an increasing if sometimes quite subtle influence. Above all, artists eschewed anything redolent of "high art" or "fine art" in favor of the personal, the eclectic, the fantastic or phantasmagoric, and the playful. In edition, female artists such as Mika Yoshizawa became more and more accepted and supported by the art world in Japan.

Contemporary art in Japan Edit

Japanese contemporary art takes as many forms and expresses as many different ideas as worldwide contemporary art in general. It ranges from advertisements, anime, video games, and architecture as already mentioned, to sculpture, painting, and drawing in all their myriad forms. Japanese artists have made especially notable contributions to global contemporary art in the fields of architecture, video games, graphic design, fashion, and perhaps above all, animation. While anime at first were derived primarily from manga stories, [ nepieciešams citāts ] diverse anime abounds today, and many artists and studios have risen to great fame as artists Hayao Miyazaki and the artists and animators of Studio Ghibli are generally regarded to be among the best the anime world has to offer.

At the same time, many Japanese artists continue to use traditional Japanese artistic techniques and materials inherited from premodern times, such as traditional forms of Japanese paper and ceramics and painting with black and color ink on paper or silk. Some of these artworks depict traditional subject matters in traditional styles, while others explore new and different motifs and styles, or create hybrids of traditional and contemporary art forms, while using traditional media or materials. Still others eschew native media and styles, embracing Western oil paints or any number of other forms.

In sculpture, the same holds true some artists stick to the traditional modes, some doing it with a modern flair, and some choose Western or brand new modes, styles, and media. Yo Akiyama is just one of many modern Japanese sculptors. He works primarily in clay pottery and ceramics, creating works that are very simple and straightforward, looking like they were created out of the earth itself. Another sculptor, using iron and other modern materials, built a large modern art sculpture in the Israeli port city of Haifa, called Hanabi (Fireworks). Nahoko Kojima is a contemporary Kirie artist who has pioneered the technique of Paper Cut Sculpture which hangs in 3D.

Takashi Murakami is arguably one of the most well-known Japanese modern artists in the Western world. Murakami and the other artists in his studio create pieces in a style, inspired by anime, which he has dubbed "superflat". His pieces take a multitude of forms, from painting to sculpture, some truly massive in size. But most if not all show very clearly this anime influence, utilizing bright colors and simplified details.

Yayoi Kusama, Yoshitomo Nara, Hiroshi Sugimoto, Chiharu Shiota, Daidō Moriyama, Mariko Mori, Aya Takano, and Tabaimo are considered significant artists in the field of contemporary Japanese art. [71] The Group 1965, an artists' collective, counts contemporary artist Makoto Aida among its members. [72]

Many traditional forms of Japanese music, dance, and theater have survived in the contemporary world, enjoying some popularity through reidentification with Japanese cultural values. Traditional music and dance, which trace their origins to ancient religious use—Buddhist, Shintō, and folk—have been preserved in the dramatic performances of Noh, Kabuki, and bunraku theater. Ancient court music and dance forms deriving from continental sources were preserved through Imperial household musicians and temple and shrine troupes. Some of the oldest musical instruments in the world have been in continuous use in Japan from the Jōmon period, as shown by finds of stone and clay flutes and zithers having between two and four strings, to which Yayoi period metal bells and gongs were added to create early musical ensembles. By the early historical period (6th to 7th centuries), there were a variety of large and small drums, gongs, chimes, flutes, and stringed instruments, such as the imported mandolin-like biwa and the flat six-stringed zither, which evolved into the thirteen-stringed koto. These instruments formed the orchestras for the 7th-century continentally derived ceremonial court music (gagaku), which, together with the accompanying bugaku (a type of court dance), are the most ancient of such forms still performed at the Imperial court, ancient temples, and shrines. Buddhism introduced the rhythmic chants, still used, that underpin Shigin, and that were joined with native ideas to underlay the development of vocal music, such as in Noh.

Japanese art is characterized by unique polarities. In the ceramics of the prehistoric periods, for example, exuberance was followed by disciplined and refined artistry. Another instance is provided by two 16th-century structures that are poles apart: the Katsura Detached Palace is an exercise in simplicity, with an emphasis on natural materials, rough and untrimmed, and an affinity for beauty achieved by accident Nikkō Tōshō-gū is a rigidly symmetrical structure replete with brightly colored relief carvings covering every visible surface. Japanese art, valued not only for its simplicity but also for its colorful exuberance, has considerably influenced 19th-century Western painting and 20th-century Western architecture.

Japan's aesthetic conceptions, deriving from diverse cultural traditions, have been formative in the production of unique art forms. Over the centuries, a wide range of artistic motifs developed and were refined, becoming imbued with symbolic significance. Like a pearl, they acquired many layers of meaning and a high luster. Japanese aesthetics provide a key to understanding artistic works perceivably different from those coming from Western traditions.

Within the East Asian artistic tradition, China has been the acknowledged teacher and Japan the devoted student. Nevertheless, several Japanese arts developed their own style, which can be differentiated from various Chinese arts. The monumental, symmetrically balanced, rational approach of Chinese art forms became miniaturized, irregular, and subtly suggestive in Japanese hands. Miniature rock gardens, diminutive plants (pundurkociņš), un ikebana (flower arrangements), in which the selected few represented a garden, were the favorite pursuits of refined aristocrats for a millennium, and they have remained a part of contemporary cultural life.

The diagonal, reflecting a natural flow, rather than the fixed triangle, became the favored structural device, whether in painting, architectural or garden design, dance steps, or musical notations. Odd numbers replace even numbers in the regularity of a Chinese master pattern, and a pull to one side allows a motif to turn the corner of a three-dimensional object, thus giving continuity and motion that is lacking in a static frontal design. Japanese painters used the devices of the cutoff, close-up, and fade-out by the 12th century in yamato-e, or Japanese-style, scroll painting, perhaps one reason why modern filmmaking has been such a natural and successful art form in Japan. Suggestion is used rather than direct statement oblique poetic hints and allusive and inconclusive melodies and thoughts have proved frustrating to the Westerner trying to penetrate the meanings of literature, music, painting, and even everyday language.

The Japanese began defining such aesthetic ideas in a number of evocative phrases by at least the 10th or 11th century. The courtly refinements of the aristocratic Heian period evolved into the elegant simplicity seen as the essence of good taste in the understated art that is called shibui. Two terms originating from Zen Buddhist meditative practices describe degrees of tranquility: one, the repose found in humble melancholy (wabi), the other, the serenity accompanying the enjoyment of subdued beauty (sabi). Zen thought also contributed a penchant for combining the unexpected or startling, used to jolt one's consciousness toward the goal of enlightenment. In art, this approach was expressed in combinations of such unlikely materials as lead inlaid in lacquer and in clashing poetic imagery. Unexpectedly humorous and sometimes grotesque images and motifs also stem from the Zen kōan (conundrum). Although the arts have been mainly secular since the Edo period, traditional aesthetics and training methods, stemming generally from religious sources, continue to underlie artistic productions.

Modern concepts Edit

Today, Japan has developed a more modern cultural aesthetic often associated with Shojo manga known as "kawaii," which can otherwise be described as "cute". Typically represented through cartoons and animation, kawaii has had a powerful cultural impact and is also a powerful agent for Japanese advertisement and consumption. [73] The concept of "cuteness" that is currently displayed in kawaii has traditionally been revered in Japanese culture spanning back to the Edo period of art in the 15th century. [74]

Kawaii fashion found in Tokyo, Japan

Osaka Kawaii à Japan Expo 2014.

Traditional aesthetics Edit

Traditional Japanese Aesthetics are forms of beauty in Japanese culture that derive from the earliest centuries. At least over two-hundred years ago. Some of these early aesthetics make up the Japanese Aesthetic as a whole: Syncretic Buddhist Art, Wabi-Sabi, Miyabi, Shibui, and Jo-ha-Kyu.

Syncretic Buddhist art Edit

Wabi-Sabi Edit

This aesthetic in Japanese culture is known for many things such as beauty in all things, even those that are imperfect. Modesty and unconventional things are what are seen as the wabi-sabi aesthetic. Wabi and sabi both make up the aesthetic of beauty in incompleteness together. When separated, both serve as differing terms. Wabi stands for fresh, simple work, denoting all complication and having a very rustic feel to all it relates too. Being made from nature and made from man itself in a tandem. If made by accident, it brings about a certain uniqueness to the work. Sabi is beauty and how it originates from age. The cycle of life plays a great role in sabi, adding to the aesthetic that sense of beauty in works that receive mending damage from aging over time. When bringing wabi and sabi together, it creates the aesthetic that every simple piece developed does not require a complicated design. Nor does it require absolute completeness for beauty to be found in it, and with age comes more delicate beauty.

Wabi-sabi has always been related to tea ceremonies in Japanese culture. It is said that these ceremonies are profound wabi-sabi events. Wabi-sabi is also related to activities such as architecture, fashion, and philosophy. All of these portions of wabi-sabi all share belief in the same theme: all imperfections such as incomplete work holds undeniable beauty. However, not everyone, of course, favors the idea behind wabi-sabi. While this is true, there are many who wish to keep the belief alive despite what others believe. Overall, wabi-sabi seems to be a very mindful approach to everyday life. A calm way to see things, and a way to live without coming off as judgmental. When understanding wabi-sabi, there are terms that strongly relate to the aesthetic as well.

Fukinsei: asymmetry, irregularity. Kanso: simplicity. Koko: basic, weathered. Shizen: without pretense, natural. Yugen: subtly profound grace, not obvious. Datsuzoku: unbounded by convention, free. Seijaku: tranquility, silence.

Each of these terms are used to break down the complete understanding of wabi-sabi. It more so relates to the philosophy aspect of the entire aesthetic and how to view one's surroundings. These can allude to several things including the ideas in humans, the themes behind certain aspects of life, or nature itself. Each term leads back to the point that wabi-sabi is an aesthetic that is about appreciating the small things that are imperfect and or incomplete.

Miyabi Edit

In the ongoing history of Japan, miyabi can stand for many things. However, it seems to be centered around the concept of elegance, beauty, refinement, and courtliness. For this, it is one of the older aesthetics among most of the Japanese aesthetics in the culture. That would explain why it is not as popular as the rest which may be newer compared to miyabi. It is a term that is also used to express aristocratic culture. Miyabi eliminates all forms of rudeness and crudity from the culture. This brings about the proper picture and form of aristocratic culture. Miyabi brings about these changes. Miyabi ensures that refinement of love, literature, feeling, and art is celebrated within the Japanese culture. Refinement is welcomed.

Shibui Edit

Shibui is coming to understand an object or an art piece for what it is. Locating simple and subtle beauty in certain things is a goal when it comes to designing or reviewing certain designs. In many ways, shibui is very similar to wabi-sabi but is not wabi-sabi. Shibui appreciates items and objects for simply being. There is no complication or irrational thinking when it comes down to shibui. Akin to certain aesthetics in the Japanese culture, there are a couple of terms in relation to Shibui: shibumi is the taste of shibui Shibusa is the state of shibui.

Both these terms relate to subtle, unobtrusive beauty. There are several items and objects that can be considered a part of the shibui aesthetic, not just art or fashion. It can also be people, animals, songs, movies, several different types of media can be seen as shibui. For example, a pair of shoes, a camera, a moped bike, and several different pieces of art or objects used for everyday activity can be seen as shibui. Direct and simple is the way of shibui. Nothing over the top or too flashy.

Jo-ha-kyu Edit

This is an aesthetic that originated from the Noh Theatre and even appeared in the 14th century. It is used in different art forms in Japan even still today. It is a movement that has been applied in several different arts with jo, ha, and kyu standing for individual things to make up its definition: jo, 'beginning' ha, 'break', 'crack' kyu: 'rapid', 'over'

Essentially, what this aesthetic means is that when it comes down to pieces that deal with movement, things should start slowly with proper build-up. Almost akin to how a story is told. Then once it reaches its climax, it speeds up. When it reaches its end, then that is when things begin to rapidly speed up until all of a sudden it has reached an ending.

Traditionally, the artist was a vehicle for expression and was personally reticent, in keeping with the role of an artisan or entertainer of low social status. The calligrapher, a member of the Confucian literati class, or samurai class in Japan, had a higher status, while artists of great genius were often recognized in the Kamakura period by receiving a name from a feudal lord and thus rising socially. The performing arts, however, were generally held in less esteem, and the purported immorality of actresses of the early Kabuki theater caused the Tokugawa government to bar women from the stage female roles in Kabuki and Noh thereafter were played by men.

After the World War II, artists typically gathered in arts associations, some of which were long-established professional societies while others reflected the latest arts movement. The Japan Artists League, for example, was responsible for the largest number of major exhibitions, including the prestigious annual Nitten (Japan Art Exhibition). The PEN Club of Japan (PEN stands for prose, essay, and narrative), a branch of an international writers' organization, was the largest of some thirty major authors' associations. Actors, dancers, musicians, and other performing artists boasted their own societies, including the Kabuki Society, organized in 1987 to maintain this art's traditional high standards, which were thought to be endangered by modern innovation. By the 1980s, however, avant-garde painters and sculptors had eschewed all groups and were "unattached" artists.

Art schools Edit

There are a number of specialized universities for the arts in Japan, led by the national universities. The most important is the Tokyo Arts University, one of the most difficult of all national universities to enter. Another seminal center is Tama Art University, which produced many of Japan's late 20th-century innovative young artists. Traditional training in the arts, derived from Chinese traditional methods, remains experts teach from their homes or head schools working within a master-pupil relationship. A pupil does not experiment with a personal style until achieving the highest level of training, or graduating from an arts school, or becoming head of a school. Many young artists have criticized this system as stifling creativity and individuality. A new generation of the avant-garde has broken with this tradition, often receiving its training in the West. In the traditional arts, however, the master-pupil system preserves the secrets and skills of the past. Some master-pupil lineages can be traced to the Kamakura period, from which they continue to use a great master's style or theme. Japanese artists consider technical virtuosity as the sine qua non of their professions, a fact recognized by the rest of the world as one of the hallmarks of Japanese art.

The national government has actively supported the arts through the Agency for Cultural Affairs, set up in 1968 as a special body of the Ministry of Education. The agency's budget for FY 1989 rose to ¥37.8 billion after five years of budget cuts, but still represented much less than 1 percent of the general budget. The agency's Cultural Affairs Division disseminated information about the arts within Japan and internationally, and the Cultural Properties Protection Division (文化財保護部, now 文化財部) protected the nation's cultural heritage. The Cultural Affairs Division is concerned with such areas as art and culture promotion, arts copyrights, and improvements in the national language. It also supports both national and local arts and cultural festivals, and it funds traveling cultural events in music, theater, dance, art exhibitions, and filmmaking. Special prizes are offered to encourage young artists and established practitioners, and some grants are given each year to enable them to train abroad. The agency funds national museums of modern art in Kyoto and Tokyo and The National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, which exhibit both Japanese and international shows. The agency also supports the Japan Art Academy, which honors eminent persons of arts and letters, appointing them to membership and offering ¥3.5 million in prize money. Awards are made in the presence of the Emperor, who personally bestows the highest accolade, the Order of Culture. Tokyo University of the Arts also taking active roles on several art events in previous years. Their other campuses are also involving varied courses.

Private sponsorship and foundations Edit

Arts patronage and promotion by the government are broadened to include a new cooperative effort with corporate Japan to provide funding beyond the tight budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Many other public and private institutions participate, especially in the burgeoning field of awarding arts prizes. A growing number of large corporations join major newspapers in sponsoring exhibitions and performances and in giving yearly prizes. The most important of the many literary awards given are the venerable Naoki Prize and the Akutagawa Prize, the latter being the equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize in the United States.

In 1989 an effort to promote cross-cultural exchange led to the establishment of a Japanese "Nobel Prize" for the arts, the Premium Imperiale, by the Japan Art Association. This prize of US$100,000 was funded largely by the mass media conglomerate Fujisankei Communications Group and was awarded on a worldwide selection basis.

A number of foundations promoting the arts arose in the 1980s, including the Cultural Properties Foundation set up to preserve historic sites overseas, especially along the Silk Road in Inner Asia and at Dunhuang in China. Another international arrangement was made in 1988 with the United States Smithsonian Institution for cooperative exchange of high-technology studies of Asian artifacts. The government plays a major role by funding the Japan Foundation, which provides both institutional and individual grants, effects scholarly exchanges, awards annual prizes, supported publications and exhibitions, and sends traditional Japanese arts groups to perform abroad. The Arts Festival held for two months each fall for all the performing arts is sponsored by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Major cities also provides substantial support for the arts a growing number of cities in the 1980s had built large centers for the performing arts and, stimulated by government funding, were offering prizes such as the Lafcadio Hearn Prize initiated by the city of Matsue. A number of new municipal museums were also providing about one-third more facilities in the 1980s than were previously available. In the late 1980s, Tokyo added more than twenty new cultural halls, notably, the large Bunkamura built by Tokyu Group and the reconstruction of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. All these efforts reflect a rising popular enthusiasm for the arts. Japanese art buyers swept the Western art markets in the late 1980s, paying record highs for impressionist paintings and US$51.7 million alone for one blue period Picasso.


Skatīties video: Japans Golden Age: The Heian Period