Džordžs Īstmens - vēsture

Džordžs Īstmens - vēsture


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Džordžs Īstmens

1854- 1932

Amerikāņu izgudrotājs

Džordžs Īstmens piedzima 1854. gada 12. jūlijā Votervillā, Ņujorkā. Īstmens pameta skolu 15 gadu vecumā, lai palīdzētu uzturēt ģimeni pēc tēva nāves. Viņš sāka strādāt foto biznesā. Viņš 1884. gadā nodibināja uzņēmumu Kodakl. Amerikāņu izgudrotājs Džordžs Īstmens 1887. gadā iepazīstināja ar savu Kodak Nr. 1 kastes kameru pēc tam, kad līdz 1880. gadam bija pilnveidojis sausās plāksnes fotofilmu.

Viņš atnesa fotogrāfijas masām ar savām salīdzinoši lētajām kamerām, ieskaitot Brownie, kas tika ieviests 1904. gadā un kura cena bija tikai 1 USD.

Liela daļa Īstmena bagātību tika ziedota augstākās izglītības iestādēm, īpaši Masačūsetsas Tehnoloģiju institūtam. Īstmens pēdējos divus dzīves gadus piedzīvoja stipras sāpes un izdarīja pašnāvību, atstājot aiz sevis zīmīti, kurā bija teikts: "mans darbs ir padarīts, kāpēc gaidīt".


Amerikāņu pieredze

Džordžs Īstmens dzimis 1854. gada 12. jūlijā Votervillā, Ņujorkā. Viņa tēvs Džordžs Vašingtons Īstmens vadīja biznesa skolu, kur mācīja grāmatvedību un pildspalvu, bet viņam bija jāstrādā otrs darbs, pārdodot augļu kokus un rozes, kas viņam lika sadalīt laiku starp Votervilu un Ročesteru, Ņujorkā. Jauno Džordžu Īstmenu no agras bērnības galvenokārt uzaudzināja viņa māte Marija (Kilbourn) Eastman, un tikai viņa pēc tēva nāves 1862. gadā. 1870. gadā nomira arī viņa vecākā māsa Keitija, kura cieta no poliomielīta , atstājot Īstmena mājsaimniecību uz neatgriezenisku rētu.

15 gadu vecumā ģimene pēc pārcelšanās uz Ročesteru Īstmenu pameta skolu un sāka strādāt par biroja zēnu, lai palīdzētu uzturēt ģimeni. 1875. gadā viņš kļuva par jaunāko grāmatvedi Ročesteras krājbankā. Skrupulozi taupot, viņš varēja apsvērt karjeru nekustamā īpašuma jomā un 1877. gadā plānoja ceļojumu uz Hispaniola, kur sākās spekulācijas ar zemi. Draugs pārliecināts, ka vislabāk var dokumentēt ceļojumu ar kameru, viņš nopirka savu pirmo fototehniku.

Ekskursija nekad nenotika, bet Īstmens aizrāvās ar fotografēšanu. Viņš meklēja divus amatierfotogrāfus Ročesterā, Džordžu Monro un Džordžu Seldenu, un kļuva par viņu labprātīgo skolnieku. Abonēšana žurnālam "British Journal of Photography" iedvesmoja viņu veikt uzlabojumus fotografēšanā ar sausām plāksnēm, kas pēc tam bija zemāka alternatīva fotografēšanai ar slapjām plāksnēm (process, kurā stikla plāksne tika atklāta un attīstīta slapja). Šo eksperimentu rezultātā tika iegūta formula uz papīra želatīna bāzes un mašīna sausu plākšņu pārklāšanai. Viņš sāka uzņēmējdarbību, pārdodot sausos šķīvjus 1880. gada aprīlī, telpā virs mūzikas veikala Ročesteras finanšu rajonā.

Īstmena karjera guva impulsu, kad E & amp; H.T. Anthony, tā laika vadošais nacionālais fotogrāfijas piegādes izplatītājs, sāka pirkt viņa šķīvjus. Kādu laiku viņš turpināja strādāt bankā, bet 1881. gada septembrī piedāvāja atkāpties no amata pēc tam, kad tika nodots amatā paaugstināšanai amatā, kas, viņaprāt, bija viņa tiesības.

Īstmanam 18. gadsimta 80. gadi bija dinamiska desmitgade. 1884. gadā viņš pieņēma darbā kameru izgudrotāju un ražotāju Viljamu Holu Volkeru, un kopā viņi izstrādāja Īstmena-Volkera ruļļu turētāju, kas ļāva fotogrāfiem virzīt papīra plēvi caur kameru, nevis rīkoties ar atsevišķām plāksnēm. Rullīšu turētājs sāka definēt kameru pamattehnoloģiju līdz digitālās fotogrāfijas ieviešanai divdesmitā gadsimta beigās. Tūlīt tas kļuva par pamatu pirmajai Kodak kamerai, kas sākotnēji bija pazīstama kā "rullīšu turētāja krūšu kamera". Termins Kodak, ko šim gadījumam izdomāja pats Īstmens, pirmo reizi parādījās 1887. gada decembrī.

Kamēr pirmā Kodak kamera bija ļoti populāra amatieru vidū, tajā izmantotā papīra plēve sniedza viduvējus rezultātus. Henrijs Reičenbahs, ķīmiķis, kas nolīgts strādāt pie emulsijām, tika aicināts nākt klajā ar caurspīdīgu, elastīgu plēvi. Panākumi nāca 1889. gada februārī, kad Reihenbahs panāca risinājumu, kas, pārlejot pāri stiklam un ļaujot tam iztvaikot, radīs caurspīdīgu elastīgu plēvi, kuru pēc tam var sagriezt sloksnēs un ievietot kamerās. Šī filma, kuru Tomass Edisons izmantoja savos agrīnajos eksperimentos ar kinokameru, kļuva par Īstmena impērijas centrālo elementu, lai gan tās patents vēlāk tika veiksmīgi apstrīdēts.

Astoņdesmitajos gados Īstmenas kompānija piedzīvoja grūtus laikus līdz ar Reihenbaha aiziešanu un valsts finansiālo depresiju, taču tā bija atguvusies līdz 1900. gadam, kad uzņēmums ieviesa Brownie kameru, kas tika pārdota par vienu dolāru. Līdz ar divdesmitā gadsimta iestāšanos inovāciju, neatlaidības un uzmundrinātas biznesa sajūtas kombinācija bija izvirzījusi Eastman kompāniju fotogrāfijas nozares priekšgalā starptautiskā līmenī, no kuras tā nekad nav atteikusies.

Džordžs Īstmens nekad nav precējies, lai gan viņam bija ilgstošas ​​platoniskas attiecības ar Džozefīni Dikmenu, apmācītu dziedātāju un darījumu partnera Džordža Dikmena sievu, un viņš kļuva īpaši tuvs viņai pēc Marijas Īstmenas nāves 1907. gadā. atdeva labdarības organizācijām vairāk nekā 100 miljonus dolāru un savas dzīves laikā nolēma to darīt, nevis nodibināja fondu. Viņš bija arī dedzīgs ceļotājs un mūzikas mīļotājs. Saskaroties ar izredzēm dzīvot ratiņkrēslā, viņš 1932. gada 14. martā atņēma sev dzīvību ar automātisko pistoli.

Uzņēmējs Īstmens
Džordža Īstmena galvenā vēsturiskā nozīme bija biznesa uzņēmējam. Viņš uzcēla jaunu un strauji augošu daudznacionālu korporāciju, kas savā laikā pārveidoja fotogrāfijas nozari un nodrošināja vadošo lomu visā pasaulē vairāk nekā gadsimtu. Īstmens fotogrāfijas nozarei bija tāds pats kā Džons D. Rokfellers naftas rūpniecībai, bet Džeimss Djūks - tabakas rūpniecībai, apņēmīgam starptautiskas nozīmes amerikāņu uzņēmējam.

Izmantojot populāro Kodak kameru, Īstmens pārtaisīja mazo, miegaino amerikāņu fotogrāfijas industriju, kurā viņš bija ienācis 1880. gadā. Dominēja pāris nacionālās piegādes mājas un salīdzinoši neliels skaits profesionālu studijas fotogrāfu, vecā industrija saskārās ar jaunu neatlaidīgu uzņēmēju. . Viņš ātri pārstrādāja nozari par ļoti novatorisku un strauji augošu nozari, kur viens masveida uzņēmums ieguva ievērojamu vietu pasaulē.

Ročesteras uzņēmējs izmantoja iniciatīvu laikā, kad arī citi amerikāņu biznesa novatori saskārās ar jauno nacionālo tirgu, kas radās, pabeidzot Amerikas dzelzceļu tīkla izveidi. Tāpat kā Īstmens, arī šie uzņēmēji saskārās ar peļņas samazināšanos cenu konkurencē. Vizionārākie uzcēla lielas korporācijas, bieži vien iegādājoties vai apvienojoties ar konkurentiem vai veidojot uzņēmumus ar integrētām mārketinga, ražošanas un izejvielu piegādes iekārtām. Īstmens izdarīja abus.

Līdz 1890. gadu vidum Īstmena agrākā pieredze šajā biznesā pārliecināja viņu, ka gan amatieri, gan profesionāli fotogrāfi ir gatavi maksāt augstāku cenu, lai nodrošinātu gaismjutīgu materiālu, piemēram, ruļļu plēves, sausu plākšņu un fotopapīra papīra, kvalitāti un absolūtu uzticamību. Attiecīgi Īstmens izstrādāja attīstītu daudzpusīgu biznesa stratēģiju sēriju, kuras mērķis bija saglabāt augstu peļņu, konkurējot ar produktu kvalitāti, uzticamību un uzlabojumiem, nevis konkurējot ar zemākām cenām. Šīs stratēģijas ietvēra 1) augstas kvalitātes un uzticamu gaismjutīgu materiālu ražošanu 2) nepārtrauktus uzlabojumus ruļļfilmu kamerās 3) konkurējošu uzņēmumu iegādi 4) mārketinga, ražošanas un izejvielu piegādes integrēšanu vienā uzņēmumā 5) pētniecības pārākumu fotogrāfijas zinātnē. un tehnoloģijas un 6) galveno darbinieku attīstība, lai optimizētu peļņu un galu galā pārmantotu uzņēmuma augstākās vadības amatus.

Jau 1890. gadu vidū Īstmenam bija izstrādātas nepārtrauktas pilnveidošanas stratēģijas ruļļfilmu kamerās, kas ietvēra jaunu kameru funkciju izstrādi uzņēmumā un to patentu iegādi no citiem. No 1895. līdz 1898. gadam Eastman pat patentu iegādei iegādājās trīs mazas kameru kompānijas.

Kopš 1885. gada, kad viņš bija sācis ražot fotopapīra papīru, Īstmens smagi cīnījās, lai saglabātu ievērojamu tirgus daļu. Lai iegūtu konkurences priekšrocības, viņš kopā ar konkurējoša fotopapīra uzņēmuma prezidentu Čārlzu Abotu 1898. gadā vienojās par ekskluzīvu līgumu par Ziemeļameriku par neapstrādāta papīra iegādi no galvenā starptautiskā piegādātāja General Paper Company. Šis uzņēmums, kas atrodas Briselē, Beļģijā, ražoja pasaulē labāko neapstrādāto papīru fotogrāfiju ražotājiem. Īstmens un Abbots pēc tam izmantoja savu kontroli pār neapstrādātu papīru, lai apvienotu Eastman Kodak fotopapīra nodaļu ar Abbott uzņēmumu un vēl diviem lieliem fotopapīra uzņēmumiem. Trīs gadu laikā Eastman Kodak iegādājās šo kombainu un dominēja šajā nozarē.

No 1902. līdz 1904. gadam Īstmens pievērsa uzmanību sausām plāksnēm, iegādājoties vienu angļu un trīs lielākos amerikāņu ražotājus. Viņš ne tikai ieguva dominējošo stāvokli šajā nozarē, bet arī ieguva svarīgus emulsiju veidojošus komercnoslēpumus, kas stiprināja ruļļu filmu kvalitāti un palīdzēja saglabāt dominējošo stāvokli starp fotogrāfiem amatieriem un kinematogrāfiem.

Desmit gadu laikā Džordžs Īstmens bija apvienojis Eastman Kodak lielāko daļu vadošo amerikāņu uzņēmumu, kas izkaisīti dažādās ražošanas nozarēs. Turklāt viņš bija izveidojis savu uzņēmumu par lielu starptautisku korporāciju ar ražošanas un izplatīšanas iekārtām visā pasaulē. Zīmīgi, ka Īstmens šo konsolidāciju paveica bez spēcīgu J. P. Morganam līdzīgu investīciju baņķieru "labuma".

Tikmēr, tāpat kā Rokfellers, Djūks, Ford un citi, Īstmens bija sācis apvienot Eastman Kodak funkcijas, kuras iepriekš veica atsevišķas mārketinga mājas, ražošanas uzņēmumi un materiālu piegādes uzņēmumi. Sākotnēji viņa mazais uzņēmums bija ražošanas uzņēmums, bet jau astoņdesmito gadu vidū viņš sāka attīstīt savu pārdošanas nodaļu, pat izveidojot tirdzniecības vietu Londonā. 20. gadsimta pirmajā desmitgadē viņš paplašinājās visā pasaulē un nopirka divdesmit lielākos fotogrāfijas mazumtirdzniecības veikalus lielajās pilsētās visā ASV un Kanādā. Tikmēr viņš bija sācis kontrolēt pamata izejvielas, noslēdzot ilgtermiņa līgumus ar General Paper Company. Pēc tam viņš pakāpeniski izveidoja spēju ražot vitāli nepieciešamos materiālus, piemēram, neapstrādātu papīru, želatīnu, ķimikālijas un lēcas. Viņš pat nopirka ogļu raktuves uzņēmuma degvielas vajadzībām.

Apvienojot vienā uzņēmumā izejvielu ražošanu, pārdošanu un ražošanu, tika panākta saskaņota, uzticama darbība, kas veicināja Eastman Kodak Company izaugsmi un rentabilitāti. 1912. gadā Īstmens nolīga angļu fotozinātnieku, doktoru C. E. Kenneth Mees, lai izveidotu un vadītu Eastman Kodak pētniecības laboratoriju Ročesterā, Ņujorkā. Īstmens piedāvāja Meesam, ka viņa jaunajai laboratorijai desmit gadus nav jāražo praktisks produkts, bet pavēlēja viņam uzņemties atbildību par "fotogrāfijas nākotni". Mees un citi Eastman rūpīgi atlasītās vadības komandas locekļi patiešām nodrošināja uzņēmuma nākotni. Tas bija vienīgais Īstmena bērns, kuru pusgadsimtu audzināja fotogrāfijas industrijas vīzionārākais uzņēmējs.

Īstmens patentē sausās plāksnes procesu
Kad Džordžs Īstmens 1877. gadā sāka studēt fotogrāfiju, attēli tika uzņemti, izmantojot procesu, ko sauc par slapjo plākšņu fotografēšanu. Vēlāk viņš aprakstīja šo procesu, atgādinot par savām pirmajām fotogrāfiskajām ekskursijām pa Ročesteru kopā ar savu mentoru Džordžu Monro:

Īstmens no sākuma nolēma vienkāršot šo procesu. Kad viņš nestrādāja savā bankas darbā, viņš turpināja eksperimentēt ar fotogrāfiju un, lai paplašinātu savas zināšanas, paņēma abonementu "British Journal of Photography". Pirmajā numurā, ko viņš saņēma 1878. gada februārī, bija intriģējošas ziņas: Čārlzs Benets bija izstrādājis formulu, kas paātrina sausās plāksnes emulsijas.

Tas bija viss uzmundrinājums, kas bija vajadzīgs Īstmenam. Neapmācīts un nepieredzējis, viņš sāka aprīt fotogrāfisko literatūru un sarakstīties ar tik daudziem amatieriem, cik vien varēja atrast. Viņš sazinājās ar profesionāli, vienu Keriju Lī, un apvainoja viņu ar jautājumiem, līdz skolotājs kļuva par studentu. Bieži viņa māte no rīta atrada guļam uz grīdas.

Īstmens sākotnēji eksperimentēja ar savu nogatavinātā želatīna un sudraba bromīda formulu, ielejot to no tējkannas uz stikla plāksnes, pēc tam sadalot to ar stikla stieni. Tomēr šī metode bija laikietilpīga un līdz ar to arī dārga, tāpēc viņš uzbūvēja pārklāšanas mašīnu atbilstoši viņa specifikācijām. Vispārējos centienos pēc vienkāršības viņš uzcēla arī kameru, kas bija vieglāka par pieejamajām standarta kamerām. Izmantojot šo sistēmu, viņš uzņēma savu pirmo fotogrāfiju uz sausas plāksnes: skats uz Čārlza P. Hama ēku pāri ielai no loga.

Īstmena uzmanība pārklāšanas mašīnai un vieglai kamerai parāda, ka viņš jau agrīnā stadijā domā par ražošanas izmaksām. Un patiešām laikā, kad sausās plāksnes novatori aizsērēja fotožurnālu reklāmas lapas, ražošanas efektivitāte ir tā, kas Eastmanu izceltos. Bet 1878. gadā viņš joprojām bija pazemīgs bankas darbinieks, kura rīcībā bija maz kapitāla. Parādot zināmu nejūtību, viņš aicināja savu tēvoci Horaciju Īstmenu aizņemties kredītu, bet Horācija sieva tikko bija saņēmusi ārprātīgu patvērumu, un nauda par šiem ceturkšņiem nebija gaidāma.

Neuztraucoties, Īstmens izstrādāja riskantāku plānu: viņš dosies uz Londonu, kur attīstījās sauso plākšņu bizness, pārdos tiesības uz savu pārklāšanas mašīnu un izmantos naudu, lai sāktu savu biznesu mājās. Tātad, Īstmens aizgāja, no viņa krājkonta tika iztērēti 400 ASV dolāri, bez personiskas saziņas Londonā ar viņa vārdu un, vēl kritiskāk, bez patenta iegādes viņa pārklāšanas mašīnā.

Pirmajā Londonā pavadītajā dienā Īstmens iegāja "British Journal of Photography" birojos. Žurnāla prestižais redaktors V. B. Boltons vispirms bija neticīgs un varbūt pat mazliet pārbaudīgs, bet, kad Īstmens parādīja, ko spēj, Boltons apsolīja viņam atvērt durvis. Tas noveda Īstmenu pie Čārlza Fraja, kura partneris bija Čārlzs Benets-tas pats cilvēks, kura sausās plāksnes procesu viņš bija pielāgojis savām vajadzībām. Redzot, ka Benets un Frī nespēja izpildīt savus pasūtījumus, izmantojot to, kas tika uzskatīts par vismodernāko sauso plākšņu biznesā, Īstmens atgriezās Amerikā un sazinājās ar citu viņa mentoru un pieredzējušu patentu advokātu Džordžu Seldenu. Kopā viņi 1879. gada septembrī pieteica patentu viņa pārklāšanas mašīnai.

Gaidot rezultātus no Patentu valdes, Īstmens turpināja sarunas ar Frī Londonā. Galu galā nekas nesanāca. Bet līdz 1880. gada aprīlim, kad viņš saņēma patentu par "metodi un aparātu plākšņu pārklāšanai izmantošanai fotogrāfijā", viņa pārklāšanas mašīna sāka izplatīties. Fotogrāfu ietekme bija skaidra: ja želatīna fotografēšanu ar sausām plāksnēm varētu padarīt dzīvotspējīgu, viņiem vairs nevajadzēs pašiem izgatavot plāksnes uz vietas, bet tās varēs iegādāties fasētā veidā no ražotāja.

Gribēdams izmantot šo impulsu, Īstmens noīrēja istabu virs mūzikas veikala Ročesteras finanšu rajonā un sāka izgriezt sausas plāksnes ar savu pārklāšanas mašīnu. Rūpnīca bija mežonīgas ekonomikas pētījums ar nodalījumiem visam, līdz pat dvieļiem. Šī centība efektivitātei ātri atmaksājās. Līdz jūlijam viņam bija jauna, uzlabota pārklāšanas mašīna, ko reklamēt. Līdz augustam Edvards Entonijs, Amerikas prestižākā nacionālā fotopiegādes nama vadītājs, pirka Īstmena šķīvjus. Kapitāls ieradās pirms gada beigām no ģimenes drauga Henrija Stronga.

Trīs gadus pēc pirmās fotogrāfijas uzņemšanas Džordžs Īstmens devās ceļā.

Īstmens un masveida ražošana
Lai gan tas netiek bieži atzīmēts, Džordža Īstmena sapnis par kameru, ko varētu ražot masām, balstījās uz maināmu detaļu esamību. Deviņpadsmitā gadsimta beigās tas joprojām bija lielā mērā nepārbaudīts princips, kura akmeņainā vēsture aizsākās gandrīz republikas sākumā.

Pirmā piezīmju zīme, kas mēģināja sasniegt savstarpēji aizvietojamas detaļas, bija Eli Vitnija. Redzējusi, ka viņa mēģinājums tirgot kokvilnas džinu beidzas ar katastrofu, Vitnija 1797. gadā pievērsās ieroču izgatavošanas idejai. Toreiz Kongress paredzēja Napoleona uzbrukumu. Spēlējot uz šīm bailēm, Vitnija spēja uzsākt ieroču tirgotāju valdības līgumu praksi - šī tradīcija turpinās līdz pat šai dienai.

Līgums bija pārsteidzoši dāsns. Stājoties spēkā 1798. gada 21. jūnijā, tā aicināja Vitniju saražot 10 000 musketes, no kurām pirmās 4000 tiks piegādātas pusotra gada laikā. Par katru piegādāto musketi viņš saņemtu 13,40 ASV dolārus par kopējo summu 134 000 ASV dolāru, vajadzības gadījumā veicot avansa maksājumus. Šo brīnišķīgo summu padarīja vēl pārsteidzošāku fakts, ka Vitnijam gandrīz nebija zināšanu par ieroču izgatavošanu laikā, kad labākās bruņošanās nespēja saražot vairāk nekā 5000 ieroču gadā.

Vitnijs izveidoja rūpnīcu Austrumheivenā, Konektikutas štatā, un iedzina savus strādniekus smagi, taču pirmais termiņš - 1799. gada 30. septembris - viņam nebija musketes, ko parādīt. Patiešām, viņš pat nebija aprīkojis savu bruņojumu. Ātri domājot, viņš uzrakstīja vēstuli valsts sekretāram Oliveram Volkotam, paziņojot par "jaunu principu" ražošanā. Viņš apgalvoja, ka šis princips radīs revolūciju šajā ieroču nozarē, pat ja tas uzlabos preču kvalitāti.

"Viens no maniem galvenajiem mērķiem," viņš rakstīja, ir veidot instrumentus, lai paši instrumenti veidotu darbu un piešķirtu katrai daļai taisnīgu proporciju - kas, kad tas būs paveikts, nodrošinās ekspedīciju, vienveidību un precizitāti kopumā . " Ieinteresēts, Volkots piešķīra pagarinājumu ar nosacījumu, ka Vitnijs demonstrēs savus rezultātus.

1801. gada janvārī auditorijas priekšā, kurā bija prezidents Džons Adamss un Vitnija vecais draugs, jaunievēlētais prezidents Tomass Džefersons, Vitnija personīgi parādīja, kā vienā un tajā pašā musketē var ievietot 10 dažādas slēdzenes, izmantojot tikai parastu skrūvgriezi. Pēc tam viņš paveica vienu labāku un atdalīja 100 dažādas slēdzenes, samīcīja to gabalus un salika tos kopā, "paņemot pirmos gabalus, kas pa rokai". Viņa auditorija bija pārsteigta.

Diemžēl Vitnija slēdzenes nebija pat savstarpēji aizvietojamas. Kā vēlāk tika atklāts, uz viņa individuālajām slēdzenes sastāvdaļām bija individuāli veidotu gabalu zīmes. Vēsturnieks Merrits Rojs Smits šajā jautājumā ir kategorisks: "Vitnija savu 1801. gada demonstrāciju noteikti bija sarīkojusi ar šim gadījumam īpaši sagatavotiem paraugiem."

Daudzi amerikāņu rūpnieki nejauši apgalvoja, ka pēc Vitnijas tos var aizstāt bez mazākiem pierādījumiem, lai pamatotu savus apgalvojumus. Semjuels Kolts, sešu šāvēju izgudrotājs, pat sadarbojās ar Eli Vitniju, jaunāko, lai pastiprinātu veiksmes ilūziju. Bet patiesībā īstie panākumi notika Anglijā, kamēr amerikāņi vijās.

Henrijs Maudslajs uzauga ap Vulvičas piestātnēm, kur viņš agrīnā vecumā kļuva noderīgs, izgatavojot un pildot patronas vietējam arsenālam. Zaļajā 13 gadu vecumā viņš pievērsa uzmanību slavenajam atslēdzniekam un santehnikas ģēnijam Džozefam Bramaham. Bet Maudslajs bija pārāk spilgts, lai ilgi turētos pie cita ģēnija. Kad Brama atteicās viņam paaugstināt likmi, viņš izsita pats.

Līdz 1797. gadam Maudslajs bija izveidojis savu veikalu un izstrādājis bīdāmās virpas, kas uzlaboja iepriekšējās virpas gan ātrumā, gan precizitātē, ar kādu tā varēja griezt metālu. Faktiski Maudslaja virpa, kurā bija iestrādāts tīģeļa tērauda asmens, kas uzstādīts uz precīzi ēvelētām trīsstūrveida sijām, ļāva viņam veikt darbus lielā mērogā, vienlaikus saglabājot atslēdznieka vai pulksteņmeistara precizitāti.

1808. gadā Portsmutā atrada Maudslaju, pagriežot koka takelāžas blokus, kurus galvenokārt izmantoja uz jūras kuģiem, lai ātri pārvietotu ieročus šaušanas stāvoklī. Toreiz trešās klases kuģim bija nepieciešami 1400 bloki, kas visi tika izgatavoti ar rokām. Tas nebija problēma Maudslay, kurš gadā varēja saražot 130 000 bloku.

Maudslaja darbs pavēra ceļu maināmu detaļu izgatavošanai, un drīz viņš kļuva ļoti pieprasīts pēc topošajiem inženieriem. Starp viņa daudzajiem mācekļiem bija Džozefs Vitvorts, kurš izstrādāja mērinstrumentus ar precizitāti līdz miljonam collas. Tas bija būtisks solis, jo savstarpēja aizstājamība balstījās uz precīzi novietotām detaļām, kurām, protams, bija jābūt izmērāmām, lai tās izgatavotu.

Tālāk Vitvorts aprakstīja skrūvju vītņu standartizācijas metodi 1841. gada dokumentā ar nosaukumu "Vienota skrūvju vītņu sistēma". Drīz sekoja pirmās standartizētās skrūves, un līdz ar to masveida ražošana beidzot bija sasniedzama.

Laikmetā, kad ar rokām darinātas mašīnas vēl bija norma, mēģinājumi piemērot precīzus instrumentus konkrētiem izstrādājumiem noteikti notika katrā gadījumā atsevišķi. Slavenākais piemērs, protams, ir Henrija Forda modelis T, kas pirmo reizi noripoja no viņa montāžas līnijām 1909. gadā. Bet patiesībā Džordžs Īstmens tur nokļuva pirms Ford.

Lai gan Īstmens agri atzina, ka viņa peļņa ir saistīta ar filmu pārdošanu, viņš arī zināja, ka nepārdos filmu, ja viņa kameras nedarbosies. Riteņu turētājs Īstmens-Volkers, kas tika ieviests 1885. gadā, parādīja, cik labi viņš bija apsvēris šo problēmu. Lai gan tajā bija 17 atsevišķas daļas, viņa uzņēmums jau pašā sākumā spēja apstrādāt lielu pasūtījumu apjomu. Tas kļuva vēl acīmredzamāks 1888. gadā, kad ruļļa turētājs tika iekļauts Kodak "ruļļu turētāja krūšu kamerā" un sešu mēnešu laikā pārdošanas apjoms pieauga līdz 5000 vienībām. Lai gan šis produkts reizēm sabojājās, detaļas patiesībā bija savstarpēji aizvietojamas un tāpēc salīdzinoši viegli salabojamas, pat ja Eastman neatpalika no pārdošanas apjoma.

Pēc gadsimta viltus apgalvojumiem vismaz viena amerikāņa sauklis - Kodak "Tu nospied pogu, mēs darām pārējo" - pārstāvēja vairāk nekā tukšu lielīšanos.

Eastman tirgo Kodak līniju

Īstmena mārketinga karjera būtībā sākās 1885. gadā, kad viņš iepazīstināja ar Īstmena-Volkera ruļļu turētāju, kas ļāva ekspozīciju sērijas izvērst caur kameru. Ar šo izgudrojumu tika uzsākta pilnīgi jauna koncepcija fotogrāfijā - kamera, kuru varēja izmantot ikviens. Viņa uzdevums bija padarīt šo jēdzienu skaidru sabiedrībai, kas pieradusi domāt, ka fototehnika ir aizliegta un neskaidra.

Īstmena pirmais trieciens, iespējams, bija viņa spožākais. Zīmola nosaukumam, kā viņš to redzēja, "nedrīkst nozīmēt neko. Ja nosaukumam nav vārdnīcas definīcijas, tam jābūt saistītam tikai ar jūsu produktu." Šim nolūkam viņš izgudroja un apzīmēja preču zīmi Kodak, kuru bija viegli atcerēties un grūti pārrakstīt.

Nosaukums pirmo reizi tika izmantots 1887. gada decembrī. Gandrīz nekavējoties Kodak tika izmantots kā lietvārds, darbības vārds un īpašības vārds. Cilvēki, kas izmantoja šo produktu, kļuva pazīstami kā Kodakers, un burts K kļuva par godīgu spēli ikvienam, kurš varēja izdomāt, kā to iekļaut nosaukumā: Kola, Kristmas, Kolumbus diena. Izauga Kodak Kid un Kodak Komics, kā arī *Kapteinis Kodak * - Aleksandra Bleka romāns jauniem pieaugušajiem. Fiktīva Kodak kompānija izveidoja veikalu Floridā, un neskaitāmi citi aizturēja Īstmena juridisko nodaļu, izsekojot preču zīmes pārkāpumus.

Nosaukums bija labvēlīgs sākums, taču diez vai tā bija vienīgā stratēģija, ko Īstmens sašķobīja. Jau no paša sākuma viņš atzina, ka viņa biznesa dzīvības spēks ir bērnos, kuri aizrauj fotogrāfu interesi vēl ilgi pēc tam, kad kameras jaunums ir beidzies. Agrīnās Kodak reklāmas parāda šo gudrību darbā, jo viņš centās attēlot ģimenes notikumus saistībā ar savu produktu. Vienreizējs gleznotājs amatieris, viņš šajās reklāmās pat parādīja zināmu dizaina izjūtu, rādot tās lielā blokā ar elegantiem līniju zīmējumiem laikā, kad tipiskā reklāma bija aizņemta ar informāciju. Saskaņā ar tradīciju, arī Īstmens uzsāka ideju par spilgti dzelteno iepakojumu, kas pat šodien izceļas plauktos, kas pilni ar precēm.

Tomēr pēc veiksmes sārtuma kļuva skaidrs, ka Īstmens izstiepj sevi pārāk tievi, tāpēc viņš sāka mesties, lai kāds pārņemtu uzņēmuma reklāmas darbu. Viņš atrada tieši īsto vīrieti Lūisā Burnellā Džounssā, Ročesteras universitātes absolventā, kurš tolaik strādāja Sirakūzu laikrakstā, kuru viņš pieņēma darbā 1892. gada martā. Neveikls un niecīgs Džonss kļuva par Eastman kompānijas balstu nākamajām četrām desmitgadēm. .

Džonss parādīja savu iedzimto izpratni par to, kurp virzās fotogrāfijas bizness, kad viņš intervētājam sacīja, ka "sabiedrībai jāpārdod ne tikai šī mazā melnā kaste, bet arī fotogrāfijas šarms." Patiešām, viņam pat nebija nepieciešami norādījumi uzņēmuma plānā. Kādu dienu Īstmens viņu iesauca savā kabinetā un jautāja, kāpēc viņa kopija ir tik laba. Kad Džonss riskēja, ka tas ir tāpēc, ka tas ir rakstīts sabiedrībai, nevis priekšniekam, Īstmens viņam teica: "No šī brīža es nevēlos redzēt nevienu reklāmu, kamēr tās nav izdrukātas." Ar šo vienošanos sabiedrība nāca lasīt saukļus, piemēram, "Ja tas nav Īstmens, tas nav Kodak", "Attēls uz priekšu! Kodak, kā jums iet!" un grūti pārdodamais "Momentuzņēmums, kuru vēlaties rīt, jums jāuzņem šodien."

Varbūt visefektīvākais reklāmas paņēmiens, kas iznāca no uzņēmuma Eastman, tomēr ietvēra nevis vārdus, bet tēlu: Kodak Girl. Šo ideju (lai gan viņš, protams, aizņēmās no Gibsona meiteņu kampaņas) sabiedrībā 1888. gadā iesauca daudzgadīgais vecpuiši Īstmens, kad viņš iekārtoja jaunu sievieti svītrainām kleitās un lika viņai nofotografēties. kamera rokā. Sākumā Kodak Girls tika atveidotas līniju zīmējumos, bet 1901. gadā, uzlabojot pustoņus, drukāšanu, fotografēšanu, avīzes reklāmā parādījās pirmā fotogrāfiski ilustrētā Kodak Girl.

Neatkarīgi domājošs ceļotājs Kodak Girl bija ērti gan fotogrāfs, gan fotografējams, un gadu gaitā daudzi zēni (un vīrieši) kļuva par slepenu pielūdzēju, bet neskaitāmas meitenes kopēja viņas izskatu. Vēl pagājušā gadsimta sešdesmitajos gados šī tradīcija dzīvoja, jo svītrainos tērpos izgriezti modeļi nolaidās Anglijas pludmalēs, uzņemot bildes no visiem, kas tur bija. Protams, līdz tam laikam Īstmena reklāmas kampaņa bija tik pamatīgi iekļuvusi cilvēku prātos, ka nevienu nevajadzēja informēt par tās nozīmi. Fotografēt skaistas meitenes ar Kodak kamerām rokās, kuras pašas fotografēja, vienkārši darīja visi.

Kodak kamera sāk traku
Kodak kameras ieviešana 1888. gada maijā bija dramatisks notikums. Lai gan tas maksāja 25 ASV dolārus (šajos laikos daudz naudas, bet mazāk nekā kameras ar slapjām plāksnēm), to bija viegli lietot, kā Īstmens ar savu reklāmas saukli skaidri norādīja: "Jūs nospiežat pogu, mēs darām atpūsties. "

Un cilvēki nospieda pogu. Līdz augustam Īstmenam bija grūtības izpildīt pasūtījumus, kad Kodak kameras nonāca publiskajā arēnā. Prezidentam Groveram Klīvlendam tas piederēja, lai gan acīmredzot viņš bija lēns, lai iemācītos pagriezt atslēgu, kas veicināja filmas attīstību, tāpat kā Dalailama, kurš pirmo reizi aizgāja no Tibetas. Gilberts un Salivans izteica Īstmenam vislielāko komplimentu, iemūžinot savu produktu dziesmā operetei "Utopia":

Tad viss pūlis nojauc mūsu izskatu kabatas memorandu grāmatās. Lai diagnosticētu mūsu pieticīgo pozu Kodaks dara visu iespējamo: ja jums būtu pierādījumi Par to, kas ir jaunība, jums ir nepieciešams nospiest pogu- un mēs darām visu pārējo!

Īstmena kameru parādīšanās bija tik pēkšņa un tik visaptveroša, ka dažviet reakcija bija bailes. Pludmales kūrortos sāka parādīties figūra, ko dēvēja par “kameru velnišķi”, un tā rosījās telpās, līdz varēja negaidīti noķert peldošās sievietes. Kāds kūrorts tik ļoti izjuta šo tendenci, ka publicēja paziņojumu: "CILVĒKIEM IR AIZLIEGTS LIETOT SAVU KODAKU Pludmalē." Citas vietas nebija drošākas. Kādu laiku Kodak kameras bija aizliegtas no Vašingtonas pieminekļa. Arī trauksmes signāls skanēja "Hartford Courant", paziņojot, ka "nomierinātais pilsonis nevar ļauties nevienam jautrībai, neriskējot tikt pieķertam un viņa fotogrāfijai nodot svētdienas skolas bērnu vidū".

Tomēr jautrība bija galvenais. Ja dagerrotipam un tā pēctečiem bija vajadzīgs klusums no objektiem, Kodak kamera spēja fiksēt viņu spontanitāti. Šie jaunie cilvēku tēli bija tik pārliecinoši, ka šodien ir grūti noticēt, ka dagerrotipa laikmetā kāds vispār būtu izklaidējies.

Vai momentuzņēmums vienkārši ierakstīja emocijas, kas agrāk bija izvairījušās no kamerām, vai arī tas faktiski mainīja cilvēku attieksmi pret sevi? Jautājums galu galā var būt neatbildams, taču noteikti ir taisnība, ka Kodak kamera uzņēma Ameriku tieši tajā brīdī, kad Amerika sasniedza jaunas dzīvīguma virsotnes. Visur temps pieauga. Pirmās automašīnas parādījās ielās. Telefoni sāka izrotāt vienkāršo pilsoņu mājas. Kinofilmas, kas bija iespējamas daļēji pateicoties Īstmena ieguldījumam celulozes plēvē, patiesībā ierakstīja visu šo darbību un pēc tam paātrināja tās prezentāciju skatītājiem.

Protams, šajā pašā laikā arī jautrības iemiesojums bija parādījies Ņujorkas malā. Konija sala, kas slavena ar tik daudzām lietām, bija patiesas fotogēnas debesis. Ja kādreiz apmeklētājiem vajadzēja būt apmierinātiem ar Observatoriju Camera Obscura (uzcelta 1883. gadā), viņi pēkšņi turēja rokās attēlu spēku: momentuzņēmumi uz panorāmas rata, momentuzņēmumi uz amerikāņu kalniņiem, viņi varēja uzņemt momentuzņēmumus gandrīz jebkurā vietā.

Vēl viens serendipitātes piemērs - Braunija kamera, kas samazināja Kodak kameras cenu līdz patiesi demokrātiskam dolāram, tika ieviesta 1900. gadā, tieši tad, kad Konija salā notika pastkartes eksplozija. 1898. gadā, uzlabojoties drukas tehnikai un palielinoties pārvadāšanas ātrumam, pastkaršu izmaksas tika samazinātas no diviem centiem uz vienu, un pastkartes sāka izkaisīt no Kūnija salas ar pārsteidzošu ātrumu: vienā dienā 1906. gada septembrī pārsteidzoši 200 000 pastkartes tika apzīmētas no Konija salas.

Kaut arī fotogrāfijas, kas bija redzamas Kūnija salas pastkartēs, lielākoties netika uzņemtas ar Braunija kamerām, tās tomēr bija spēcīgas emblēmas to saņēmējiem, kuri pirmo reizi redzēja, cik jautra varētu būt fotografēšana. Bija pienācis divdesmitais gadsimts un līdz ar to arī smaidīgās Amerikas tēls.

Eastman Kodak ievieš pilnkrāsu fotogrāfiju
Tuvojoties divdesmitajam gadsimtam un tā reibinošajiem ritmiem, daudzi novatori pastiprināti meklēja līdzekļus, lai padarītu fotogrāfiju pilnā krāsā. Džordžs Īstmens bija tikpat ieinteresēts problēmas pārvarēšanā kā ikviens. Indeed, convinced (correctly) that color photography would be mostly the province of amateurs, he dedicated himself to finding a process that not only could offer the complete spectrum of colors but would be simple to use. He eventually found one, although it would not turn out to be simple to develop.

In 1910, when Eastman established a color laboratory at Kodak Park under the leadership of MIT graduate Emerson Packard, lantern slides and hand-colored prints were enjoying tremendous popularity. Among the more successful marketers of lanterns slides were the Lumiere brothers, who a decade earlier had stunned the world with their projected motion pictures. The Lumieres offered to sell their lantern-slide operation to Eastman, but a visit to their Paris offices revealed a family operation in disarray, and Eastman, a prim bachelor with strict business standards, left in disgust.

Nevertheless, the European trip had strengthened Eastman's resolve. "I spent a good deal of time on new developments in color," he wrote of the trip, "which I hope will develop into something commercial." At Kodak Park, he instructed Packard to proceed as best he could without infringing on the Lumiere patents.

A series of efforts led by Packard and other Kodak employees resulted in the first signs of victory: a process that used red and green filters and transformed negatives directly into positives. Dubbed Kodachrome, the color process would no doubt have gone to market, but progress was stalled by the outbreak of World War I. Adding insult to injury, Eastman's Kodachrome prints received poor reviews at a March 1915 demonstration at the Royal Photographic Society and at the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.

At this impasse, two complete amateurs entered the story and saved the day. Leopold Damrosch Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr., both sons of famous musicians, had met as schoolmates and been drawn together by their mutual interest in sonatas and the Brownie camera. After seeing an early color movie, Mannes and Godowsky became convinced that they could do better and built a three-lens camera that combined the three primary colors projected as light. This had already been done by others, but in their excitement the failures of others did not seem worth exploring.

The two went on to college and met again in New York after graduation, whereon they fell to photographic experimentation again. With the help of impresario S. L. (Roxy) Rothafel, they were able to use the projection booth at the Rialto to produce their first dark, fuzzy pictures. Soon they had surpassed the efforts of others and were photographing a part of the color spectrum on double-layered plates -- in the bathtubs and sinks of their homes.

Their parents did not approve of these scientific forays, however, and so in 1922 they turned to George Eastman for financial help. Eastman proved non-committal, but two years later, Mannes and Godowsky were able to ingratiate themselves with C.E. Kenneth Mees, director of the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratory, and with that slender entree, to receive funding from other sources.

In 1930 the Eastman Kodak Company made improvements in color-movie technology, but it still lagged behind the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation. Mees, anxious to remain at the forefront, finally agreed to hire Mannes and Godowsky. (By this time, Eastman himself, ill and five years into his retirement, was far from the action at Kodak Park.)

With the Eastman School of Music at their disposal, the duo were finally able to hit their stride, although their methods were confusing to those around them. At the school, they were known as "those color experts," at Kodak Park, as "man and God." Working in a completely light-tight darkroom, they timed their plate developing by whistling Brahms at two beats to the second, leaving their colleagues to wonder what had become of the famed Kodak efficiency ethic.

Doubts about Mannes and Godowsky increased as the Great Depression wore on. Mees, by then a vice president, could only hope for the best as he stalled other departments filled with accomplished chemists and pressured the musicians for results. Under these conditions, Mannes and Godowsky developed first a two-color film and then a three-color one, both of which could be easily used by amateurs.

The Kodachrome name was revived, and on April 15, 1935, Kodachrome motion picture film went on sale. Shortly after that, Eastman Kodak introduced Kodachrome film for color slides. The process by which this film was developed was -- and still is -- maddeningly complex, but as with everything else at Kodak, the amateur did not have to worry about that, since developing was handled by the company. Vivid color photography for everyday use had become a reality.

Eastman Becomes a Mystery Donor to MIT
On February 29, 1912, Frank Lovejoy, then the general manager of Eastman Kodak, wrote George Eastman, suggesting that "you may be willing to lend a helping hand, and I am writing to say that I should welcome an opportunity of placing the plans before you." The help Lovejoy was requesting was a donation to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, of which he was an alumnus.

MIT was planning to build a new campus, and though its board of trustees included such financial heavyweights as T. Coleman du Pont and engineer Arthur D. Little, they could only come up with $500,000 of the $750,000 needed for the plan. With Eastman in mind, Richard Cockburn Maclaurin, the president of MIT, had contacted Lovejoy, hoping he would act as an intermediary.

Eastman was extremely careful about where his money went and was apt to micro-manage its use. He was known to demand that the buildings he funded be constructed with a minimum of ornament so as to cut cost, a habit that led Claude Bragdon, who designed several building funded by Eastman, to compare his attitude to "that of Pharaoh." Alternately, Eastman might insist on extra expenses to create the proper effect, as when the University of Rochester was expanding its hospital, and he demanded the stairwell corners be painted white, on the theory that "only a hardened sinner would spit in a white corner." Most important perhaps was Eastman's lifelong interest in guarding his privacy, a requirement that became less sustainable with each bequest he made.

But Eastman had also long admired MIT. Not only were two of his top assistants, Lovejoy and engineer Darragh de Lancey, graduates of the school, but he had read several of Maclaurin's annual reports to MIT's trustees and was familiar with his plans.

Maclaurin and Eastman met on March 5 at the Hotel Belmont in New York City, and the meeting spilled over into the evening as Maclaurin waxed eloquent on his plans for the new campus at MIT. As the meeting finally drew to a close, Eastman asked, "What sum will be needed?"

"Two and a half million," Maclaurin replied.

Eastman immediately agreed to send a check in that amount, on one condition: that his gift remain anonymous. Maclaurin happily accepted these terms, although it put him in an unusual quandary. The term "anonymous giver" was altogether too clumsy for everyday use. After a time, he decided on "Mr. Smith" as a pseudonym and gave the public two small clues: Mr. Smith did not live in Massachusetts, and he had never attended MIT.

The creation of Mr. Smith was the closest Eastman ever came to cultivating a public persona. It became a kind of a game to guess his identity, though no one did. MIT students went so far as to write lyrics on the subject, which were sung to the tune of "Marching Through Georgia":

Bring the good old bugle, boys, and we'll sing another song,
Of "Mr. Smith" and Dupy and the Corporation throng
Of loyal Tech alumni, almost ten thousand strong,
Who give--what we want--when we want it.

Urā! Urā! for Tech and Boston beans,
Urā! Urā! for "Smith," who'er that means
May he always have a hundred million in his jeans,
So we'll get -- what we want -- when we want it.

And so it went for another eight years, during which time Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. So safe was his identity that in 1916 he attended a banquet to celebrate the new campus and even joined in as the alumni toasted the marvelous Mr. Smith.

Eastman continued to keep Maclaurin busy trying to satisfy his demands. In 1918 he offered MIT $4 million in Kodak shares if matching funds could be found by December 31, 1919. Finally, seeing that these stipulations were wearing Maclaurin down, Eastman agreed, as a consolation prize, to reveal himself as the mystery donor at the annual alumni dinner on January 10, 1920.

The revelation that Mr. Smith was George Eastman, the famous recluse of Rochester, was front-page news. Maclaurin did not live to enjoy it, however. Exhausted from raising the $4 million to match Eastman's request, he had come down with pneumonia in December 1919, and Maclaurin died a week later, at the age of 50. His speech revealing Eastman's identity had to be read by others.

Eastman went on to become one of the major philanthropists of his era. On December 10, 1924, he held a press conference to announce that, besides retiring from Eastman Kodak, he would donate the majority of his fortune rather than hold onto it. In the short term, this meant $30 million in bequests that he had earmarked for four institutions. Two of these were institutions of higher learning for African Americans -- the Hampton Institute and the Tuskegee Institute. The others were the University of Rochester, where he had already established the Eastman School of Music. For the remaining eight years of his life, he continued to give smaller amounts to favorite causes such as dental clinics and the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra.

His reasons were plain enough. "If a man has wealth," he declared in 1923, "he has to make a choice, because there is the money heaping up. He can keep it together in a bunch, and then leave it for others to administer after he is dead. Or he can get it into action and have fun, while he is still alive. I prefer getting it into action and adapting it to human needs, and making the plan work."

Eastman Retires and Goes on a Safari
In 1917, Eastman, having given the world permission to smile, decided he might be permitted himself, and put it exactly that way. "I never smiled until I was forty," he said. "Since then, I have tried to win back something of the fun that other men had when they were boys."

This remark is rather curious, in that Eastman had been dedicated to the fine art of the vacation for decades. Having first thrown himself into his career after an trip to Hispaniola fell through in 1877, he had been traveling ever since--at first to London, then on bicycle tours of Europe and Russia, camping trips out West and, if all else failed, getaways to Oak Lodge, his North Carolina retreat.

But there was also a certain frustrated quality to his constant globetrotting. Upon returning home, he was typically quick to let people know how much fun his trips had been, yet fun is the one thing that seemed to be lacking. Eastman's notion of relaxation was to plan out every moment in the itineraries of his traveling companions, right down to the courses of their meals. In this respect, it makes some sense that he would feel the urge to make his final expeditions more dramatic than usual. If he was going to break through his own net of control, it would take more than a bicycle tour through St. Petersburg.

Fittingly, the plan was linked to film. In the early 1920s, Martin Johnson, an exclusive sales agent for Kodak cameras and supplies in Missouri, and his wife, Osa, traveled to Africa and returned with a film, "Trailing African Wild Animals." Martin Johnson approached the motion-picture department at Kodak, asking for backing for another safari. When Eastman gave them $10,000, they began tempting him to join them sometime.

Shortly after retiring from his own company in 1925 at the age of 72, Eastman took the Osa and Martin Johnson up on their offer, and once again, the Eastman mode of travel came to life. Martin Johnson wrote Eastman that he could travel as if going to London, and so he did. More than 200 small boxes of uniform size were shipped out of Kodak Park, assembled and numbered so as to end up on the appropriate native porters' heads. Once they were in the Kedong Valley of Kenya, far from civilization, Eastman rolled out the day's fare: corn meal and graham flour that had been sterilized back at Kodak Park, caviar and vintage wine served in crystal goblets on linen-spread table.

At the time, big game hunting was on the wane, and many species were already considered endangered. As it was, however, Eastman managed to have plenty of excitement without firing a shot.

While out on the hunt one day, the party encountered a rhinoceros. Eastman saw that its horns were unsuitable for trophy-taking purposes, so he decided to film it instead. As the Martin and Osa Johnson looked on, he moved within 20 feet of the beast, filming as he approached. Apparently, the camera was giving him trouble, because he failed to react at first when the rhino lowered its head and charged. He simply stood there, waiting until the animal came within 15 feet before stepping out of the way. For a moment, the rhino became more enraged and, in a second charge, came within two paces of Eastman, at which point it was brought down by a shot from one of the horrified onlookers.

A second safari in 1928 garnered Eastman several trophies for his wall, but after his brush with death, it was all an anticlimax. Inevitably, whenever he showed his rhino film to viewers back in the States, he was admonished for his foolhardiness. For once, he seemed to enjoy the reaction. To a friend he wrote: "The affair could not have been more perfect if it had been staged and was the opportunity of a lifetime."

Indeed, after a lifetime of heavily engineered adventures, George Eastman had finally experienced his Kodak moment.

George Eastman: The Final Shot
The end of a life often explains a great deal about how it was lived, and the manner of George Eastman's death is no exception.

At the age of 74, Eastman had grown noticeably thin and weak, and he had difficulty standing. Two years later, his gait had become slow and shuffling. A doctor of today would have diagnosed spinal stenosis, but even without a name to describe his condition, he knew that an invalid's life was in store for him. Having seen his mother live out her last two years in a wheelchair, he also knew well what that meant.

Normally tight-lipped about his personal affairs, Eastman had been letting slip how he felt about his circumstances. One occasion found him confessing to a friend that there wasn't much left to live for. A more vivid expression involved one of his extravagant domestic routines. He had long employed Harold Gleason, an organist, to perform for him in his own home as he ate his morning breakfast. One of Eastman's most common requests was *Marche Romaine*, from a Gounod opera, and, as his health deteriorated, he gradually came to refer to this piece as "my funeral march."

On March 14, 1932, Eastman invited some friends to witness a change of his will. After some joking and warm conversation, he asked them to leave so that he could write a note. Moments later, he shot himself once in the heart with an automatic pistol. The note found by the household staff read simply: "To my friends, My work is done--, Why wait?" When his casket was carried out of the Eastman House, the accompanying music was *Marche Romaine*.

Suicide is inevitably a puzzling act, and all the more so when carried out by an inventor, because it is so rare. Indeed, besides Eastman, only two famous American inventors have died by their own hand.

One of these was John Fitch, who in 1787 demonstrated his steamboat, the first working example of such in the world, to the attendees of the Constitutional Convention, only to be derided and scorned by the crowd. Pressing ahead, Fitch organized steamboat excursions between Philadelphia and Trenton to less than enthusiastic acclaim. The situation reached the height of absurdity when the Patent Office issued patents to both Fitch and his rival, James Rumsey, for essentially the same invention. Fitch's complaints to Thomas Jefferson, who as Secretary of State was also empowered to prosecute patents, were to no avail. On July 7, 1798, in a boardinghouse in Bardstown, Kentucky, Fitch wrote a note that lamented "Nobody will believe that poor John Fitch can do anything worthy of attention," and ended his troubles with a draught of poison.

Edwin Armstrong suffered much the same misfortunes as Fitch. The inventor of FM radio, the super-regenerative circuit and the superheterodyne -- all of which represented enormous leaps forward for radio -- Armstrong was mired for most of his life in lawsuits. The bitterest of these contests was with David Sarnoff, the mastermind behind RCA. By 1954, when it was clear that Sarnoff would win the rights to use FM radio technology, Armstrong put on an overcoat, a scarf and pair of gloves, removed the air conditioner from his 13th-floor apartment in New York City. and jumped. (Sarnoff's first reaction upon hearing the news was to say: "I did not kill Armstrong.")

George Eastman suffered some of the same problems as did these two Inventors -- most notably the crushing weight of patent battles. Like them, he ultimately lost the fight for one of his most cherished inventions for him it was transparent flexible film, the patent for which was awarded posthumously to Hannibal Goodwin. Yet for all that, Eastman went on to build a hugely successful business, which neither Fitch nor Armstrong was ever able to do.

One might forgive Eastman because he was suffering from a debilitating disease, but it is not quite enough to interpret his suicide as an exercise of his right to die (which he supported on a political level). Successful inventors, having seen the benefits of perseverance, typically do not go gentle into that good night. Thomas Edison suffered Bright's disease and a host of other illnesses in his final years, yet he plowed ahead with his characteristic dynamism right to the very end. George Westinghouse, for his part, approached death with plans to design an electric wheelchair that would help him get around. And, in fact, Eastman himself had known severe emotional pain, if not physical agony, many times during his life as he watched his loved ones die around him.

But Eastman parted company from his famous contemporaries in another respect as well. In addition to being optimists, inventors have generally found it difficult to keep their personalities in check. Their profession encourages them to brag and complain and, as often as not, to lose themselves entirely in their own enthusiasms, as Edison did when he embarked on a half-serious plan to communicate with the dead. For an inventor to appear mad almost comes with the territory.

If there is one thing that can be said about Eastman, it is that he was a rational man. Throughout his life, he sounded the same themes again and again -- adventure, happiness and control, and the greatest of these was control. The early death of his father and his family's subsequent poverty stamped him with an insatiable need for stability, which he found in bachelorhood and a financial empire and held close ever after. As far as he was concerned, there was no world beyond the one he could dominate. Even when he punctuated his labors with travel, his drive for order went with him in his compulsion to plan out every last detail of his itinerary. In this light, Eastman's career can be seen as act of self-sacrifice. With one of his cameras in hand, it became possible to capture an instant of abandon, even happiness, and so we came to possess, as part of our human heritage, images of people smiling on adventures large and small. Of course, Eastman was often caught in camera in far-off locations as well, but in the end one fact is inescapable: one must look long and hard to find a picture of George Eastman smiling. In harnessing his impulses, he gave the world an experience that he never permitted himself.

Having borrowed the word "snapshot" from a hunting term to describe a bullet fired at random, Eastman proved unable to do anything haphazardly -- certainly not hunting or even photography, both of which he approached with the same fastidiousness he brought to industrial manufacturing. It is perhaps the supreme irony of his life, then, that the last bullet he fired was no snapshot at all, but the final step in an event carefully designed to bring out the desired results. It was, in other words, simply the most efficient thing to do.


George Eastman - History

With the slogan "you press the button, we do the rest," George Eastman put the first simple camera into the hands of a world of consumers in 1888. In so doing, he made a cumbersome and complicated process easy to use and accessible to nearly everyone.

Just as Eastman had a goal to make photography "as convenient as the pencil," Kodak continues to expand the ways images touch people's daily lives.


A handwritten farewell

Finally deciding to take matters into his own hands, Eastman ended his life with a single gunshot to the heart on March 14, 1932, at the age of 77.

The handwritten note above and his death certificate (shown below) are both on display at George Eastman House museum in Rochester, New York.

Cause of death appears to read: &ldquoSuicide by shooting self in heart with a revolver while temporarily insane.&rdquo

George Eastman was cremated, and his ashes buried on the grounds of Kodak Park (now known as Eastman Business Park) in Rochester, New York &mdash on the site of the empire he created.


Historic Mansion

The Colonial Revival mansion, built between 1902 and 1905, served as George Eastman’s primary residence until his death in 1932. Today, visitors can explore the historic mansion on their own or on a guided tour, offered daily. Live music performances are offered in the mansion most Sunday afternoons throughout the year.

On the main floor, visitors enter from the museum through the Palm House and Colonnade, which also provides access to the Schuyler C. Townson Terrace Garden. Past the Colonnade, visitors enter the Dining Room and continue into the Conservatory, the center of the mansion. The Billiard Room, Library, Great Hall, and Living Room are all accessible from this large two-story room. Up the Grand Staircase on the second floor, visitors will see the restored bedroom suite of Maria Kilbourn Eastman (George Eastman’s mother), the north and south organ chambers behind latticework, the Sitting Room, exhibitions related to George Eastman and Eastman Kodak Company, and the Discovery Room, with hands-on image-making activities for kids.

The third floor, now used for museum offices, once housed Eastman’s screening room and workshop, as well as living quarters for household staff. Museum members can go behind the scenes to the third floor and the basement on the monthly Upstairs/Downstairs tours.


George Eastman - History

Great Museums: Picture Perfect: George Eastman House

Located on historic East Avenue in Rochester, New York, this special showcases the 12.5-acre museum site that was the urban estate of George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company. The Museum focuses on the 150-year history of the art, technology, and impact of photography and motion pictures — media that continue to change our perception of the world. The 1910 Colonial era house, where Eastman lived and died, offers a glimpse into the private world of this marketing genius who invented the word “Kodak” and made photographers of us all!

George Eastman

George Eastman (July 12, 1854 – March 14, 1932) was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and popularized the use of roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world’s first film-makers Eadweard Muybridge and Louis Le Prince, and a few years later by their followers Léon Bouly,Thomas Edison, the Lumière Brothers, and Georges Méliès.

He was a major philanthropist, establishing the Eastman School of Music, and schools of dentistry and medicine at the University of Rochester and in London contributing to RIT and the construction of MIT‘s second campus on the Charles River and donating to Tuskegee and Hampton universities. In addition, he provided funds for clinics in London and other European cities to serve low-income residents.

In the last few years of his life Eastman suffered with chronic pain and reduced functionality due to a spine illness. On March 14, 1932 Eastman shot himself in the heart, leaving a note which read, “To my friends: my work is done. Why wait?”

U.S. patent no. 388,850, issued to George Eastman, September 4, 1888

Eastman was born in Waterville, New York to George Washington Eastman and Maria Eastman (née Kilbourn), the youngest child, at the 10-acre farm which his parents bought in 1849. He had two older sisters, Ellen Maria and Katie. He was largely self-educated, although he attended a private school in Rochester after the age of eight. His father had started a business school, the Eastman Commercial College in the early 1840s in Rochester, New York, described as one of the first “boomtowns” in the United States, with a rapid growth in industry. As his father’s health started deteriorating, the family gave up the farm and moved to Rochester in 1860. His father died of a brain disorder in May 1862. To survive and afford George’s schooling, his mother took in boarders.

Maria’s second daughter, Katie, had contracted polio when young and died in late 1870 when George was 16 years old. The young George left school early and started working. As George Eastman began to experience success with his photography business, he vowed to repay his mother for the hardships she had endured in raising him.

In 1884, Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable he had been tinkering at home to develop it. In 1888, he perfected the Kodak camera, the first camera designed specifically for roll film. In 1892, he established the Eastman Kodak Company, in Rochester, New York. It was one of the first firms to mass-produce standardized photography equipment. The company also manufactured the flexible transparent film, devised by Eastman in 1889, which proved vital to the subsequent development of the motion picture industry.

He started his philanthropy early, sharing the income from his business to establish educational and health institutions. Notable among his contributions were a $625,000 gift in 1901 (equivalent to $17.5 million in present day terms) to the Mechanics Institute, now Rochester Institute of Technology and a major gift in the early 1900s to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which enabled the construction of buildings on its second campus by the Charles River. MIT opened this campus in 1916.

Personal Life

George Eastman never married, because he carried on a long platonic relationship with Josephine Dickman, a trained singer and the wife of business associate George Dickman, and he became especially close to her after the death of his mother, Maria Eastman, in 1907. He was also an avid traveler and music lover.

His mother, Maria, was his main family for the majority of his life, and her death was particularly crushing to George. Almost pathologically concerned with decorum, he found himself unable for the first time to control his emotions in the presence of friends. “When my mother died I cried all day”, he explained later. “I could not have stopped to save my life”. Due to his mother’s hesitancy and refusal to take his gifts, George Eastman could never do enough for his mother during her lifetime. Thus, after she was gone, George opened the Eastman Theater in Rochester on September 4, 1922, among its features was a chamber-music hall dedicated to her memory: the Kilbourn Theater. And long after that, a rose cutting from her childhood home still flowered on the grounds of the Eastman House.

Later Years

George Eastman, 1917

Eastman was associated with Kodak company in an administrative and an executive capacity until his death he contributed much to the development of its notable research facilities. In 1911, he founded the Eastman Trust and Savings Bank. While discouraging the formation of unions at his manufacturing plant, he established paternal systems of support for his employees.

He was one of the outstanding philanthropists of his time, donating more than $100 million to various projects in Rochester Cambridge, Massachusetts at two historically black colleges in the South and in several European cities. In 1918, he endowed the establishment of the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester, and in 1921 a school of medicine and dentistry there.

In 1925, Eastman gave up his daily management of Kodak to become treasurer. He concentrated on philanthropic activities, to which he had already donated substantial sums. For example, he donated funds to establish the Eastman Dental Dispensary in 1916. He was one of the major philanthropists of his time, ranking only slightly behind Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and a few others, but did not seek publicity for his activities. He concentrated on institution-building and causes that could help people’s health. From 1926 until his death, Eastman donated $22,050 per year to the American Eugenics Society.

George Eastman donated £200,000 in 1926 to fund a dental clinic in London, UK after being approached by the Chairman of the Royal Free Hospital, Lord Riddell. This was in addition to donations of £50,000 each from Lord Riddell and the Royal Free honorary treasurer. On 20 November 1931, the Eastman Dental Clinic opened in front of Neville Chamberlain and the American Ambassador. The clinic was incorporated into the Royal Free Hospital and was committed to providing dental care for disadvantaged children from central London.

Infirmity and Suicide

In his final two years Eastman was in intense pain caused by a disorder affecting his spine. He had trouble standing, and his walk became a slow shuffle. Today it might be diagnosed as a form of degenerative disease such as disc herniations from trauma or age causing either painful nerve root compressions, or perhaps a type of lumbar spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal caused by calcification in the vertebrae. Since his mother suffered the final 2 years of her life in a wheelchair, she also may have had a spine condition but that is unknown—only her uterine cancer and successful surgery is documented in her health history. If she did have a musculoskeletal disorder, perhaps George Eastman’s spine condition may have been due to a congenital disease, such as Ankylosing Spondylitis, degenerative disc disease, or a variant of Ehlers-Danlos collagen disorder—conditions known to be inheritable but usually presenting earlier in age. Eastman grew increasingly depressed due to his pain, reduced ability to function, and also since he witnessed his mother’s suffering from pain. On March 14, 1932, Eastman committed suicide with a single gunshot through the heart, leaving a note which read:

“To my friends, My work is done – Why wait?”

His funeral was held at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Rochester he was buried on the grounds of the company he founded at Kodak Park in Rochester, New York.

A First Day Cover Honoring George Eastman 1954.

During his lifetime Eastman donated $100 million to various organizations but most of the money went to the University of Rochester and to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (under the alias “Mr. Smith”). The Rochester Institute of Technology has a building dedicated to Eastman, in recognition of his support and substantial donations. In recognition of his donation to MIT, the university installed a plaque of Eastman (students rub their noses on the plaque for good luck.) Eastman also made substantial gifts to the Tuskegee Institute and the Hampton Institute. Upon his death, his entire estate went to the University of Rochester, where his name can be found on the Eastman Quadrangle of the River Campus. The auditorium at Mississippi State Universities Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering is named for Eastman in recognition of his inspiration to Swalm.

His former home at 900 East Avenue in Rochester, New York was opened as the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in 1949. It has been designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1954, the 100th anniversary of his birth, Eastman was honored with a postage stamp from the United States Post Office. In the fall of 2009, a statue of Eastman was erected on the Eastman Quad of the University of Rochester.

In 1915, Eastman founded a bureau of municipal research in Rochester “to get things done for the community” and to serve as an “independent, non-partisan agency for keeping citizens informed”. Called the Center for Governmental Research, the agency continues to carry out that mission.

Eastman had a very astute business sense. He focused his company on making film when competition heated up in the camera industry. By providing quality and affordable film to every camera manufacturer, Kodak managed to turn its competitors into de facto business partners.

In 1926, George Eastman was approached by Lord Riddell, the Chairman of Royal Free Hospital, to fund a dental clinic in London. He agreed to give £200,000, which was matched by £50,000 each from Lord Riddell and Sir Albert Levy, the Royal Free’s honorary treasurer. The Eastman Dental Clinic was opened on November 20, 1931, by the American Ambassador in the presence of Neville Chamberlain. The building, which resembled the Rochester Dispensary, was totally integrated into the Royal Free Hospital and included three wards for oral, otolaryngology and cleft lip and palate surgery. It was dedicated to providing dental care for children from the poor districts of central London. In a similar manner, Eastman went on to establish dental clinics in Rome,Paris, Brussels, and Stockholm.


George Eastman - History

Eastman believed that a brand name should have no dictionary definition so that it was associated with the product alone. He coined the term Kodak because he thought the word was easy to remember and difficult to misspell.

Photos: Courtesy George Eastman House

A junior bookkeeper innovated processes and equipment to simplify photography, introduced the concept of the "snapshot," and created a way for millions of consumer-photographers to document their lives and preserve memories.

Losses Early in Life
George Eastman was born on July 12, 1854, in Waterville, New York. He lost his father when he was eight, and was raised by his mother, Maria. His older sister, Katie, died of polio in 1870, while George was still a teenager. If anyone could capitalize on a tool like photography -- which could document loved ones' likenesses for all time -- it would be someone like Eastman.

Pupil and Inventor
Invented in the 1830s, photography was a well-established professional occupation by the 1870s, but it was not a hobby for the masses. It required a knowledge of chemistry, mastery of cumbersome equipment, and an interest in laborious wet-plate processes. Eastman, in his early twenties, became the pupil of two Rochester, New York, amateur photographers, George Monroe and George Selden. He experimented in dry-plate photography, and developed a formula for gelatin-based paper film and a machine for coating dry plates. He went into business selling dry plates in April 1880, and soon resigned from his bookkeeping position at a local bank to focus on his fledgling company.

Technical Advances
In 1885, with camera inventor William Hall Walker, Eastman patented the Eastman-Walker Roll Holder, which allowed photographers to advance multiple exposures of paper film through a camera, rather than handle individual single-shot plates. The roll holder would define the basic technology of cameras until the introduction of digital photography. It also became the basis for the first mass-produced Kodak camera, initially known as the "roll holder breast camera," which retailed for $25 and started a photography craze. The term "Kodak" was coined by Eastman himself in 1887. In 1889, Eastman hired chemist Henry Reichenbach, who developed a transparent, flexible film which could be cut into strips and inserted into cameras. Thomas Edison would order the film to use in the motion-picture camera he was developing -- and it would soon become the centerpiece of the Eastman empire.

Photography for the Masses
During the 1890s, Eastman expanded his business, buying patents and investing in research and development. Faster films and smaller cameras meant photography could produce more spontaneous pictures -- "snapshots." In 1900, he introduced the "Brownie" camera, which sold for $1 and was a bullseye in the mass market. Eastman's insight was that his chemists could do the "photo finishing," but anyone could take pictures with a simple camera like the Brownie. Eastman had hit on a memorable slogan: You press the button, we do the rest." His business grew rapidly, helped by jingles and ads positioning the brand as an essential tool for preserving memories. A 1902 ad lectured, "A vacation without a Kodak is a vacation wasted." A blizzard of profits enabled Eastman to build a 50-room mansion in Rochester.

Final Years
Eastman continued to improve photography, introducing innovations including a process for color photography which he called Kodachrome. A generous philanthropist, Eastman gave away more than $100 million to charities, mostly in Rochester, during his lifetime. As he aged, he had increasing difficulty standing and walking. He could foresee living out his last years as his mother had, an incapacitated invalid. Facing the prospect of life in a wheelchair, he took his own life with an automatic pistol on March 14, 1932. His suicide note read, "To my friends. My work is done --, Why wait?"


Growth and new developments

Eastman expected that photography would soon become more popular, and in 1892 he established the Eastman Kodak

Daylight-loading film and cameras soon made it unnecessary to return the cameras to the factory. Eastman's old slogan changed to "You press the button, we do the rest, or you can do it yourself." A pocket Kodak was marketed in 1897, a folding Kodak in 1898, noncurling film in 1903, and color film in 1928. Eastman film was used in Thomas Edison's (1847�) motion pictures Edison's incandescent (glowing with intense heat) bulb was used by Eastman and by photographers specializing in "portraits (photographs of people) taken by electric light."

Eastman's staff worked on other scientific problems as well as on photographic improvements. During World War I (1914�) his laboratory helped build up America's chemical industry to the point where it no longer depended on Germany. Eventually America became the world leader.


Tagad straumēšana

Tornado kungs

Tornado kungs ir ievērojams stāsts par cilvēku, kura revolucionārais darbs pētniecībā un lietišķajā zinātnē izglāba tūkstošiem dzīvību un palīdzēja amerikāņiem sagatavoties bīstamām laika parādībām un reaģēt uz tām.

Polio krusta karš

Stāsts par poliomielīta krusta karu godina laiku, kad amerikāņi apvienojās, lai uzvarētu briesmīgu slimību. Medicīnas sasniegums izglāba neskaitāmas dzīvības, un tam bija visaptveroša ietekme uz amerikāņu filantropiju, kas joprojām ir jūtama šodien.

Amerikāņu oz

Izpētiet mīļotā radītāja L. Franka Bauma dzīvi un laikus Brīnišķīgais Oza burvis.


George Eastman

George Eastman was a renowned American inventor, businessman and founder of the Eastman Kodak company. He was born in 1854 in New York to George and Maria Eastman. His father died in 1862, when Eastman was 8 years old and one of his sisters died when he was 16. As a result, he felt the burden of responsibility and dropped out of school at an early age to begin working in order to support his mother financially. He was mostly self educated, and started off his career with odd jobs at insurance companies and banks.

At the age of 24, Eastman planned a trip to Santo Domingo when his colleague advised him to document the trip. The photography equipment however, was bulky and expensive. Eastman began to think of ways to make photography more manageable. He cancelled his trip, bought some photography equipment and began to research extensively on alternative methods of photography. He collaborated with amateur photographers and other inventors and by 1880, he had developed a gelatin based paper film. At this point he left his job and founded a small photography company. In 1885 he obtained a patent for a “roll holding device” that he had invented together with another inventor named William Hall Walker. Together the two of them had invented a much smaller and cheaper camera.

Eastman named his company “Kodak” (later changing it to “Eastman Kodak”) and launched the first Kodak camera in 1888. It was a compact box shaped device which could take 100 pictures and cost only $25. He coined the slogan “You press the button, we do the rest” in order to promote his products. His company also developed flexible film that could easily be inserted into cameras. This was a huge success and was even adapted by Thomas Edison for use in motion pictures. In the 1890’s the company suffered some financial setbacks due to the depression but recovered again by 1900 with the launch of the Brownie Camera for the price of $1 which was a huge success. Eastman also developed an unbreakable glass lens for use in gas masks and a special camera for taking pictures from planes, which was used in World War I.

Gerorge Eastman was never married, and had a close platonic friendship with his friend George Dickman’s wife named Josephine Dickman. He was very close to his mother and credited all his success and fortune to her as she had dedicated her entire life to helping him prosper. When Eastman’s mother died, he admitted to having cried for days at her loss. He established the Eastman Theatre in Rochester, New York and named the chamber music hall “Kilbourn Theatre” in her honor (Kilbourn was his mother’s maiden name).

Eastman was a great philanthropist and gave away huge chunks of his fortune to needy and deserving people. During his lifetime, he is thought to have given around $100 million to universities, hospitals, dental clinics and research facilities. He sometimes used the alias “Mr. Smith” when making donations as he never wished for publicity and fame. Some of the notable organizations he donated to were MIT, Rochester University and the Royal free Hospital. He established several charitable organizations of his own initiative such as Eastman Dental Clinics in London, Rome, Paris, Brussels and Stockholm.

In 1932, George Eastman committed suicide by shooting himself in the heart. The cause of this was a painful and degenerative spine disease which made it difficult for him to function normally. He left a suicide note which read “My work is done – why wait?”. Eastman’s legacy lives on and he will always be remembered and appreciated for his contribution to widespread commercial and personal photography. His net worth at the time of his death was US $95 million. After his death, his house in Rochester was converted into the “George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film“.