Mājdzīvnieki koloniālajā Amerikā

Mājdzīvnieki koloniālajā Amerikā


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Koloniālajā Amerikā kolonisti turēja mājdzīvniekus tādu pašu iemeslu dēļ, kādos viņi atradās Eiropā: pavadīšanai un, suņu gadījumā, aizsardzībai, medībām un ganīšanai. Kaķi kontrolēja kaitēkļus mājās un kūtīs līdz 18. gadsimtam, kad tos sāka novērtēt kā mājas mājdzīvniekus.

Tomēr kolonisti kā mājdzīvniekus turēja daudz dažādu dzīvnieku, tostarp vāveres, savvaļas putnus, jenotus, briežus, zirgus, čūskas, vardes un bruņurupučus. Nometnieki no Eiropas atveda savus suņus, zirgus un kaķus un vēlāk pieradināja citus dzīvniekus, piemēram, briežus, ūdrus un bebrus, ar kuriem viņi sastapās Ziemeļamerikā.

Ilgi pirms pirmo eiropiešu ierašanās indiāņi bija turējuši arī mājdzīvniekus, galvenokārt suņus un tītarus, lai gan ir pierādījumi, ka arī bobcats tika pieradināts. Indiāņi suņus turēja tādiem pašiem mērķiem kā kolonisti, bet arī tos izmantoja preču pārvadāšanai, izmantojot ragavas, kas piestiprinātas pie zirglietām, kas piesietas ap torsu. Sākotnējie koloniālie pārskati apraksta suņu izmantošanu šādā veidā, bet galu galā vietējie iedzīvotāji no eiropiešiem pieņēma suņu apkakli, un zirglietas tika izmantotas retāk.

Katrai ciltij bija dažādas suņu šķirnes, kuras tika izmantotas dažādiem mērķiem tādā pašā veidā, kā tās ievēro dažādas tradīcijas, kas atšķiras viena no otras. Ziemeļamerikā nebija neviena indiāņu suņa. Savukārt kolonisti suņus un mājdzīvniekus kopumā izmantoja vienveidīgāk, un Eiropas modelis galu galā kļuva par standartu visā valstī. Mūsdienās mājdzīvnieku īpašnieki joprojām ievēro šo pašu koloniālajā Amerikā novēroto modeli.

Indiāņu suņi

Joprojām tiek diskutēts par to, kad un kur suņi pirmo reizi tika pieradināti, taču tiek uzskatīts, ka tie nebija Ziemeļamerikas dzimtene, bet ieradās kopā ar paleoindiešiem, kuri pirms vairāk nekā 14 000 gadiem migrēja zemē pāri Beringa zemes tiltam (pazīstams arī kā Beringa). Zinātnieks Marions Švarcs komentē:

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Suņi ir ievērojami, jo tie ir unikāli jutīgi pret to cilvēku kultūras īpašībām, ar kuriem viņi dzīvo. Suņi ir ne tikai kultūras produkts, bet arī piedalās cilvēku kultūrās. Faktiski suņi bija pirmie dzīvnieki, kas apmetās pie cilvēkiem, un vienīgie dzīvnieki, kas sastopami cilvēku sabiedrībās visā pasaulē. Sakarā ar visuresamību pāri kultūras robežām, suņi ir bijuši tik ikdienišķi, ka šķiet, ka viņu vēsture ir maz jāapsver. Un tomēr pēdējos divpadsmit tūkstošus gadu suņiem ir bijusi neatņemama loma cilvēku dzīvē. Visievērojamākais suņos ir viņu spēja pielāgoties to cilvēku vajadzībām, ar kuriem viņi dzīvo. Suņi ir pierādījuši sevi pārsteidzoši elastīgas būtnes, un tas bija tikpat patiesi Amerikā kā citur pasaulē. (2)

Tiek uzskatīts, ka pirmais suns, kas iebraucis Ziemeļamerikā, ir sava veida dingo, lai gan šis apgalvojums ir apstrīdēts, un iespējams, ka kopā ar agrīnajiem imigrantiem ieradās vairākas šķirnes. Suņi tika izmantoti māju un ciematu aizsardzībai, medībām, preču pārvadāšanai caur ragaviņām, un rietumu piekrastes salīšu šķirnes gadījumā (lielāka pomerāniešu versija) no viņu kažokādas tika izmantoti paklāji un segas. Dažas ciltis turēja suņus kā mājdzīvniekus un arī kā barības avotu, citas galvenokārt kā aizbildņus un medniekus, bet visas suņus uzskatīja par vērtīgiem īpašumiem.

Suņi tika uzskatīti par starpniekiem starp redzēto un neredzēto pasauli, mirstīgo un dievu valstību.

Suņi tika augstu novērtēti kā dievu dāvana, un, lai gan ir daudz dažādu mītu par to, kā suns sāka dzīvot starp cilvēkiem, stāsts par suni un Lielo medicīnu no Vidusrietumu šajēnas ir tipisks. Radītājs-dievs Lielais Medicīna radīja cilvēkus pēc pasaules radīšanas un parādīja saviem cilvēkiem zemi, kas klāta ar kukurūzas laukiem un bieza bari. Šajens novērtēja dāvanas, taču nebija līdzekļu, lai sekotu bifeļiem, lai tās nomedītu, vai transportētu kukurūzu pēc ražas novākšanas. Dažreiz naktī viņiem uzbruka arī citas ciltis, kuras varēja tām ielīst, lai varētu paņemt līdzi pat nelielo kukurūzas un bifeļu daudzumu, kas ievests ciematā. Lielā medicīna parādīja viņiem, kā noķert jaunus vilkus, lai tos audzētu kā mājdzīvniekus. Pēc tam šie dzīvnieki pārtapa par pieradinātiem suņiem, kuri brīdināja ciematu par uzbrukumu, varēja transportēt kukurūzu un palīdzētu cilvēkiem izsekot bifeļiem, kā arī medīt citus medījumus.

Dažos cilšu stāstos suns ir viens no pirmajiem radītajiem radījumiem, citos, piemēram, Šajenā, tā ir dāvana, kas atvieglo cilvēku dzīvi. Suņi tika uzskatīti par starpniekiem starp redzēto un neredzēto pasauli, mirstīgo un dievu valstību, jo tie iemiesoja gan savvaļas, gan mājas sfēru. Šis uzskats par suni krasi kontrastēja ar Eiropas izpratni par suni kā radītu būtni, kuras vienīgais mērķis bija kalpot cilvēkiem.

Kolonisti un viņu suņi

Pēc kristiešu eiropiešu domām, suņiem nebija dvēseles - tāpat kā nevienam citam dzīvniekam - kā nemirstīgai dvēselei, kas atdzīvināja tikai cilvēkus, kuri atbildētu par darbiem, kas izdarīti dzīvē pēc nāves un stāvētu Dieva troņa priekšā tiesai. Tāpēc suns netika uzskatīts par kaut ko īpašu, un atsauces uz suņiem Bībelē veicināja šo uzskatu, jo suņi parasti ir saistīti ar nabadzību un zemu sociālo stāvokli. Minot tikai vienu piemēru, lai gan Bībeles stāsts par Lācaru un bagāto vīru no Lūkas 16: 19-31 ir interpretēts kā suņu parādīšana pozitīvā gaismā (kā dziednieki, kas laiza nabaga čūlas), tie ir saistīti ar ar šo rīcību nabadzība.

Tomēr kolonisti neskatījās uz suņiem, bet rūpējās par viņiem. Pirmais likums par sliktu izturēšanos pret suņiem (vai jebkuru dzīvnieku) Anglijas kolonijās bija Noteikumi pret tirāniju vai nežēlību no Masačūsetsas līča kolonijas 1641. gadā. Mērķtiecīga nežēlība pret dzīvnieku tika sodīta ar naudas sodu vai sodu krājumos un tabulās. Kolonisti, kas audzēja suņus, īpaši lepojās ar viņiem un pacēla savējos augstāk par kaimiņiem ar apkaklēm, kas bieži bija greznas un augstākās klases vidū diezgan dārgas.

Ādas apkakles ar misiņa plāksnīti, kas iegravēta ar suņa vārdu, īpašnieka vārdu un dažreiz arī smalku epigrammu, bija populāras Eiropā un tika atspoguļotas koloniālās Amerikas sākumā. Suņu īpašumtiesības tika saistītas ar tādu bagātību, ka varēja atļauties pabarot suni, kā arī savu ģimeni, un piekaramā kaklasiksna daļēji tika izstrādāta, lai pierādītu īpašumtiesības. Piekaramās kaklasiksnas apkakle bija metāla eņģes, kas piestiprinātas ap kakla kaklu ar aizdari un piestiprinātas ar nelielu piekaramo atslēgu, kuras atslēgu turēja tikai saimnieks. Ja suns tika pazaudēts vai nozagts, īpašumtiesības varēja pierādīt, uzrādot atslēgu un atslēdzot apkakli, jo gabalu nebija iespējams noņemt citādi, nekaitējot sunim.

Suņi tika izmantoti medībām, mājas apsargāšanai un asins sporta veidos, piemēram, suņu cīņās vai lācīšos. Šķirnēs bija dažādi suņi, buldogi, mastifi, rādītāji, seteri, spanieli, terjeri un citi. Mazākas šķirnes bija pazīstamas kā “komforta suņi”, un sievietes un vecāka gadagājuma cilvēki tās mīlēja kā pavadoņus. Augstākās klases kungi, piemēram, Džordžs Vašingtons (l. 1732-1799) un Tomass Džefersons (1743-1826), veica šķirņu uzskaiti un Vašingtona lepojās ar zināšanām par suņiem. Franču ģenerālis Lafeite (La. tādējādi iepazīstinot Basset ar Ziemeļameriku. Vēl viena no pazīstamākajām anekdotēm par Vašingtonu un suni nāk arī no Amerikas Neatkarības kara (1775-1783) perioda un stāsta, kā pēc 1777. gada Germantaunas kaujas Vašingtona atrada sava pretinieka ģenerāļa Viljama suni Howe (l. 1729-1814), un atdeva to viņam ar saviem komplimentiem. Vašingtona no uzraksta uz suņa apkakles zināja, ka tas ir Hova suns.

Ja suns pazudis, ja viņam trūkst identifikācijas, piemēram, Hova suns, vietējā sapulču namā, baznīcā vai krodziņā tiks ievietotas reklāmas, kurās tiek piedāvāta atlīdzība par atgriešanos, tāpat kā mūsdienās. Koloniālajā Viljamsburgā suņiem tika piedāvāta atlīdzība 20 šiliņu apmērā (deviņu dienu alga) laika posmā no 1774. Reklāmas Ņujorkā revolūcijas laikā tiek ievērotas pēc tāda paša modeļa, kādā britu virsnieki daudzus ievietojuši par zaudēto suņu atgriešanu. Tā laika augstākās klases kungu portretos bieži redzams, ka viņi pozē kopā ar iecienītāko medību suni un tādas pašas augstākās klases sievietes ar savu komforta suni. Patiesībā suņi sāk parādīties diezgan regulāri ģimenes portretos no c. 1700 un vairāk.

Citi mājdzīvnieki

Suņi nebija vienīgais pieradinātais dzīvnieks, kuram 18. gadsimtā bija paaugstināts statuss; kaķi arī tika augstu novērtēti kā pavadoņi, turpretī iepriekš
tie vairāk vai mazāk tika uzskatīti par utilitāru kaitēkļu apkarošanu. Apgaismības laikmets mudināja cilvēkus apšaubīt daudzus pagātnes uzskatus un tradīcijas, un viens no tiem bija uzskats par kaķi kā gandrīz par vajadzīgu ļaunumu. Kaķi bija saistīti ar pagānu kultūrām, un, kā tika atzīmēts, Bībelē tie netika minēti, liekot viņiem aizdomāties. Tomēr tie bija noderīgi, lai kontrolētu žurku un peļu populāciju, un lielākoties tos panes vairāk nekā aprūpēja.

18. gadsimtā kaķis kļuva par lutinātu mājas mājdzīvnieku, kas ir pazīstams mūsdienās.

Tomēr 18. gadsimtā kaķis kļuva par mūsdienās pazīstamu mājdzīvnieku. Ģimenes portretos, kā arī vienciparu gabalos bieži bija attēlots personas vai ģimenes kaķis, un tie sāka parādīties dzejā un literatūrā. Kaķis kā pazīstams raganas mīļākais, protams, tika plaši atzīts, un viņi netika pieņemti kā ģimenes locekļi jau suņu vecumā, bet līdz Amerikas revolūcijai viņi bija vismaz līdzvērtīgā stāvoklī ar suņiem. portrets.

Brieži tika attēloti arī portretos un kļuva par vienu no visvairāk pieprasītajiem un populārākajiem koloniālās Amerikas mājdzīvniekiem. Briedis valkāja apkakles un staigāja pie pavadām, un, pamatojoties uz to attēlojumu gleznās, ģimenes mājā dzīvoja tikpat ērti kā kaķi vai suņi. Briedis bieži tika pieradināts un palaists vaļā koloniālo muižu dārzos, lai uzjautrinātu viesus ballītēs, un viens no piemēriem ir doktors Bendžamins Džonss no Virdžīnijas kolonijas, kurš šim nolūkam, kā arī savam īpašumam apmācīja vairāk nekā simts briežu. ģimeni izbaudīt. Briežu portretos tās attēlotas tādā pašā pozā kā tā laika kurtu suņi ar misiņa krāsām, bieži piekaramās slēdzenes tipa.

Vēl viens mājdzīvnieks, kas bieži tika attēlots portretos, bija vāvere, kuras mazuļi kļuva populārāki nekā kucēns vai kaķēns ar tā laika bērniem. Cilvēki aplaupīja vāveres ligzdas, pieradināja tās un pārdeva tirgū kā mājas mīluļus. Šīs mājas vāveres bija apkakles, pavadas un staigāja tāpat kā komforta suņi. Lidojošās vāveres īpaši iecienījuši jauni zēni, kuri, staigājot pa pilsētu, apmācīja viņus sēdēt uz pleciem. Par vāveru kā mājdzīvnieku popularitāti žēlojās tā laika sievas un mātes, kuras sūdzējās par radībām, košļājot pa skapjiem, apģērbu un veļu, un tās nevarēja savaldīt, jo varēja paēst caur koka kastēm vai būriem. Skārdnieki to izmantoja, izveidojot metāla būrus ar trenažieriem un citiem priekšmetiem, lai vāvere joprojām varētu izklaidēt ģimeni, bet paliktu ierobežota.

Pieradinātos putnus īpaši iecienīja jaunas meitenes un sievietes, kuras kardinālus un citus savās viesistabās turēja bieži izstrādātos būros. Tika uzskatīts, ka putnam var iemācīt melodiju, to atkārtojot, un tāpēc mazas flautas, kas pazīstamas kā flageolets, kļuva populāras putnu īpašnieku vidū. Persona visu dienu atkārtoja vienkāršu instrumenta melodiju, un tika uzskatīts, ka putns iemācīsies to dziedāt. Tomēr nav ierakstu, ka šī prakse būtu sekmīga, izņemot ņirgāšanās gadījumu.

Arī bebri bija populāri, galvenokārt vīriešu un zēnu vidū, un tika apmācīti ķert zivis un nest tās mājās. Ūdri tika apmācīti, lai izgūtu ūdenī iekritušos medījumus, tāpat kā medību suņi iepriekš. Īpaši zvejniekiem patika apmācīti ūdri, kuri ienirs zem ūdens un atgriezīsies kopā ar zivīm. Jenoti, kas arī bija pieradināti, bija vismazāk populāri, pateicoties ieradumam lauzt un iekļūt pieliekamajos un nozagt pārtiku vai dažādus priekšmetus no mājām. Neatkarīgi no tā, cik labi apmācīts, jenots arī bija piemērots, lai nogalinātu ģimenes vistas, un galu galā tas tika nomests kā mājdzīvnieks un vairāk uzskatīts par plēsēju un traucēkli.

Citi dzīvnieki, piemēram, čūskas un mazi pērtiķi, joprojām bija populāri, lai gan tie radīja savas problēmas. Čūskas bija īpaši nepopulāras sieviešu vidū, lai gan sievietes un meitenes bija pērtiķu galvenie īpašnieki, kuri daudz vairāk traucēja uzturēt kārtīgu un tīru māju. Vēl viens dzīvnieks, kas bija īpaši populārs jauno meiteņu vidū, bija jērs, kas bieži tika attēlots gleznās ar lenti ap kaklu. Vistas, protams, kalpoja arī kā mājdzīvnieki, lai gan nevienā portretā tās nebija rotātas kā jēri un pērtiķi.

Secinājums

Izmaiņas mājdzīvnieku īpašumtiesībās attiecībā uz mājās turēto dzīvnieku veidiem notika līdz ar rūpniecisko revolūciju 18. gadsimta beigās un 19. gadsimta sākumā. Britu rūpnieks Semjuels Sleiters (l. 1768-1835) ASV ieviesa angļu tekstilfabrikas c. 1789. Viņam palīdzēja rūpnieks Mozus Brauns (l. 1738.-1836. G.), Kurš 1790. gadā Amerikā Pjūketā, Rodas salā, nodibināja pirmās ar ūdeni darbināmās dzirnavas. Tekstilizstrādājumu dzirnavu ieviešana uzņēmējiem izrādījās diezgan izdevīga un veicināja jaunu darbaspēku taupošas tehnoloģijas, kas noveda pie urbanizācijas, cilvēkiem pārceļoties uz pilsētām darba dēļ. Palielinoties industrializācijai un urbanizācijai, mājdzīvnieku īpašumtiesības kļuva arvien ierobežojošākas attiecībā uz izvēli; pilsētas dzīvoklī nebija vietas briedim, zirgam vai jēram kā mājdzīvniekam. Laukos dzīvojošie šos dzīvniekus joprojām turēja kā mājdzīvniekus, taču 19. gadsimtā tie vairs neparādās portretos, un šķiet, ka vāveres ir sekojušas šim pašam popularitātes kritumam.

Kolonizācija, paplašināšanās uz rietumiem un tālāka imigrācija ietekmēja arī to, kuri dzīvnieki tika turēti kā mājdzīvnieki. Briežus regulāri medīja kā pārtiku un viņu ādas, pat ja tie tika pieradināti kā mājdzīvnieki, bet, tā kā dabiskie biotopi sāka sarukt un briežu populācijas attālinājās no apdzīvotām vietām, briežu ķeršana un pieradināšana kā mājdzīvnieks kļuva mazāk populāra nekā šaušana un ēšana. vakariņām. Koloniālajā periodā tik populārā čūska sekoja šai pašai gaitai, jo viņus padzina tālāk no pilsētām un beidzot 19. gadsimta vidū ceļojošie burvji un cirka mākslinieki nonāca izklaides jomā.

Tā kā arvien vairāk zemes tika apdzīvota un vairāk cilvēku bija jābaro, tādi dzīvnieki kā bebrs, ūdrs un jenots, kas tika nomedīti pēc ādas un gaļas pat tad, kad tos uzskatīja par populāriem mājdzīvniekiem, tika uzskatīti par pārtikas avotiem. no pavadoņiem un palīgiem. Indiāņu ciematus, kuru savulaik Ziemeļamerikas austrumu piekrastē bija diezgan daudz, kolonisti iznīcināja, lai radītu vietu tālākām apmetnēm, un, tiklīdz iedzīvotāji tika pārvietoti uz rezervācijām, viņiem bija nelikumīgi turēt suņus tāpat kā lai viņiem būtu piekļuve šaujamieročiem. Indiāņu suņi tika konfiscēti, un šīs suņu šķirnes galu galā izzuda no audzēšanas ar Eiropas suņiem un tik rūpīgi, ka šodien nav skaidrs, kādas bija daudzas no šīm šķirnēm.

Šķiet, ka mājdzīvnieku veidu ierobežojumi ir notikuši dabiski, jo eksotiskākus dzīvniekus kļuva grūtāk iegūt. Tāpēc suņi un kaķi kļuva par galveno izvēli lielākajai daļai cilvēku, un viņu popularitāte pieauga, jo vairāk māju tos pieņēma. Mūsdienās suns un kaķis joprojām ir populārākie un izplatītākie dzīvnieki, kas tiek turēti kā mājdzīvnieki, lai gan vairāki amerikāņi turpina turēt eksotiskus dzīvniekus tāpat kā viņu senči.


Eliasa Legarde Rediģēt

Eliass Legarde (vai Legardo) bija ebrejs, kurš HMS ieradās Džeimstaunā, Virdžīnijā Ebigeila Šis pieņēmums ir balstīts tikai uz uzvārda skanējumu, kuram bija apšaubāma pareizrakstība (Legardo).

Salamans Franko Rediģēt

Pirmais ebrejs, par kuru zināms, ka viņš dzīvojis Ziemeļamerikas ziemeļos, bija Zālamans Franko, sefardiešu ebrejs no Holandes, kurš, domājams, apmetās Bostonas pilsētā Masačūsetsas līča kolonijā 1649. gadā. Franko bija Imanuela Perada zinātnieks un aģents. Holandiešu tirgotājs. Viņš piegādāja krājumus Edvardam Gibbonam, Masačūsetsas milicijas ģenerālmajoram. Pēc strīda par to, kam jāmaksā Franko (Gibbons vai Perada), Masačūsetsas Vispārējā tiesa 1649. gada 6. maijā nolēma, ka Franko ir jāizraida no kolonijas, un piešķīra viņam "sešus šiliņus nedēļā no Valsts kases desmit nedēļas, iztikai, līdz viņš varēs nokļūt Holandē. " [1] [2]

Solomon Pietersen Rediģēt

Solomons Pītersens bija tirgotājs no Amsterdamas, kurš ieradās pilsētā 1654. gadā. 1656. gadā Pītersens kļuva par pirmo zināmo amerikāņu ebreju, kurš apprecējās ar kristieti, lai gan nav ierakstu, kas liecinātu, ka Pītersens būtu formāli pieņēmis ticību, viņa meita Anna tika kristīta bērnībā. [3] [4] [5]

Jēkabs Barsimsons Rediģēt

1654. gada 8. jūlijā Jēkabs Barsimsons atstāja Holandi un ieradās uz kuģa Peartree 22. augustā Ņū Amsterdamas ostā (Lejas Manhetenā, kur šodien atrodas Volstrīta). Barsimsons bija nodarbināts Nīderlandes Austrumindijas uzņēmumā un bija aizbēdzis no portugāļu apmetnēm Jaunajā pasaulē, kas bija sagrābuši kādreizējo nīderlandiešu apmetni un izveidoja tur Portugāles inkvizīciju.

Asser Levy Rediģēt

Asers Levijs (Van Swellem) pirmo reizi publiskajos ierakstos tiek minēts Jaunajā Amsterdamā 1654. gadā saistībā ar 23 ebreju grupu, kas ieradās kā bēgļi no Brazīlijas. Visticamāk, viņš bija pirms viņu ierašanās. Levijs bija (košera) miesnieks mazajā ebreju kopienā. Viņš cīnījās par ebreju tiesībām Nīderlandes kolonijā un ir slavens ar to, ka ir nodrošinājis ebreju tiesības uzņemties par birģeriem un pildīt kolonijas apsardzes pienākumus.

Pirmais grupa ebreju ziemeļu kolonijās izkāpa 1654. gada septembra sākumā, neilgi pēc Barsimsona. Barsimsons esot saticis viņus The Battery pēc viņu ierašanās. Šo grupu veidoja divdesmit trīs Portugāles ebreji no Nīderlandes (četri pāri, divas atraitnes un trīspadsmit bērni). Tāpat kā Barsimsons, viņi bija aizbēguši no bijušās nīderlandiešu apmetnes, kur grupa bija emigrējusi no Nīderlandes Brazīlijas pēc apmetnes iekarošanas portugāļiem. Baidoties no inkvizīcijas, ebreji atstāja Resifu. Sākotnēji viņi piestāja spāņu Jamaikā un Spānijas Kubā, taču spāņi neļāva viņiem tur palikt. Viņu kuģis, Ste. Katrīna, tā vietā devās uz Jauno Amsterdamu, norēķinoties pret vietējo tirgotāju un vietējās Nīderlandes Reformātu baznīcas vēlmēm. Koloniālais gubernators Pīters Stuyvesants pēc šo grupu sūdzības mēģināja ebrejus izraidīt. Viņš uzrakstīja 1654. gada 22. septembra vēstuli Nīderlandes Rietumindijas kompānijas direktoriem:

Ieradušies ebreji gandrīz visi vēlētos palikt šeit, taču, uzzinot, ka viņi (ar savu parasto augļošanu un viltīgo tirdzniecību ar kristiešiem) bija ļoti pretīgi zemākajiem tiesnešiem, kā arī cilvēkiem, kas pret diakoniju jūs visvairāk mīl. baidoties arī, ka pašreizējās neveiklības dēļ tie varētu kļūt par lādiņu nākamajā ziemā, šīs vājās un jaunattīstības vietas un zemes labā mēs esam uzskatījuši par lietderīgu prasīt viņiem draudzīgu izbraukšanu, šajā sakarā arī visnopietnāk lūdzot par sevi, kā arī par jūsu pielūgsmes kopienu, lai maldinošajai rasei - tādiem naidīgiem ienaidniekiem un Kristus vārda zaimotājiem - netiktu ļauts vēl vairāk inficēt un satraukt šo jauno koloniju par jūsu pielūgsmēm un jūsu pielūgsmes sirsnīgāko priekšmetu neapmierinātību.

Tomēr Nīderlandes Rietumindijas kompānijas direktoru vidū bija vairāki ietekmīgi ebreji, kuri iestājās bēgļu vārdā. Uzņēmuma amatpersonas noraidīja Stuyvesantu un pavēlēja viņam 1655. gada 26. aprīļa vēstulē ļaut ebrejiem palikt Jaunajā Amsterdamā, "ar nosacījumu, ka nabadzīgie no viņiem nekļūs par apgrūtinājumu uzņēmumam vai sabiedrībai, bet tiks atbalstīti no viņu pašu puses. tauta ":

Mēs būtu vēlējušies izpildīt un izpildīt jūsu vēlmes un lūgt, lai ebreju nācijas cilvēki vairs neļautu inficēties jaunajās teritorijās, jo mēs no tām paredzam tās pašas grūtības, no kurām jūs baidāties, bet pēc tam, kad esat vairāk apsvēruši un apsvēruši mēs novērojam, ka tas būtu nedaudz nepamatoti un netaisnīgi, jo īpaši tāpēc, ka šī tauta kopā ar citām valstīm ir cietusi ievērojamus zaudējumus Brazīlijas pārņemšanā, kā arī lielā kapitāla dēļ, ko tās joprojām ir ieguldījušas akcijās no šī uzņēmuma. Tāpēc pēc daudzām apspriedēm mēs beidzot esam nolēmuši un apņēmušies apostillēt [anotēt] konkrētu lūgumrakstu, ko iesnieguši minētie Portugāles ebreji, ka šie cilvēki var ceļot un tirgoties uz un uz Nīderlandi un dzīvot un palikt tur, ja vien nabadzīgie no viņiem nekļūs uzņēmumam vai sabiedrībai, bet to atbalsta viņu tauta. Tagad jūs atbilstoši pārvaldīsit sevi.

Kad angļi 1664. gadā sagūstīja koloniju, ebreju tiesības netika traucētas, un, šķiet, divdesmit gadus viņi dzīvoja tikpat daudz kā pirms britu okupācijas, lai gan nedaudz palielinājās to skaits. Ebrejiem iepriekš bija liegts apmesties angļu kolonijās, jo 400 gadus viņiem bija aizliegts iebraukt visās Anglijas zemēs. Olivers Kromvels (britu aizsargs no 1649. līdz 1660. gadam ar sava dēla Ričarda starpniecību) atcēla šo aizliegumu, un drīzumā Ņūportā, Rodailendā, tika nodibināta pirmā lielākā ebreju apmetne. 1672. gadā Rabba Koutija ieguva ievērojamu pārsūdzību Anglijas Karaļa padomē no dekrēta, ko pret viņu pieņēma Jamaikas tiesas, kā rezultātā viens no viņa kuģiem tika konfiscēts un atzīts par zaudētu. Viņa apelācija bija veiksmīga un noteica ebreju kā britu pavalstnieku tiesības. Šķiet, ka šis ir pirmais gadījums, kad koloniālā naturalizācijas dotācija tika atzīta par derīgu.

1685. gadā tika noraidīts Saula Brauna (sākotnēji Sauls Pardo) pieteikums tirdzniecībai mazumtirdzniecībā, tāpat kā ebrejiem par brīvību publiski īstenot savu reliģiju. Tas, ka viņi to darīja privāti kādā noteiktā kulta vietā, varētu izrietēt no tā, ka Ņujorkas kartē, kas datēta ar 1695. gadu, ir redzama ebreju sinagogas atrašanās vieta Bebru ielā, kā arī tas, ka Sauls Brauns bija ministrs un ka draudzē bija divdesmit ģimenes. Pēc pieciem gadiem sinagogas atrašanās vieta bija tik labi zināma, ka, pārvedot īpašumu, telpas tika sauktas par orientieri. 1710. gadā draudzes ministram Ābrahamam de Lusēnam ministra funkciju dēļ tika piešķirts atbrīvojums no civildienesta un militārā dienesta. Ņujorkas draudzes Shearith Israel protokols sākas 1729. gadā, kad tā atradās Dzirnavu ielā, un attiecas uz ierakstiem, kas datēti jau 1706. gadā. Šī draudze izveidojās Dzirnavu ielā 1730. gadā, iegādājoties divus gadus iepriekš. , pirmā sinagoga topošajās ASV.

Tādējādi varētu šķist, ka šo agrīno ebreju kolonistu reliģiskās tiesības tika nodrošinātas 18. gadsimta sākumā un ka viņiem bija arī daudzas politiskās tiesības. 1727. gada 15. novembrī Ņujorkas Ģenerālajā asamblejā tika pieņemts akts, ar nosacījumu, ka tad, kad ikviens brits, kas atzīst ebreju reliģiju, nodos nolaupīšanas zvērestu, vārdi "uz kristieša patieso ticību" var tikt izlaisti. . Trīs dienas vēlāk tika pieņemts akts, kurā tika naturalizēts viens Daniels Nunes da Costa. 1737. gada rūgto politisko strīdu rezultātā Ģenerālā asambleja nolēma, ka ebrejiem nevajadzētu ļaut balsot par šīs struktūras locekļiem.

1740. gadā Parlaments pieņēma Plantācijas likumu, kas īpaši ļāva ebrejus naturalizēt kolonijās. Tomēr pirms šī datuma Ņujorkas Koloniālā asambleja bija pieņēmusi daudzus īpašus naturalizācijas aktus, no kuriem daži bija piemērojami tikai atsevišķiem indivīdiem, vispārīgāku raksturu, saskaņā ar kuriem ebrejus varēja naturalizēt, nesniedzot zvērestu "patiesajai ticībai". kristietis ”, tika uzlikts arī statūtu grāmatā. Laikā no šī brīža līdz revolucionārajam karam ebreju kopiena šajā kolonijā palielinājās lēnām, galvenie imigranti ieradās no Spānijas, Portugāles un Rietumindijas.

Francijas un Indijas kara laikā Džeikobs Franks bija karaliskais aģents sadarbībā ar britu sindikātu, nodrošinot britu spēkus Amerikā, viņa darījumi ar kroni šajā periodā pārsniedza 750 000 sterliņu mārciņu.

Lai gan lielākā daļa agrāko imigrantu apmetās Ņujorkā, daži apmetās ārpus tās robežām, daži pat līdz pat pašreizējās Pensilvānijas štata robežām. 1661. gadā, kad Albānija bija tikai tirdzniecības vieta, Aseram Levijam tur piederēja nekustamais īpašums, taču laikā no šī datuma līdz deviņpadsmitā gadsimta pirmajiem gadiem šajā pilsētā nav nekādu ierakstu. Viņu nebija pietiekami daudz, lai izveidotu draudzi līdz 1838. gadam, un viņiem nebija rabīna līdz 1846. gadam.

1600. gadu beigās ebreju grupa apmetās Ņūportā, Rodailendā, pateicoties oficiālajai kolonijas reliģiskajai iecietībai, kā to noteica Rodžers Viljamss. Citās Jaunanglijas daļās, iespējams, septiņpadsmitajā un astoņpadsmitajā gadsimtā bija gadījuma rakstura kolonisti, taču puritāņu neiecietība padarīja neiespējamu jebkādu reliģisku kopienu izveidi. Saskaņā ar vairākiem avotiem Mozus Simonsons, kurš 1621. gadā apmetās Plimutā, Masačūsetsā, iespējams, bija ieguvis holandiešu ebreju senčus. [1] [2] Interesanta personība ir Jūda Monisa, kas kļuva par kristietību un no 1722. gada līdz savai nāvei 1764. gadā ieņēma ebreju valodas katedru Hārvardas koledžā.

1659. gada 9. novembrī Konektikutā tika pieminēts ebrejs, bet 1670. gadā - cits ebrejs. Pirmā ebreju ģimene, kas apmetās Ņūheivenā, ieradās 1772. gadā, lai gan daži cilvēki, kas bija kļuvuši par kristietības pievēršanos, dzīvoja tur dažus gadus iepriekš. Pirmā draudze tika izveidota ap 1840. gadu, draudzes locekļi bija apmēram divdesmit Bavārijas ģimeņu. Kopš tā laika kopiena pieauga lēnām. Ebreju apmetnes ir arī Bridžportā, Ansonijā, Derbijā, Voterberijā, Jaunajā Londonā un Hārtfordā. Pirmā draudze Hartfordā tika nodibināta 1843. gadā. Kopš 1891. gada dažādās valsts daļās ir apmetušies vairāki ebreju zemnieki.

Agrākais pieminējums par ebreju Masačūsetsā ir datēts ar 1649. gada 3. maiju, un Bostonas iedzīvotāju vidū ir atsauces uz ebrejiem 1695. un 1702. gadā, taču viņus var uzskatīt tikai par stradžeriem, jo ​​neviens kolonists savas mājas Masačūsetsā nav iekārtojis līdz Revolucionārais karš izdzina ebrejus no Ņūportas. 1777. gadā Ārons Lopess un Džeikobs Rivera kopā ar piecdesmit deviņiem citiem devās no Ņūportas uz Lesteru un nostiprinājās tur, taču šī apmetne kara beigās neizdzīvoja. Vairāki ebreji, ieskaitot Heju ģimeni, apmetās Bostonā pirms 1800. gada. No tiem Mozus Maikls Hejs bija vissvarīgākais. 1830. gadā vairāki Alžīrijas ebreji devās uz Bostonu, taču drīz viņi pazuda. Pašreizējās kopienas vēsture sākas ar 1840. gadu, kad tika izveidota pirmā draudze.

Ebreju imigranti Vermontā un Ņūhempšīrā nekad nav bijuši ļoti daudz, lai gan ir draudzes Burlingtonā, Vermontā un Mančestrā, Našua, Konkordā, Portsmutā un Doverā, Ņūhempšīrā. Par ebreju kopīgo dzīvi Jaunanglijā var teikt maz nozīmes, un to skaits pieauga, bet lēnām, līdz pēc lielās krievu emigrācijas sākuma 1882. gadā, kad sākās pārplūde no Ņujorkas, kā arī emigrācija caur Kanādu. ieplūst Jaunanglijā.

Rietumu atvēršanās un no tā izrietošais nerentablais saimniekošanas raksturs Jaunanglijā aizveda no šīs ASV daļas daudzus taupīgus lauksaimniekus, kuri pameta savus neauglīgos laukus, lai iegūtu pievilcīgākas iespējas rietumu štatos. Interesanti saistībā ar šo iedzīvotāju skaita maiņu ir fakts, ka daudzas no šīm pamestajām saimniecībām, īpaši Konektikutā, ir pārņēmuši Krievijas ebreji, kuri galvenokārt kā piensaimnieki ir pievienojuši jaunu un noderīgu elementu lauksaimnieku kopienai. .

Šķiet, ka tikai daži ebreji 17. gadsimta pirmajā pusē atrada ceļu uz Merilendu un ka pirmie kolonijas kolonisti ieradās kā indivīdi, nevis jebkurā laikā ievērojamā skaitā, kā tas notika Ņujorkā. , Ņūportā, Savannā un Čārlstonā. Lai spriestu tikai pēc nosaukumiem, varētu šķist, ka daži ebreji dzīvoja Merilendā no kolonijas pirmajām dienām. Ievērojamākā persona, kas neapšaubāmi bija ebrejs, bija doktors Jēkabs Lumbrozo, kurš bija ieradies 1656. gada 24. janvārī un kurš 1658. gadā tika tiesāts par zaimošanu, bet tika atbrīvots vispārējās amnestijas dēļ. Ričarda Kromvela pievienošanās (1658. gada 3. marts). Lumbrozo tika izsniegtas denonsēšanas vēstules 1663. gada 10. septembrī. Papildus medicīnas praksei viņam piederēja arī plantācija, viņš nodarbojās ar tirdzniecību ar indiāņiem un aktīvi sadarbojās ar Londonas tirgotājiem. Viņš bija viens no pirmajiem ārstiem kolonijā, un viņa karjera daudz izgaismo reliģiskās iecietības vēsturi un raksturu Merilendā. Ar savu personību viņš varēja ignorēt gandrīz visus likumus, kas padarītu viņa uzturēšanos kolonijā neiespējamu, un šķiet, ka viņš ir ievērojis savu ticību, lai gan saskaņā ar likumiem tas bija aizliegts. Nelabvēlīgā vide apgrūtināja ebreju uzņemšanu Merilendā, un līdz 1776. gada Konstitūcijai tika noteiktas visu reliģiskās tiesības, kolonijā apmetās maz ebreju.

Ir reģistrēts, ka jau no 1655. gada ebreji no Jaunās Amsterdamas tirgojās gar Delavēras upi. Iespējams, ka tās teritorijas dienvidaustrumu daļā, kuras Viljams Pens 1681. gadā pārņēma valdībā, bija daži kolonisti. Ļoti ievērojams skaits agrīno Pensilvānijas kolonistu bija Vācijas ebreji. The first Jewish resident of Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who was living there in 1703. Another early pioneer and one of considerable prominence was Isaac Miranda. He was the first to settle at Lancaster, at which place, as also at Shaefferstown, there was an early Jewish immigration. Miranda became a convert to Christianity and held several state offices. A number of Jews settled in Philadelphia in the first half of the eighteenth century, and became prominent in the life of the city. Among these were David Franks, Joseph Marks, and Sampson Levy. The Non-Importation Resolutions of 1765 contained the signatures of eight Jews, an indication of the importance of the Jewish community at this time. As early as 1747 a number of persons held religious services in a small house in Sterling alley, and afterward in Cherry alley—between Third and Fourth streets. They were mostly German and Polish Jews and their differences as to the liturgy to be followed prevented, at the time, the formation of any regular congregation. Attempts, indeed, were made in 1761 and 1773 to form one, but none was established until the influx of Jews from New York during the Revolutionary War, with the arrival of Gershom Mendes Seixas, gave the community sufficient strength to carry out this cherished object. A lot was purchased and a synagogue erected, the dedication occurring in September 1782. A number of Philadelphia Jews served in the army of the Revolution and the inestimable services rendered by Haym Salomon to Robert Morris in the finances of the Revolution make his name stand out as the most prominent character in American Jewry.

Jews have lived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, since at least 1730, before the town and county were organized. Joseph Simon was the best known of the first arrivals. Meyer Hart and Michael Hart were among the earlier settlers at Easton, where they arrived previous to the Revolutionary War. A synagogue was established there in 1839. Shaefferstown had a few Jewish settlers at an early date, and a synagogue and cemetery in 1732. For a considerable number of years preceding the Revolutionary War a number of Jews of Pennsylvania were engaged in the exploitation and sale of western Pennsylvania lands. Among the more prominent of these were Jacob and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

The Jewish settlement in Georgia dates almost from the very foundation of the colony and the early history of Georgia is practically the history of the growth and development of Savannah, Jewish life centering in that city. It would appear that a movement was set on foot in London to settle some Jews in the colony even before James Oglethorpe, in June, 1733, led his first band of followers to the point which soon after became the city of Savannah. The second vessel which reached the colony from England (on July 11, 1733) had among its passengers no less than forty Jewish emigrants. Although their arrival was unexpected, the liberal-minded governor welcomed them gladly, notwithstanding that he was aware that the trustees of the colony in England had expressed some opposition to permitting Jews to settle there. These first settlers were all of Spanish, Portuguese, and Prussian extraction, though within a year of their arrival others, who were apparently German Jews, also took up their residence there. These two bands of settlers received equally liberal treatment from Oglethorpe, and were the progenitors of one of the most important communities of Jews in the U.S. Many of their descendants are still living in various parts of the country. The first male white child born in the colony was a Jew, Philip (Uri) Minis on July 11, 1734.

Among the first immigrants was Dr. Nunis, who was made welcome because of his medical knowledge, and because he, with a number of others, brought sufficient wealth to the colony to enable the immigrants to take up large tracts of land. A congregation was organized as early as 1734. Three years later Abraham de Lyon, who had been a vigneron in Portugal, introduced the culture of grapes. The cultivation and manufacture of silk and the pursuit of agriculture and of commerce were the chief occupations of these early settlers. A dispute with the trustees of the colony respecting the introduction of slaves caused an extensive emigration to South Carolina in 1741, and resulted in the dissolution of the congregation. But in 1751 a number of Jews returned to Georgia, and in the same year the trustees sent over Joseph Ottolenghi to superintend the somewhat extensive silk-industry in the colony. Ottolenghi soon attained prominence in the political life of his associates, and was elected a member of the Assembly in 1761 and in succeeding years. There seems to have been little if any distinction made socially between the Jews and the other settlers, and educational and philanthropic institutions seem to have been supported by all alike.

The liberal charter which John Locke drew up in 1669 for the governance of the Carolinas should have operated to attract Jews there at an early date, since "Jews, heathen, and dissenters" were by the terms of Locke's charter granted full liberty of conscience. Although political changes modified Locke's original plans considerably, the spirit of tolerance was always retained. Nevertheless, no Jews in any numbers appear to have come to South Carolina until the exodus from Georgia from 1740 to 1771, already referred to. However, one Simon Valentine, one of four Jews who applied for citizenship in 1697, became the first documented Jewish landowner, which entitled him to vote. [3] A few others followed him, for in 1703 a protest was raised against "Jew strangers" voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

In 1748, some prominent London Jews set on foot a scheme for the acquisition of a tract of 200,000 acres (80,937 ha) (809 km 2 ) of land in South Carolina. Nothing came of this, however, though on November 27, 1755, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres (40,469 ha) (405 km 2 ) of land near Fort Ninety-six for £2,000. Twenty years later Salvador sold 60,000 acres (24,281 ha) (243 km 2 ) of land for £3,000 to thirteen London Sephardic Jews. This land was known as the "Jews' Lands." Another of the Salvadors (Francis Salvador, the nephew of Joseph) purchased extensive tracts of land in the same vicinity in 1773–74. [3] Moses Lindo, likewise a London Jew, who arrived in 1756, became actively engaged in indigo manufacture, [3] spending large sums in its development, and making this one of the principal industries of the state.

During the Revolutionary War the Jews of South Carolina were to be found on both sides and the most eminent of the revolutionists was Francis Salvador, who was elected a member of the First and Second Provincial Congresses which met 1775–76, the most important political office held by any Jew during the Revolution. [3] Two-thirds of a company of militia commanded by Richard Lushington was made up of Charleston Jews.

After the fall of Charleston in 1780 the majority of Jews left that city, but most of them returned at the close of the war. The Sephardic Jews established a congregation in 1750, and the Jews of German descent another shortly thereafter. In 1791, when the Sephardic congregation was incorporated, the total number of Jews in Charleston is estimated to have been 400.

To judge by names alone, it would appear that a few Jews wandered into Virginia as early as 1624. A small number seem also to have been there before the end of the seventeenth century, but for nearly 100 years no traces of Jewish settlement are found. At least one Jewish soldier—possibly two—served in Virginia regiments under Washington in his expedition across the Allegheny Mountains in 1754. It is probable that Jews drifted into the colony from Baltimore and other points in Maryland at an early date. By 1785, Richmond had a Jewish community of about a dozen families of Spanish-Portuguese descent, which organized a Sephardic congregation in 1791. This congregation remained in existence until 1898.

A few Jews were among the traders who settled in Tennessee, near the Holston River, in 1778, but they were mere stragglers and made no permanent settlement.

Of the remaining states of the southern group east of the Mississippi River the principal Jewish settlements have been made in Alabama and Mississippi. An occasional Jew made his way into the territory which is now Alabama during the early part of the eighteenth century. One Pallachio became prominent in 1776.

It is likely that there were a few Jews in the Natchez district of Mississippi before the close of the eighteenth century, but no congregation was organized until that of Natchez was established in 1843.

Before and during the American Revolutionary War the Jews had representatives of their people upon both sides of the controversy, though the majority joined the colonial side. On the Non-Importation Agreement of 1769 the names of not less than five Jews are found this is also the case with respect to other agreements of a similar nature. The outbreak of the Revolutionary War dissolved the congregation in New York and upon the eve of the British occupancy of the town the majority of the congregation, headed by Gershom Mendes Seixas, took all the belongings of the synagogue and removed to Philadelphia, where they established the first regular congregation, the Mickvé Israel, in 1782. The small number who remained in New York occasionally held services in the synagogue. Most of those that left for Philadelphia returned to New York after the war. Haym Solomon or (Salomon), (1740–1785) was possibly the prime financier of the American side during the American War of Independence against Great Britain. He was born in Prussia and died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Although the Jews participated prominently in the events leading up to the Revolution, it would appear that even in the midst of absorbing political discussions they were able, in 1774, to start another congregation. They were not all, however, to be found on the colonial side during the war, for Mordecai Sheftall, Levi Sheftall, Philip Jacob Cohen, Philip Minis, and Sheftall Sheftall were in the first days of the Revolution disqualified by the authorities from holding any office of trust in the province because of the pronounced revolutionary ideas which they advocated. The community was dispersed during the Revolution, but many Jews returned immediately after the close of the war.


George Washington Bred Hunting Dogs for Speed

George Washington and Lord Fairfax, mounted on horses, on a fox hunt with a slave managing a team of hunting dogs.

Smita kolekcija/Gado/Getty Images

Washington, Hager adds, wanted a speedier hunting dog, and hoped to breed that speed into the hounds he already owned.

“When his good friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, heard about this, he sent General Washington a group of French hound dogs in the care of young John Quincy Adams,” he says. “These dogs were much more aggressive than Washington’s usual hounds, and were eventually bred with them. This created the new breed, although it’s important to note that Washington wasn’t thinking about the breed in any sort of legacy way. He just wanted to improve his personal collection of hunting dogs.”

According to Mary Thompson, research historian at Mount Vernon, many dog breeds were developed through selective breeding over many years.

“The fact that American foxhounds have a lighter build and longer legs than English Foxhounds suggests that Washington and others who were developing this new breed wanted a good hunting dog that was faster than the English dogs,” she says. Thompson added that American foxhounds also work more individually than as a pack, with each dog being willing to take the lead.

The American Kennel Club recognizes Washington as the father of the American foxhound, noting the breeds of Bluetick Coonhound, American English Coonhound and Treeing Walker Coonhound were also “likely influenced by his quest for a superior dog.”

Thompson adds that Washington kept many dog breeds, each with their own speciality. There were herding dogs, hounds, non-sporting dogs, terriers, toys and working dogs at Mount Vernon.

“In fact, we can document the presence and/or knowledge of breeds in every group currently recognized by the American Kennel Club among the dogs in Virginia in the 18th century,” she says. Breeds at Mount Vernon included Briards, Dalmatians, English foxhounds, French hounds, Greyhounds, Italian Greyhounds, mastiffs, Newfoundlands, pointers, spaniels and terriers.

Washington often gave his dogs names, too. Some of note: Sweet Lips, Venus, Trulove, Taster, Tippler, Drunkard and Madame Moose.

According to Thompson, many of the dog names seem to relate to singing or music: Droner, Hearkwell, Music and Singer, for example.

�h foxhound had a distinctive voice, which was important as a way to tell one dog from another when hunters were following behind them after prey animals,” she says. “Sweet Lips may have gotten her name because Washington liked the sound of her voice as she was hunting.”


Spirits of Our Forefathers - Alcohol in the American Colonies

The above statements by three of the Founding Fathers reflect the prevailing attitude toward alcohol in the 18th century and throughout much of our country's early existence. Alcohol has played a major role in our nation's history, and its use is a part of our heritage. In colonial times, Americans probably drank more alcohol that in any other era. Spirits were an integral part of daily life throughout the colonies no matter the geographic or economic differences. It was reported that the average American drank eight ounces of alcohol a day. And it didn't matter what. Americans drank beer, and cider with breakfast rum and wine with dinner claret, ratafias, creams, punches, and other concoctions in the evening. (Robinson, 2001)

"Revolutionary War era persons drank a phenomenal amount. We have here an account of a gentleman's average consumption: 'Given cider and punch for lunch rum and brandy before dinner punch, Madeira, port and sherry at dinner punch and liqueurs with the ladies and wine, spirit and punch till bedtime, all in punchbowls big enough for a goose to swim in.'" (As cited in Washington and Kitman, 1970)

There are a number of reasons for all of this tippling. Our English heritage declared that water was bad for a person's health. Given the sanitary standards of the day this was probably true. Beer consumption especially, was seen as a healthy substitute for water. Beer was considered a food, which showed social status (only the most destitute drank water) and allowed for persons to put in a full days work. Franklin while working in a printing house in London was known as the "water American", because of his affinity to water, by his fellow printers who were

Americans of the period believed it was particularly healthier to drink lukewarm alcohol during hot weather rather than drink cold water. Signs were displayed at public wells warning individuals of the dangers of cold water during the summer. The rationale for this is that when a person sweated, heat was conducted from the inside of the body. Therefore, the stomach needed warmth, which could be provided by alcohol. (Barr, 1999)

The bias against water was so great that a recent immigrant from Italy, Phillip Massei, caused a stir at a large dinner party where he asked for a glass of water. I perceived some confusion among the servants, and the water did not arrive. The host, next to who I sat, whispered in my ear, asking with a smile if I could not drink something else, because the unexpected request for a glass upset the entire household and they did not know what they were about." (As cited in Barr, 1999)

Beer usually replaced water as the daily drink. An early morning tankard of beer was typical in colonial America, even for children. This tradition, as stated earlier, came from England. The Pilgrims loaded more beer than water on the Mayflower. And, there is some evidence that they were put off at Plymouth, rather than Virginia, because the ship's crew wished to make sure they had enough beer to consume on the return voyage. (Royce, 1981)

The ingredients for beer did not grow well in New England. As a substitute, the Puritans made do with hard cider. The many apple orchards of the area were planted for its production. Men usually began the day with a quart or more at breakfast.

Beer and cider were not readily available on the frontier. Settlers west of the Allegheny Mountains converted their corn into whiskey as a substitute and to make their crop transportable. Life was hard on the frontier. The pioneers called their whiskey the "Good Creature of God", giving them the strength needed to dull the pain of the brutal manual labor of making a home in the wilderness. (Powell, 1999)

". there is unquestionably too much spirituous liquors drank in the newly settled parts of America, but a very good reason can be assigned for it. The labor of clearing the land is rugged and severe, and the summer sweats are sometimes so great that it would be dangerous to drink cold water. "(As cited in Barr, 1999)

The first businesses established on the frontier were often simple taverns located along trails and roads to take care of the needs of travelers. Tradition of the time dictated that a drink be had at every halt in a journey. One story tells of two travelers on a seventy-mile trek by coach who drank a quart of liquor at each of the eight stops that were made.

Tavern owners enjoyed higher social status than did the clergy during the colonial era. Taverns were the center of civic life. Because of this they were often required to be located near the church or meeting house. Religious services and court sessions were often held in taverns. Judges interrupted court to drink, and clergy were obligated to drink at every house call and were often seen reeling home. (Powell, 1999)

All of this drinking did not go on without some comment. John Adams stated: "If the ancients drank as our people drink rum and cider, it is no wonder we hear of so many possessed with devils." (As cited in History of Alcohol in America) But, among the founding fathers Adams stood pretty much alone. Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson all imbibed and enjoyed brewing or distilling their own alcoholic beverages.

Jefferson was one of the most knowledgeable wine connoisseurs ever to hold national office. And, he was the wine advisor for Washington, Madison and Monroe. He felt that wine was ". indispensable for my health." He further advocated the virtues of wine stating "no nation is drunken where wine is cheap and none sober, where the dearness of wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common beverage." (As cited in Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries)

Jefferson believed that wine stimulated conversation. There must have been quite a bit of talking at Monticello because there are records that he and his guests consumed 1,203 bottles of wine in just over two year's time. (Garr, 1997) Jefferson, though, thought of himself as a man of moderation.

". you are not to conclude I am a drinker. My measure is a perfectly sober one of 3 or 4 glasses at dinner, and not a drop at any other time. But as to those 3 or 4 glasses I am very fond." (As cited in Garr, 1997)

Jefferson's interests in wine went far beyond just drinking. He was also involved in viticulture. He planted vineyards at Monticello and encourage others to take up the practice. Jefferson's attempts were not successful since the phylloxera louse, which was not discovered until the 1860s, attacked his grapes.

The sober picture we have of Washington is not correct if we are to believe anecdotes of his day. It was said that he could dance the night away with four bottles of wine under his belt. And, that his Revolutionary War personal expense account for alcohol from September 1775 to March 1776 amount to over six thousand dollars. (Washington & Kitman, 1970) He was a devout lover of beer in particular a dark porter was always in ample supply at Mount Vernon. A typical Washington hosted dinner "included several wines, beer, cider." (Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook, 1974)

With all the drinking that went on during this era, one tends to agree with Adams' statement and wonder how we fought a war, won our independence, and established a government. Perhaps the Spirit of '76, which inspired our forefathers, was indeed spirits.

Atsauces

Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. 1999, Carroll & Graff Publishers, Inc.

Garr, Robin. "Jefferson and Wine". 1997, www.winelovers page.com/wines/tjeff.

"History of Alcohol in America" (Cider). www.2020 site.org/drinks/cider.

Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook. 1974, Mount Vernon Ladies Association.

Powell, Stephen. "The Devils Drink: 1999, www.bluemoon.net/

Robinson, Matthew. : How To Toast Like Our Founding Fathers", 2001, Claremont Institute Publications, www.claremont.org/publications/Robinson 010118.cfm.

Royce, James E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. 1981, New York Free Press.

"Thomas Jefferson: Food and Wine Connoisseur", The Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries. www.blueridge/sb-wineries.

Washington, George and Kitman, Marvin. 1970, George Washington's Expense Account. 1970, Simon and Schuster.


Spinning Patriotic Sentiment in Colonial America

“As for me, I will seek wool and flax, and work willingly with my hands and indeed there is occasion for all our industry and economy.”
—Abigail Adams, in a 1774 letter to her husband, John Adams

Did you know that the humble spinning wheel was once a symbol of patriotic fervor in America? Colonial women in the years before the Revolution created their own homespun cloth as a way to disrupt the British monopoly on the textile market. In fact, spinning played such an important role in the conflict that the Daughters of the American Revolution chose a spinning wheel as a symbol for their organization.

It all started with Britain’s attempt to protect one of their biggest industries, textiles. Colonists imported most of their textiles from Britain, and wool production in the colonies was discouraged since Britain saw America as a supplier of raw materials for England’s factories. England could then sell the manufactured goods to the colonies at a handsome profit.

But early Americans had other ideas. By the end of the 1600s, America was exporting wool, which outraged England and led to the Wool Act of 1699, prohibiting the colonies from exporting wool, wool yarn, and wool cloth.

The passage of the Wool Act lit the fires of resentment in the colonies and many people resisted by making cloth from flax and hemp—and producing their own essential clothing instead of buying British imports.

The homespun clothing movement really gained steam when the Daughters of Liberty turned to their spinning wheels. This group of patriotic women organized mass spinning “bees’’ in town squares, churches, and private homes. Once the war started, they gathered to spin and sew uniforms for the Continental Army.

During Sheep-to-Shawl at Philipsburg Manor, interpreters demonstrate 18th-century spinning and weaving techniques similar to those used by the Daughters of Liberty. Although the owners of Philipsburg Manor sided with England during the Revolution and bought their textiles from Britain, it’s certain there were patriotic spinners among the manor’s many tenant farm households!


Regions

Over time each region developed its own cuisine. It was influenced by their environment, religious practices, and British imports.

    : Growing seasons were short so they depended more on British Imports, Corn crops, Wild Game, and Seafood. Puritans dominated the population so their recipes tended to be simple. : Growing seasons were longer and they were called the &ldquobreadbasket colonies&rdquo due to the number of crops that were grown in their soil. Due to Quaker influence, cream cheese and various fruit butter were developed. : the Growing season was year-round and the population was more diverse. There was a clear difference in the diets of the wealthy and the poor.

5b. Indentured Servants

The growth of tobacco, rice, and indigo and the plantation economy created a tremendous need for labor in Southern English America. Without the aid of modern machinery, human sweat and blood was necessary for the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of these cash crops. While slaves existed in the English colonies throughout the 1600s, indentured servitude was the method of choice employed by many planters before the 1680s. This system provided incentives for both the master and servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies.

Virginia and Maryland operated under what was known as the " headright system ." The leaders of each colony knew that labor was essential for economic survival, so they provided incentives for planters to import workers. For each laborer brought across the Atlantic, the master was rewarded with 50 acres of land. This system was used by wealthy plantation aristocrats to increase their land holdings dramatically. In addition, of course, they received the services of the workers for the duration of the indenture.

This system seemed to benefit the servant as well. Each indentured servant would have their fare across the Atlantic paid in full by their master. A contract was written that stipulated the length of service &mdash typically five years. The servant would be supplied room and board while working in the master's fields. Upon completion of the contract, the servant would receive "freedom dues," a pre-arranged termination bonus. This might include land, money, a gun, clothes or food. On the surface it seemed like a terrific way for the luckless English poor to make their way to prosperity in a new land. Beneath the surface, this was not often the case.

Only about 40 percent of indentured servants lived to complete the terms of their contracts. Female servants were often the subject of harassment from their masters. A woman who became pregnant while a servant often had years tacked on to the end of her service time. Early in the century, some servants were able to gain their own land as free men. But by 1660, much of the best land was claimed by the large land owners. The former servants were pushed westward, where the mountainous land was less arable and the threat from Indians constant. A class of angry, impoverished pioneer farmers began to emerge as the 1600s grew old. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, planters began to prefer permanent African slavery to the headright system that had previously enabled them to prosper.


Brewing in the Seventeenth Century

Beermaking at 17th-century Jamestown

Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lips
Of pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips.


On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at Jamestown had their first feast. George Percy reported that among the potables was beer, and, although the Virginia Company had expressed concern as early as 1606 concerning "that odious vice of drunkenes," alcohol consumption was a way of life for the colonists long before they founded the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Beer, cider and other relatively weak fermented beverages were almost universally consumed from the earliest days of Virginia's history. The colonists, in addition to importing the beer from the Mother Country, quickly began practicing the art of brewing themselves.

Beer, the result of the slow fermentation of malted and hopped liquid, is divided into three basic categories. Stout is a dark, heavy beverage with a relatively high alcoholic content. Lager, produced by a yeast which is activated at a relatively low temperature (40° F), is the lightest form of beer. In between these two extremes in both color and alcohol content is ale, which is produced by yeast which ferments best at about 60° F. Ale, because it was produced at a temperature which was more easily maintained, was the brew of choice in colonial times.

Producing a drinkable ale was not easy, and the colonists were not always successful, as the complaint from a 17th century inhabitant of Jamestown confirms: "I would you could hang that villain Duppe who by his stinking beer hath poisoned . . . the colony." Unlike the sophisticated scientific methods employed in today's breweries, the beer-maker of the 17th century relied on taste, smell and touch. In England, one of a housewife's duties was the production of beer for her family and servants. Beer, from the Middle Ages well into the 17th century, was produced commercially by both men and women.

Many ingredients were added during the brewing process. The first step in making beer was choosing water of a pleasing taste. Fortunately for the consumer, all the boiling which took place in subsequent steps would destroy any dangerous bacteria. The grain, which gave the beverage its body (barley was the usual ingredient, although corn, oats, wheat and rye could also be used) had to be malted (sprouted then dried in kilns) before being added to the mixture. Sugar of some type, usually in the form of molasses or honey, provided nourishment to the yeast. Hops, the fruit of a vinelike plant related to the mulberry tree, gave the ale its characteristic scent and flavor.

To make beer, malt was soaked in a large wooden mash tub at low temperatures then separated out of the liquid and ordinarily used for animal food. The liquid, called "wort," was transferred to the keeler, a large copper pot to which was added hops and other ingredients. After boiling the mixture for several hours, the brewer cooled it to about 70° F and sprinkled on the yeast, which began to digest the sugar in the solution and excrete it as alcohol. Bacteria and foreign yeast could spoil a brew, so it was important to keep the keeler covered. Stirring took place periodically, traditionally done with a bunch of broomstraw which was impregnated with yeast and quickened the action.

When fermentation was complete, the beverage would be either consumed right away or transferred to barrels for storage, leaving as much as the sediment behind in the keeler as possible.

Bonnett, Kendra. A Report on Drinking and Beer Brewing in the Seventeenth Century.


American History Timeline: 1651–1675

The American Revolution would not commence until 1765, when the Stamp Act Congress, representing the 13 colonies, disputed the right of the British parliament to tax the colonists without providing them with representation in the House of Commons. The American Revolutionary War would not begin until 1775. During the period from 1651 to 1675, however, attempts by the British government to control commerce in the American colonies gradually created an atmosphere in which rebellion was almost inevitable.

Oktobris: England passes the Navigation Act that forbids goods to be imported from the colonies to England in non-English ships or from locations other than where they were produced. This action causes supply shortages hurting colonies and eventually leads to the Anglo-Dutch War, which lasts from 1652–1654.

April 4: New Amsterdam is given permission to form its own city government.

May 18: Rhode Island passes the first law in America which prohibits enslavement, but is never enforced.

After the death of Maine's founder Ferdinando Gorges ( c. 1565–1647), the Massachusetts Bay Colony revises its borders to the Penobscot Bay, absorbing the growing colony of Maine.

Jūlijs: The first battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1654) breaks out.

In defiance of England, Massachusetts Bay declares itself independent and starts minting its own silver coins.

The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

The first Jewish immigrants arrive from Brazil and settle in New Amsterdam.

Oktobris: The new governor of Maryland, William Fuller (1625–1695), nullifies the 1649 Toleration Act which gave Catholics the right to practice their religion. The colony also removes Lord Baltimore from authority.

March 25: The Battle of the Severn, considered by some historians the last battle of the English Civil War, is fought in Annapolis, Maryland, between Puritan loyalists and moderate protestant and Catholic forces loyal to Baltimore the Puritans take the day.

Sept. 1: After a last maritime battle between the Dutch colonists led by Peter Stuyvesant (1592–1672) and forces from the Swedish government, the Swedish surrender, ending royal rule by Sweden in America.

10. jūlijs: Lord Baltimore is returned to power in Maryland and appoints Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as the new governor.

The first Quakers, Anne Austin and Mary Fisher, arrive in Massachusetts Bay from their colony in Barbados and are arrested and imprisoned. Later in the year, Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws to allow for the banishment of Quakers.

Quakers who arrive in New Amsterdam are punished and then banished to Rhode Island by Governor Peter Stuyvesant.

Septembris: Massachusetts colony passes laws that do not allow for religious freedom of Quakers including the holding of their meetings.

Quaker Mary Dyer (1611–1660) is arrested in New Haven and convicted for preaching Quakerism and is among those banished to Rhode Island.

Two Quakers are punished by hanging when they return to the Massachusetts Bay Colony after being banished.

Lord Baltimore is removed from power by the Maryland assembly.

The Navigation Act of 1660 is passed requiring only English ships with a three-quarters English crew be allowed to be used for trade. Certain goods including sugar and tobacco could only be shipped to England or English colonies.

The English crown, in protest to the rules against Quakers, orders them released and returned to England. They are later forced to stop the harsh penalties against Quakers.

April 23: Connecticut governor John Winthrop Jr. (1606–1676), secures a royal charter for the colony after nearly a year of negotiation in England.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter was accepted by England as long as they extended the vote to all landowners and allows for freedom of worship for Anglicans.

The Elliot Bible, the first complete Bible to be printed in America, is published at the Harvard College in Cambridge—in the Algonquin language. The Algonquin New Testament had been published two years earlier.

The Carolina colony is created by King Charles II and has eight English noblemen as proprietors.

8. jūlijs: Rhode Island is given a royal charter by Charles II.

July 27: The second Navigation Act is passed, requiring that all imports to the American colonies must come from England on English vessels.

The Hudson River valley Indians surrender part of their territory to the Dutch.

The Duke of York is given a charter to control lands that include the Dutch area of New Netherland. By the end of the year, a naval blockade by the English of the area causes Governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender New Netherland to the English. New Amsterdam is renamed New York.

The Duke of York grants land called New Jersey to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley.

Maryland and later New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws that do not allow for the freeing of enslaved Black people.

New Haven is annexed by Connecticut.

The King's commissioners arrive in New England to oversee what is occurring in the colonies. They demand that colonies must comply by swearing allegiance to the King and allowing for the freedom of religion. Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island comply. Massachusetts does not comply and when representatives are called to London to answer to the King, they refuse to go.

The territory of Carolina is extended to include Florida.

Maryland prohibits the growing of tobacco for a year due to a glut of tobacco on the market.

31. jūlijs: The Peace of Breda officially ends the Anglo-Dutch War and gives England formal control over New Netherland.

Massachusetts annexes Maine.

1. marts: The Fundamental Constitutions, written partly by the English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), are issued in Carolina by its eight proprietors, providing for religious tolerance.

Charles Town (present-day Charleston, South Carolina) is established on the Albemarle Point by colonists William Sayle (1590–1671) and Joseph West (died 1691) it would be moved and re-established in its present location in 1680.

8. jūlijs: The Treaty of Madrid (or Godolphin Treaty) is completed between England and Spain. Both parties agree that they will respect each other's rights in America.

Governor William Berkeley (1605–1677) of Virginia convinces the Virginia General Assembly to change the rules from allowing all freemen to vote to white males who owned enough property to pay local taxes.

Plymouth forces King Philip (known as Metacomet, 1638–1676), chief of the Wampanoag Indians, to surrender his weapons.

French explorer Simon François d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) claims the interior of North America for King Louis XIV, as an extension of New France.

First copyright law is passed in the colonies by Massachusetts.

The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly for the English trade of enslaved people.

Feb. 25: Virginia is granted by the English crown to Lord Arlington (1618–1685) and Thomas Culpeper (1635–1689).

May 17: French explorers Father Jacques Marquette (1637–1675) and Louis Joliet (1645–

1700) set off on their expedition down the Mississippi River exploring as far as the Arkansas River.

The Dutch launch a naval attack against Manhattan to try and win back New Netherland during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674). Manhattan is surrendered. They capture other towns and rename New York to New Orange.

Feb. 19: The Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War with the American Dutch colonies reverting back to England.

Dec. 4: Father Jacques Marquette establishes a mission at present-day Chicago.

Quaker William Penn (1644–1718) is granted rights to portions of New Jersey.

King Philip's War begins with retaliation for the execution of three Wampanoag Indigenous people. Boston and Plymouth unite to fight against Indigenous tribes. Nipmuck tribal members unite with the Wampanoags to attack settlements in Massachusetts. The New England Confederation then reacts by officially declaring war on King Philip and raising an army. The Wampanoags are able to defeat settlers near Deerfield on September 18th and Deerfield is abandoned.


1750–1775 : Diplomatic Struggles in the Colonial Period

Colonial era diplomacy focused on two issues: the European balance of power and the colonists’ appropriation of land from the Native Americans.

Rivalry in Europe, between the French and the British in particular, often influenced the course of events in their North American colonies.In an effort to increase their political and economic power, the British and the French competed to acquire the better share of the available land and control over the new trading opportunities the colonies presented.

At the same time, the European colonial governments tried to find ways to coexist with the original inhabitants of North America, often making alliances with some tribes while alienating others. Sometimes, as in the case of the French and Indian War (which in Europe was referred to as the Seven Years’ War), European politics regarding balances of power resulted in conflict in the colonies. As wars in Europe became more heated, fighting broke out between the French and the British in the American colonies. Both sides called upon Native American allies to assist them, exacerbating tensions between the tribes, as well as tensions between the tribes and colonists. Ultimately, the British Government found it necessary to pour additional troops and resources into protecting its possessions in the Americas and taxed their colonists to pay for these resources. These taxes eventually became a rallying cry for the American independence movement.