Kurā neatšifrētā rakstīšanas sistēmā ir lielākais teksta korpuss?

Kurā neatšifrētā rakstīšanas sistēmā ir lielākais teksta korpuss?


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Desmitiem seno rakstīšanas sistēmu joprojām nav atšifrētas. Mans jautājums ir šāds: Kuram no tiem ir visvairāk zināmo uzrakstu (un tādējādi tas varētu būt vispieejamākais atšifrēšanai nākotnē, lai gan tas tā ir daļa no mana jautājuma)?

Piemēram, diskā Phaistos, kura uzraksts ir nezināmā rakstīšanas sistēmā, kopumā ir tikai 241 simbols, un citi šīs rakstīšanas sistēmas paraugi nav zināmi.

No otras puses, 19. gadsimta sākumā gan Akkadijas ķīļraksts, gan Ēģiptes hieroglifi, uz kuriem katram bija zināmi tūkstošiem uzrakstu, kuros bija miljoniem žetonu, joprojām bija neatšifrēti (protams, kopš tā laika tie abi ir atšifrēti).


Tas ir ļoti interesants jautājums, un rezultāts attīstās ne tikai, atšifrējot tekstu, bet arī atrodot jaunus uzrakstus.

Tādējādi, lai gan pirms 1973. gada ārpus Krētas tika atrasta tikai viena planšete, es teiktu, ka atbilde uz jūsu jautājumu ir lineāra A: ir 1427 A līnijas dokumenti, kuros kopumā ir 7362-7396 zīmes.

Lineārais A ir Mino civilizācijas reliģisks raksts. Tiek uzskatīts, ka no tā izriet Lineārais B - senākā rakstiskā grieķu rakstītā forma, kas izmantota līdz alfabēta ierašanās brīdim. Galvenā atšķirība no lineārā B ir tā

  • Lineārais A netiek atšifrēts, savukārt lineārais B ir atšifrēts.
  • Ja lineāro A izrunā līdzīgi kā lineāro B, tad maz ticams, ka tā būs grieķu valoda un patiesībā tā varētu būt valoda ar atšķirīgu izcelsmi (iespējams, semītiska).

Es sniedzu šo atbildi, ņemot vērā, ka, gluži pretēji Mayan iepriekš sniegtajam, Linear A ir pilnībā neatšifrēts, bet Maya skripts faktiski tiek atšifrēts, lai gan daudzi uzraksti joprojām ir noslēpums.

Protams, jums jāpatur prātā, ka lineārais A var atbildēt uz jūsu jautājumu tikai tāpēc, ka daudzi meklējumi tika veikti senajā Grieķijā (piemēram, ar Ēģipti), bet varētu būt kāds nezināms skripts vai tāds, kuram bija tikai dažas tabletes atrasts, un galu galā mēs varētu atrast daudz lielāku korpusu. Es zinu, ka jūs jautājāt par lielāko zināms teksta korpusu, un es tikai gribu teikt, ka jums varētu būt lielākas iespējas atšifrēt noslēpumainu skriptu valodu, patiesībā meklējot vairāk tās uzrakstu, nekā būtu, pētot skriptu, kuram ir vislielākais teksta korpuss.


Iespējams, maiju raksti un uzraksti ir lielākais neatšifrēto rakstu kopums ar vislielāko vēsturisko nozīmi.

Tāpat neuzskatu, ka senās ēģiptiešu hieroglifi ir labi saprotami. Daudzi hieroglifu "tulkojumi", īpaši tie, kas atrodami karaliskajās kapenēs, ir ļoti minēti, un mēs nevaram būt pārliecināti, ko viņi saka.


Kurā neatšifrētā rakstīšanas sistēmā ir lielākais teksta korpuss? - Vēsture

Sarežģītība, iespējams, ir vissvarīgākā seno rakstīšanas sistēmu īpašība, ar kuru studenti saskaras. Sarežģītības jautājums ir svarīgs ne tikai izpratnei par pašu rakstīšanu, bet arī izpratnei par to, kā agrīnās rakstīšanas sistēmas ietekmēja lasītprasmes līmeni sabiedrībā, to cilvēku sociālo stāvokli, kuri varēja rakstīt, un pēdējā laikā, šo rakstīšanas sistēmu atšifrēšanu.

Cilvēks sabrūk, viņa līķis ir putekļi,
Visi viņa radinieki ir gājuši bojā:
Bet grāmata liek viņam atcerēties
Caur deklamētāja muti.
Labāk ir grāmata nekā labi uzcelta māja,
Nekā kapu kapelas rietumos
Labāk nekā cieta savrupmāja,
Nekā stela templī! 10

Seno rakstīšanas sistēmu elastība.

Starptautisko attiecību un tirdzniecības valoda Lingua Franca

Starpkultūru mijiedarbībai nepieciešama komunikācija, un tāpēc tā vienmēr ir bijusi zināmā mērā atkarīga no valodas un rakstīšanas. Dažādos vēstures punktos šajās mijiedarbībās dominēja atsevišķas valodas, kas ir radījis frāzi "lingua franca". 18 Rakstīšanai kā sarunvalodas līdzeklim ir bijusi līdzīgi svarīga, lai gan varbūt mazāk atzīta loma šo mijiedarbību vēsturē. Lai gan verbālajai saziņai bija izšķiroša nozīme starpkultūru mijiedarbībā starp dažādu klašu un lasītprasmes līmeņu cilvēkiem, dažas mijiedarbības nevarēja notikt pārliecinoši bez rakstīšanas. Tirgotājiem bija jāreģistrē konkrēta informācija par saimnieciskajiem darījumiem. Valdības amatpersonām bija jāreģistrē dažādi līgumu elementi, mūki, kas vajadzīgi, lai kopētu un saglabātu svētos tekstus, un visas šīs darbības bija atkarīgas no rakstīšanas.

Senās rakstības atšifrējums

Daudzas rakstīšanas sistēmas, kas dominēja senā rakstu mācītāja pasaulē, tika izmantotas ilgi pirms mūsdienu laikiem. Senās valodas nomira, un tāpēc tika atmestas rakstīšanas sistēmas, kas tika izstrādātas to nodošanai. Viens no interesantākajiem seno rakstīšanas sistēmu stāsta aspektiem ir tas, kā šīs zaudētās rakstīšanas sistēmas ir atgūtas. Galvenais, lai izprastu šo stāstu, ir apzināties ievērojamo izaicinājumu, ko šīs rakstīšanas sistēmas rada topošajiem atšifrētājiem.

Daudzos gadījumos bilingvālu vai trilingvālu tekstu pieejamība, kas atšifrētājam nodrošina tekstu vairākos skriptos un valodās, dažas zināmas un dažas nezināmas, ir bijusi izšķiroša nozīme nezināmu rakstīšanas sistēmu atšifrēšanā. Rosetas akmens, iespējams, ir vispazīstamākais piemērs. Tajā ir uzraksts, kas slavē trīspadsmit gadus veco faraonu Ptolemaju V, un tas pats uzraksts ir attēlots divās ēģiptiešu versijās (viena hieroglifos, otra demotiskā, vienkāršotā scenārija formā) un grieķu valodā. Grieķu uzraksta pēdējā rindiņa un pārējie uzraksti, kas izrādījās, tiek tulkoti šādi: "Šis dekrēts ir uzrakstīts uz cieta akmens stēlas ar svētajiem un vietējiem un grieķu burtiem un izkārtots katrā pirmajā, otrajā un trešās pakāpes tempļi līdzās mūžam dzīvā ķēniņa tēlam. " 36 Zinātniekiem reti ir tik paveicies, bet tie, kas strādā pie Rozetas akmens, no šīs rindas zināja, ka akmens pilda solījumu atraisīt hieroglifu noslēpumu, jo uzraksti ir norādīti tekstā.

Secinājums

Rakstīšana ir nesena attīstība cilvēces vēsturē. Daudzas raksturīgas cilvēku uzvedības, piemēram, mirušo apbedīšana, mākslas radīšana un uguns kontrole un izmantošana, kas visas attīstījās paleolīta laikmetā, saknes ir daudz dziļākas cilvēces vēsturē. Lauksaimniecība un mazkustīgs dzīvesveids, lai gan jaunāki notikumi, joprojām var tikt iekļauti neolīta laikmetā, kura izcelsme bija pirms aptuveni desmit līdz divpadsmit tūkstošiem gadu. Turpretī vecākās rakstīšanas formas ir daudz jaunākas, tās radās tikai pirms aptuveni pieciem tūkstošiem gadu Āzijas rietumos un Ēģiptē. Rakstniecības attīstība citās pasaules daļās notika vēl nesen. Tādējādi rakstīšana ir jauna cilvēka uzvedība, kas evolūcijas izteiksmē parādījās pavisam nesen.

Biogrāfiska piezīme: Deivids Burzillo māca pasaules vēsturi Riversas skolā Vestonā, Masačūsetsā.

Piezīmes

Autors ar pateicību atzīst viņa kolēģu Ketijas Favrē, Dženijas Džeikobijas, Džeka Jarzaveka un Bena Lēminga sniegtos komentārus.

1 Sākumā studentiem ir jāpaskaidro, ka valoda un rakstīšana nav vienādi un attīstās dažādos cilvēces vēstures laikos. Hieroglifi un ķīļraksts, kas tiks aplūkoti vēlāk rakstā, ir rakstīšanas sistēmas, ko izmanto dažādām valodām, bet tās pašas nav valodas.

2 Lai gan nav iespējams pateikt, kad cilvēki uzsāka neverbālo saziņu, cilvēku grupām šī spēja acīmredzami bija nepieciešama ļoti agrīnā vēsturē, lai medītu un izdzīvotu grupas apstākļos. Runa ir jaunāka attīstība. Pašreizējie pierādījumi liecina, ka cilvēki bija fiziski spējīgi runāt apmēram pirms piecdesmit tūkstošiem gadu. Rakstīšana pirmo reizi tika izmantota apmēram pirms pieciem tūkstošiem gadu.

3 Saskaņā ar ASV tautas skaitīšanas ziņojumiem angļu valoda, kurā mājās runā 81,5 procenti no aptuveni piecdesmit trim miljoniem skolas vecuma bērnu valstī. 12,8 procentiem no pārējiem spāņu valoda ir galvenā valoda, kurā runā mājās. Amerikas Savienoto Valstu tautas skaitīšanas birojs, "2. tabula. Valodas lietošana, angļu valodas prasmes un valodu izolācija populācijai no 5 līdz 17 gadiem pēc valsts: 2000," Kopsavilkuma tabulas par valodas lietošanu un angļu valodas spējām: 2000 , http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/phc-t20.html (skatīts 2003. gada 25. novembrī).

4 Valodnieki definē fonēmu kā mazāko atšķirīgās skaņas vienību valodā. Viņi definē morfēmu kā mazāko jēgpilno runas vienību, kas sastāv no vienas vai vairākām fonēmām.

5 Lai gan zinātnieki ir atzinuši, ka senajās sabiedrībās ir grūti pārliecinoši noteikt rakstpratības līmeni, viņi ne vienmēr uzskatīja, ka seno rakstīšanas sistēmu sarežģītība pati par sevi ir kā ierobežojums tam, cik lielā mērā lasītprasme var izplatīties sabiedrība. Saskaņā ar Hermana Vanstiphout teikto: "Jebkurā gadījumā rakstīšanas sistēmas relatīvajai sarežģītībai nav bijis nekāda sakara ar rakstpratības izplatību. Japānā ir augstākā lasītprasmes pakāpe salīdzinājumā ar dažiem citiem industriālajiem milžiem, pierāda, ka lasītprasme ir daudz vairāk atkarīga no valsts politiskajām un sociālajām prioritātēm, nevis no raksta sarežģītības "(" Atmiņa un lasītprasme senajā Rietumāzijā " Seno Tuvo Austrumu civilizācijas, sēj. 4, red. Džeks M. Sasons [Ņujorka: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995], 2188-89). Lai apspriestu rakstnieku apmācību, skatiet C. B. F. Walker trešo nodaļu, Pagātnes lasīšana: ķīļraksts (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989) Samuēla Noa Krāmera pirmā nodaļa, Vēsture sākas Šumerā (Garden City: Anchor Doubleday, 1959) A. Leo Oppenheima piektā nodaļa, Senā Mezopotāmija: mirušās civilizācijas portrets (Čikāga: University of Chicago Press, 1977) un H. W. F. Sagsa piektā nodaļa, Civilizācija pirms Grieķijas un Romas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).

6 Saggs stāsta par Ur III karali Šulgi, kurš uzdeva saviem rakstu mācītājiem dziedātājiem nolasīt viņa himnas, lai viņi varētu tās izpildīt (Civilizācija Grieķijas un Romas priekšā 104-105). Dž. Nikolass Postgate secina, ka pirms alfabēta ieviešanas "lasītprasme noteikti sasniedza savu virsotni Vecajā Babilonijas laikos....... "(Agrīnā Mezopotāmija: sabiedrība un ekonomika vēstures rītausmā [Londona: Routledge, 1994], 69). Barijs Dž. Karaliste, Vidējā Karaliste un otrais starpposms c. 2686-1552 pirms mūsu ēras, "in Senā Ēģipte: sociālā vēsture, red. Bruce G. Trigger, Barry J. Kemp, David O'Connor un Alan Lloyd [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996], 81).

7 Jāatzīmē, ka šos dokumentus ir rakstījuši paši rakstu mācītāji, tāpēc tajos ir acīmredzami ievērojama neobjektivitāte.

8 Miriam Lichtheim, Senās Ēģiptes literatūra, sēj. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976), 170.

9 Skatīt Krameru, Vēsture sākas Šumerā, 1-16, materiālam par šumeru skatījumu uz izglītību un rakstu mācītājiem.

10 Lihtheima, Senās Ēģiptes literatūra, 177. Papildu primāros avotus par Ēģiptes rakstu mācītājiem var atrast Džeimsā B. Pritčārdā, red. Tuvo Austrumu teksti, kas saistīti ar Veco Derību (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969), 431-34.

11 Tas, kā mēs saprotam rakstīšanas izcelsmi, ir līdzīgs tam, kā mēs risinām līdzīgus jautājumus par lauksaimniecības attīstību. Pieejamie pierādījumi liecina, ka lauksaimniecība tika patstāvīgi izgudrota vismaz septiņos pasaules reģionos un izplatījās no tiem. Katrā no šiem septiņiem reģioniem tika pieradināta īpaša dzīvnieku un kultūru kombinācija. Skatīt Brūsu Smitu, Lauksaimniecības rašanās (Ņujorka: Scientific American Library, 1995). Skatīt arī C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky un Jeremy Sabloff, Senās civilizācijas: Tuvie Austrumi un Mesoamerika (Prospect Heights, Ill .: Waveland Press, 1995), 60. Runājot par rakstīšanu, asirologi ir tendēti atbalstīt ideju par mezopotāmiešu ietekmi uz ēģiptiešu rakstniecības attīstību, ņemot vērā pierādījumus par citām starpkultūru ietekmēm, kas bija pirms rakstniecības attīstība Ēģiptē. Skatīt Henri Frankfort, Civilizācijas dzimšana Tuvajos Austrumos (Ņujorka: Doubleday Anchor, 1956), 129-32 saggs, Civilizācija pirms Grieķijas un Romas, 72 un Postgate, Agrīnā Mezopotāmija, 56. Lambergs-Karlovskis un Sablofs uzskata, ka "rakstīšana, iespējams, ir attīstījusies neatkarīgi abās jomās paralēlas evolūcijas saplūšanas rezultātā" (Senās civilizācijas, 134). Īss kopsavilkums debatēm par hieroglifu un ķīļrakstu attiecībām atrodams Trigger, Kemp, O'Connor un Lloyd, Senā Ēģipte, 37-38.

12 Vēsturnieki parasti uzskatīja, ka šumeru un ēģiptiešu valoda ir izstrādāta aptuveni vienlaicīgi, un šumeru valodai parasti tiek piešķirta neliela priekšrocība. Nesenie atklājumi Ēģiptē ir likuši daudziem to pārskatīt, un daži ēģiptologi ir ierosinājuši, ka hieroglifi ir pirms ķīļraksta. Pēdējos gados presē ir daudz parādījies par šo tēmu. Skatīt Džonu Nobilu Vilfordu, "Karaļa griešana varētu pārrakstīt vēsturi" Ņujorkas Laiks, 2002. gada 16. aprīlis Elizabeth J. Himelfarb, "Ēģiptē atrasts pirmais alfabēts", Arheoloģija, 2000. gada janvāris/februāris, 21 Larkins Mičels, "Senākie Ēģiptes glifi", Arheoloģija, 1999. gada marts/aprīlis, 28. – 29. Lpp., Un Vijay Joshi: “Senās planšetdatoros redzams, ka ēģiptieši, iespējams, bija pirmie, kas rakstīja,” Bostonas globuss, 1998. gada 18. decembris.

13 Semītu valodu saimei ir divas galvenās nozares - austrumu semītu un rietumu semītu. Akadiešu valoda tiek uzskatīta par daļu no Austrumsemītu ģimenes atzarojuma, kurā ietilpst arī babiloniešu un asīriešu akadiešu dialekti. Rietumsemītu filiālē ir daudz vairāk valodu, tostarp ebreju un arābu, kuras daži studenti var būt pazīstami.

14 Džons Kings Fērbenks, Ķīna: jauna vēsture (Kembridža, Masa: Harvard University Press, 1994), 42.-43.

15 Džošua Fogels raksta par korejiešu valodu: “Pats fakts, ka korejieši, kas daudzējādā ziņā ir kulturāli attīstīta valsts, izveidoja savu alfabētu (hangulu) tikai piecpadsmitajā gadsimtā, krietni vairāk nekā tūkstošgadē pēc ķīniešu valodas pieņemšanas. cienījamo vietu ķīniešu rakstu valodā viņu dzīvē "(" The Sinic World ", in Āzija Rietumu un pasaules vēsturē, red. Ainslee Embree un Carol Gluck [Armonk, N.Y .: M. E. Sharpe, 1997], 684). Fogels arī apspriež to reliģisko, kultūras un politisko ideju un institūciju nozīmi, kas katrā no šīm valstīm ienāca ķīniešu rakstzīmju pārņemšanas rezultātā, sakari, kas palīdzēja apvienot Austrumāziju.

16 Edvīns Reishauers šādā veidā ir aprakstījis situāciju pirms japāņi uzsāka scenāriju reformu: "Lielais kultūras progress Japānā šo gadsimtu laikā ir vēl ievērojamāks ar to, ka tas tika sasniegts, izmantojot pilnīgi cita veida valodu un ārkārtīgi sarežģītu valodu rakstīšanas sistēma "(Japāņi [Kembridža, Masa: Belknap Press, 1977], 47).

17 Bez šeit minētajiem piemēriem ir pieejami citi, iespējams, pazīstamāki piemēri, tostarp grieķu aizgūtais feniķiešu alfabēts. Turklāt latīņu alfabēts tika aizgūts no grieķiem, iespējams, ar etrusku palīdzību.

18 Pirmā frāzes "lingua franca" lietošana saskaņā ar Oksfordas vecās angļu vārdnīca, autors Džons Drīdens. Citi sniegtie piemēri ir no abiem Vidusjūras kontekstiem.

19 Ņemot vērā neseno publicitāti par Mela Gibsona filmu Kristus ciešanas, daudzi studenti var zināt par aramiešu valodas esamību. Šī valoda aizstāja akadiešu valodu kā rietumu Āzijas lingua franca, un vēlāk to aizstāja arābu valoda.

20 Īsu Amarna tekstu pārskatu skatiet Barbara Ross, "Sarakste mālā", Aramco pasaule, 1999. gada novembris/decembris, 30.-35.

21 Shlomo, Izre'el, "Amarna vēstules no Kanaānas", Sasson, Seno Tuvo Austrumu civilizācijas., sēj. 4, 2412.

22 Pritchardā ir atveidotas četras vēstules no Mari arhīva un divdesmit astoņas vēstules no Amarna sarakstes, Senie Tuvo Austrumu teksti, kas saistīti ar Veco Derību.

23 saggs, Civilizācija pirms Grieķijas un Romas, 182.

24 saggs, Civilizācija pirms Grieķijas un Romas, 184.

25 Ross, "Sarakste mālā", 31.-32.

26 C. W. Ceram, Dievi, kapi un zinātnieki: arheoloģijas stāsts (Ņujorka: Bantam Books, 1972). Lai gan šī grāmata sākotnēji tika uzrakstīta 1949. gadā, šī grāmata ir atkārtoti izdota un ir ļoti pieejama vidusskolēniem. Kerams sīki apraksta ķīļraksta un hieroglifu atšifrēšanu.

27 B līniju skat. Džons Čadviks, Lineārā B atšifrējums (Londona: Cambridge University Press, 1990) un Endrjū Robinsons, Cilvēks, kurš atšifrēja lineāro B: Maikla Ventrisa stāsts (Londona: Temsa un Hadsons, 2002). Lai redzētu maiju, skatiet Michael Coe, Maya kodeksa pārkāpšana (Londona: Temsa un Hadsons, 1999) un "Gara triumfs: kā Jurijs Knorosovs uzlauza Maijas hieroglifu kodu no tālas Ļeņingradas". Arheoloģija, 1991. gada septembris/oktobris, 33-44 un Deivids Robertss, "Seno maiju atšifrējums",Atlantijas okeāns, 1991. gada septembris, 87.-100.

28 Skatīt Endrū Robinsonu, Pazudušās valodas: pasaules neatšifrēto skriptu mīkla (Ņujorka: McGraw Hill, 2002). Robinsons veltījis nodaļas pašreizējai domāšanai par Meroitic, Linear A, etrusku, proto-Elamīta un Rongorongo neatšifrētajiem scenārijiem.

29 Samuels Noa Kramers, Šumeri: viņu vēsture, kultūra un raksturs (Čikāga: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 19.-26.

30 Skatīt Michael Coe, Maija (Londona: Temsa un Hadsons, 1999).

31 Pīters Daniels, "Seno Tuvo Austrumu skriptu atšifrējums", Sasson, Seno Tuvo Austrumu civilizācijas, sēj. 1, 82.

32 Atsaucoties uz asīriešu valodu, Daniels ziņo: "Šumeru tulkojums izrādījās daudzu gadu desmitu darbs, kura laikā radās nopietni strīdi par to, vai tā bija īsta valoda vai kodekss, ko Asīrijas priesteri izdomāja, lai slēptu svēto. noslēpumi "(" Seno Tuvo Austrumu skriptu atšifrējums ", 86). Coe atsaucas uz līdzīgu attieksmi starp 20. gadsimta vidus maijistiem, piemēram, Ričardu Longu un Polu Šellu, kuri šaubījās, vai maiju glifi attēlo valodu (Majas kodeksa pārkāpšana, 137-44).

33 Moriss Pāvests, Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu: no Ēģiptes hieorglifiem līdz lineārajam B. (Ņujorka: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977), 186. lpp.

34 Skatīt pāvestu, Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu, un Ko, Maya kodeksa pārkāpšana.

35 Skatīt Coe, Maya kodeksa pārkāpšana, 43-44, jauku kopsavilkumu par šo un citiem vispārējiem jautājumiem, kas saistīti ar atšifrēšanu. Skatiet arī Robinsona ievadu Pazudušās valodas, esp. 40-43 un Čadvika, B līnijas lineāra atšifrējums, 41-43.

36 Stīvens Kērks un Kerola Endrjūsa, Rozetas akmens: faksa zīmējums ar ievadu un tulkojumiem (Londona: Britu muzeju publikācijas, 1988).

37 Rallinsona transkripcija bija saistīta ar lielu risku, jo uzraksts tika uzlikts klinšu klints malā apmēram 340 pēdas virs zemes. Džordžs Kamerons no Mičiganas universitātes pētīja uzrakstu un izgatavoja no tā lateksa veidnes 1948. gadā. Viņa darbi un daudzas tuvplāna fotogrāfijas no viņa pētījuma atrodamas Džordžā Kameronā "Dariusa cirsts vēsture par mūžīgajām klintīm". National Geographic, 1950. gada decembris, 825. – 44.

38 Pāvests, Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu, 162. Ugaritic un Linear B atšifrējums neievēroja šo modeli.

39 Atsevišķu vārdu identificēšana nezināmā rakstīšanas sistēmā var būt svarīgs solis aiz tās esošās valodas tulkošanā, taču tas ne vienmēr garantē atšifrējumu. Etrusku valoda ir labs šī fakta piemērs. Tā kā etusku alfabēts ir saistīts ar grieķu alfabētu, var lasīt etrusku vārdus, tostarp daudzus personvārdus. Bet pieejamo tekstu veidu, galvenokārt bēru un pieejamo tekstu garuma dēļ zinātnieki nav spējuši pāriet no šī ļoti vienkāršā vārdu izpratnes līmeņa uz izpratni par valodu kopumā.

40 pāvests, Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu, 189.

41 Pāvests par šo metodi raksta: "Bet tas, kas padarīja lineāro B atšifrējumu unikālu un piesaistīja pasaules iztēli, bija abstraktais fonētiskais režģis, ko aizsāka Kobers un ievērojami paplašināja Ventris. Tā ietekme bija precīzāk definēt zilbju zīmju izmantošanu nekā agrāk. Tā vietā, lai teiktu “zīme x apzīmē zilbi "kļuva iespējams teikt" zīme x apzīmē zilbi, kurā ir viens elements ar zilbi, kas apzīmēta ar zīmi g. ' Tātad rakstīšanas noteikumi bija zināmi precīzāk, un tas kompensēja mērķa zonas mazumu un neprecizitāti. "Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu, 188).

42 Piemērus skatiet ieteiktajās vietnēs raksta beigās.

43 Vismaz vienā gadījumā - mikēniešiem - esošais dokumentu kopums ir pilnībā administratīvs. Tā kā lielākā daļa studentu, iespējams, saistīs Homēru un viņa Iliada un Odiseja ar mikēniešiem, iespējams, būtu vērts studentiem atgādināt, ka Lineārais B nebija Homēra grieķis un ka Homēra darbi nav mikēniešu literatūras piemēri.

44 Piemēram, Pols Halsals uztur daudzas lieliskas vietnes ar lejupielādējamiem primārajiem avota dokumentiem, kas attiecas uz daudziem vēsturiskiem periodiem un tēmām. Viņa Senās vēstures avotu grāmatas adrese ir http://www.fordham.edu/halsall ancient/asbook.html.

45 Skatīt Krameru, Vēsture sākas Šumerā, 1-16.

46 Pāvests skaidri norāda, ka Tomass Jangs bija ļoti greizsirdīgs uz Šampoljonu un abi kritizēja viņa metodi un ņēma vērā savas idejas (Stāsts par arheoloģisko atšifrējumu, 66-68, 84). Tas greizsirdīgi noteikti bija daļēji saistīts ar faktu, ka Šampoljons saņēma atzinību par izrāvienu, ko apgalvoja Jangs, tāpēc tam bija personisks aspekts. Tomēr mani nepārsteigtu pēc Napoleona kariem un anglo-franču sacensībām Āzijā, ja daļa no greizsirdības, ko Jangs izjuta, izrietētu no tā, ka par atšifrējumu bija atbildīgs francūzis, nevis anglis.

Ieteicamā lasāmviela

Ceram, C.W. Dievi, kapi un zinātnieki: arheoloģijas stāsts. Ņujorka: Bantam Books, 1972. Sadaļas par hieroglifu un ķīļrakstu atšifrēšanu ir ļoti pieejamas vidusskolēniem.

Čadviks, Džons. Lineārā B atšifrējums. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Čadviks, kurš strādāja kopā ar Maiklu Ventrisu, uzrakstīja šo īso pārskatu vispārējam lasītājam.

Čadviks, Džons. Pagātnes lasīšana: lineārais B un saistītie skripti. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Katrs sērijas “Reading the Past” sērijas apjoms satur aptuveni sešdesmit lappušu aptauju par šo tēmu ar lieliskiem aprakstiem un ilustrācijām. Citus šīs sērijas sējumus skatiet zemāk Davies un Walker.

Ko, Maikls. Maya kodeksa pārkāpšana. Londona: Temsa un Hadsons, 1999. Lieliska maiju rakstības atšifrēšanas vēsture.

Deiviss, V.V. Pagātnes lasīšana: Ēģiptes hieroglifi. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Ērmans, Ādolfs red. Senie ēģiptieši: viņu rakstu avots. Ņujorka:

Harper Torchbooks, 1966. Satur dažus primāros avotus par izglītību Ēģiptes Jaunajā Karalistē.

Frīdrihs, Johanness. Izmirušās valodas. Ņujorka: Filozofiskā bibliotēka, 1957. Ļoti lasāma atšifrējuma un seno skriptu apstrāde. Šī grāmata bija presē, kad autore dzirdēja par Ventris darbu, tāpēc tika pievienots pielikums par lineāro B.

Oppenheims, A. Leo. Senā Mezopotāmija: mirušās civilizācijas portrets. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977. Satur labas sadaļas par rakstīšanu un rakstu mācītājiem.

Pāvests, Moriss. Atšifrēšanas stāsts: no Ēģiptes hieroglifiem līdz lineārajam B. Ņujorka: Čārlza Skribnera dēli, 1975. Koe to sauc par "labāko vispārīgo grāmatu par atšifrēšanu".

Postgate, J. Nikolajs. Senā Mezopotāmija: sabiedrība un ekonomika vēstures rītausmā. London: Routledge, 1995. Sadaļa par rakstniecības attīstību Mezopotāmijā.

Robinsons, Endrjū. Pazudušās valodas: pasaules neatšifrēto skriptu mīkla. Ņujorka: McGraw Hill, 2002. Robinsons ir uzrakstījis daudzas grāmatas par rakstīšanu un valodu. 2002. gadā viņš publicēja arī Maikla Ventrisa biogrāfiju.

Saggs, H.W. F. Civilizācija pirms Grieķijas un Romas. Ņūheivena: Jēla, 1989. Nodaļas par rakstīšanu un izglītību.

Sasson, Jack ed. Seno Tuvo Austrumu civilizācijas. 1.-4. Sējums. Ņujorka: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995. 1. sējumā ir sadaļa par Pītera Daniela atšifrējumu. Ceturtajā sējumā ir sadaļa, kas veltīta valodai, rakstīšanai un literatūrai, kā arī Denise Schmandt-Bessarat, D.O. Edžards, Džons Huehnegards, Edvards Vente un Lorija Pīrsa. Šajā atsauces darbā var atrast daudz vērtīgu rakstu.

Fon Soden, Volframs. Senie austrumi: ievads seno Tuvo Austrumu izpētē. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1994. Nodaļa par rakstīšanu un rakstīšanas sistēmām.

Walker, CBF. Pagātnes lasīšana: ķīļraksts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.


Oracle Bones un nākotnes rakstīšana Šana dinastijā

Kā jau iepriekš tika ziņots Ancient Origins rakstā, orākula kauli ir artefakta veids, kas vislabāk pazīstams ar savu saistību ar Šangas dinastiju senajā Ķīnā (1600-1046 BC). Tā kā šie artefakti tika izmantoti zīlēšanai, kaulus sāka saukt par “orākula kauliem”. Papildus tam, ka mums tiek sniegta informācija par Šangu dinastijas iedzīvotāju uzskatiem, ir svarīgi arī orākula kauli, jo tie veido agrāko zināmo seno ķīniešu rakstu kopumu.

Galvenais dzīvnieku kauls, kas tika izmantots orākula kaulu veidošanai, bija lāpstiņa jeb lāpstiņa. Šķiet, ka vērsis ir vēlamā dzīvnieku izvēle, jo arheoloģiskie ieraksti ir devuši lielu daudzumu orākula kaulu, kas izgatavoti no šī dzīvnieka lāpstiņas. Tomēr ir atrasti arī orākula kauli, kas izgatavoti no briežu, aitu un cūku lāpstiņām. Kas attiecas uz otro materiālu, tika izmantots plastrons (gandrīz plakana bruņurupuča apakšpuse). Karapa (bruņurupuča izliektā augšējā apvalka) nebija piemērota orākula kaulu veidošanai, jo uz tās izliektās virsmas bija daudz grūtāk rakstīt.

Uzrakstus no orākula kauliem pirmo reizi 1899. gadā atklāja akadēmiķis un antikvārs Wang Yirong Pekinā, lai gan Anyang zemnieku grupa atklāja artefaktus pirms profesora. 20. gadsimta laikā ir atrasti tūkstošiem orākulu kaulu. Dažādi orākula kaulu pētījumi ir parādījuši, kā laika gaitā attīstījās ķīniešu rakstība, kas parādīja Šangu dinastijas zīlēšanas praksi.

Nākotnes pareģošanas process ar orākula kaulu palīdzību parasti sāktos ar klienta uzdoto jautājumu. Šie jautājumi ietvēra dažādus tematus, tostarp meteoroloģiskos, lauksaimniecības un militāros jautājumus. Pēc tam zīlnieks ar asu instrumentu uzrakstīja jautājumu uz kaula / čaumalas, pēc tam tajā izurbtu caurumu / caurumus. Pēc tam orākula kauls tiktu pakļauts intensīvam karstumam, līdz tika izveidotas plaisas. Visbeidzot, šīs plaisas zīlētāji interpretēja saviem klientiem.


Datu avoti un metodes

Šajā darbā norādītās zīmes attiecas uz vairākiem autoriem (Mahadevan, 1977 Parpola, 1986, 1994 Wells, 1998), CISI (Joshi un Parpola, 1987 Parpola et al., 2010 Shah and Parpola, 1991) un ICIT datu kopu. Datu kopa, uz kuru mēs koncentrējamies, tika apkopota un pārbaudīta divos veidos. Pirmkārt, ar roku (izmantojot zīmju sarakstus no citiem autoriem un CISI), un, otrkārt, izmantojot ICIT datu bāzi kā resursu. Katra zīme uz attiecīgajiem zīmogiem tika saglabāta MongoDB datu bāzē. Pazīmes, uz kurām mēs koncentrējāmies simetriski/asimetriski, bija galvenais lauks, kas ļāva mums koncentrēties uz to saistību ar citām zīmogu zīmēm un līdzīgām zīmogām. Katram zīmogam tika saglabāti šādi atribūti: CISI id, zīmes numurs, atrašanās vieta, citas zīmes uz zīmoga, zīmoga garums un karogs, lai norādītu, vai tas ir daudzrindu zīmogs. Katrs zīmogs tiek saglabāts kā dokuments, kam piemīt iepriekš minētās īpašības. Atšķirībā no tradicionālajām datu bāzēm, MongoDB datu bāze ļauj veikt vairākas korelācijas ar zīmi, kā arī ļauj vieglāk analizēt. Katra šajā darbā uzskaitītā frekvence ir viegli tabulējama, izmantojot datu kopas vaicājumus. Šī datu bāzes izveide nākotnē varētu paplašināties, lai turpmāk analizētu roņus ar dzīvnieku simboliem.


Senās civilizācijas un agrīnā rakstīšana

Rakstīšana attīstījās neatkarīgi dažādos reģionos, piemēram, Tuvajos Austrumos, Ķīnā, Indas ielejā un Centrālamerikā. Rakstīšanas sistēmas, kas radās katrā no šiem reģioniem, ir atšķirīgas un neietekmēja viena otru. Agrākā zināmā rakstīšanas sistēma bija ķīļraksts Mezopotāmijā, kas datēta ar 3100 gadu pirms mūsu ēras.

Kāpēc tika izgudrota rakstīšana? Varbūt atbildi var atrast pirmajās rakstītajās ziņās. Lielākajā daļā vietu, kur rakstīšana attīstījās patstāvīgi, vecākie palikušie dokumenti ir etiķetes un saraksti vai valdnieku vārdi. Kopumā daži bija daudz bagātāki par citiem sabiedrībās, kas sagatavoja šos dokumentus, un vara tika koncentrēta mazu grupu rokās. Tāpēc tiek uzskatīts, ka rakstīšana ir izgudrota, jo šo grupu dalībniekiem bija jāorganizē preču un cilvēku izplatīšana, lai saglabātu kontroli pār abiem.

Daudzās sabiedrībās rakstīšana tika izgudrota arī citiem mērķiem. Piemēram, senajos Mesopotāmijas līgumos un citos komercdokumentos tika pierakstītas vēstules, likumi, reliģiskie rituāli un pat literārie darbi. No otras puses, Centrālamerikā rakstīšana ilgu laiku aprobežojās ar uzrakstiem uz monarhijas pieminekļiem. Šajās sabiedrībās, kur rakstīšana bija ierobežota ar nelielu dominējošu grupu, patiesībā bija ļoti maz cilvēku, kas varēja lasīt un rakstīt.

Logogrāfiskā rakstīšana

Atkarībā no to darbības veida rakstīšanas sistēmas tiek klasificētas kā logogrāfiskas, zilbiskas vai alfabētiskas. Dažreiz dažas sistēmas vienlaikus izmanto vairāk nekā vienu no šīm sistēmām. Piemēram, senie ēģiptieši vienlaikus izmantoja visas trīs sistēmas. Logogrāfiskās rakstīšanas sistēmās katrs simbols apzīmē vārdu. Daudzās no šīm sistēmām gramatikas noteicēji ir pievienoti pamata simboliem, tie ir īpaši simboli, kas norāda uz semantiskām vai gramatiskām izmaiņām, piemēram, vārdu saliktā vai daudzskaitļa forma. Acīmredzamākās šīs rakstīšanas sistēmas grūtības ir milzīgais simbolu skaits, kas nepieciešams katra vārda izteikšanai. Ķīniešu rakstīšanas sistēma izmanto aptuveni 50 000 rakstzīmju, lai gan ne visas no tām parasti tiek izmantotas. Tas izskaidro, kāpēc nav pārsteidzoši, ka ļoti maz cilvēku varēja lasīt un rakstīt Ķīnas impērijā. Pat mūsdienās ķīniešu valodas rakstāmmašīnas izveidei bija vajadzīgas vairākas desmitgades.

Zilbju rakstīšana

Zilbju rakstīšanas sistēmas izmanto simbolus, lai attēlotu zilbes. Daudzas agrīnās rakstīšanas sistēmas bija zilbiskas: asīriešu un babiloniešu ķīļrakstus Tuvajos Austrumos, abas pirmsklasiskās Grieķijas rakstīšanas sistēmas, japāņu kana un Centrālās Amerikas seno maiju rakstību.

Babilonijas ķīļraksts ir labs piemērs tam, kā tika izmantota un attīstīta zilbju rakstīšana. It first developed from Sumerian logographic writing, and both were written by imprinting wedge-shaped marks on wet clay tablets. They would put syllabic signs one after the other to form words.

Cuneiform syllabic writing was used for a long time in the ancient Near East, where it was in use between the years 3,100 and 100 BC. It was used to write other languages as well as Akkadian, such as Hittite and Elamite.

Babylonian cuneiform has around 600 symbols, although many of them are used for their different syllabic values.

Alphabetic Writing

Most modern languages use alphabetic writing systems where each symbol represents a basic sound. Spanish and most modern European languages are written with alphabets that come from the Latin alphabet. The great advantage of alphabetical systems is that far fewer symbols need to be learned than in logographic or syllabic systems, as most alphabets feature fewer than 30 characters.

It’s rather ironic, but it’s possible that the invention of the first alphabet was inspired by the ancient Egyptian script, one of the most complex writing systems ever invented. Egyptian hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic symbols. In the middle of the second millennium BC, communities living in the Sinai Peninsula discovered that all of the sounds of their language could be expressed using a small number of alphabetic symbols.

It’s likely that the alphabetic systems descended from the original Sinai script were widely used throughout the Levant until 1150 BC. However, as this type of script was mostly written on perishable materials like parchment and papyrus, very few original materials remain. However, papyrus has been preserved in Egypt due to of the dryness of the desert and the absence of bacteria.

The earliest examples of alphabetic writing, which date from 1450 to 1150 BC, were found at the site of the ancient Canaanite city of Ugarit. A writing system consisting of 30 cuneiform symbols was invented to write in Ugaritic. Ugaritic written documents were engraved on clay tablets that are almost indestructible when baked. However, the few remaining documents suggest that the inhabitants of Ugarit were more accustomed to the usual Semitic alphabetic writing tradition of writing on perishable materials.

A very late, and particularly special, example of a surviving original Semitic parchment is the so-called Dead Sea Scrolls. Dating from about 100 BC to 68 AD, these mysterious religious texts written in Aramaic and Hebrew were found between 1947 and 1956 in clay pots in an Israeli desert cave. It’s easier to trace the evolution of the Levantine alphabets used in Semitic languages like Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic after 1200 BC, as there are a few inscriptions carved in stone.

These alphabetic scripts differ from how modern European alphabetic writing is used in two important respects. Firstly, in Semitic writing texts are normally written right to left, instead of left to right. Secondly, vowel sounds and diphthongs in languages that use Semitic scripts (a, e, i, o, u, o, ai, oo, etc.) are not written, and only consonants are recorded (b, k, d, f, g, etc.).

It seems that the writing of vowel sounds occurred by accident, and it wasn’t some sort of brilliant invention. The Greeks were aware of the Levantine alphabets by having established regular contact with the Phoenicians and other peoples of the region between 950 and 850 BC, when they both, among others, established markets throughout the Mediterranean. Some letters that represent consonants in the Semitic sense sounded like vowels to the Greeks.

The Greeks also took their alphabet to Italy, where it was adapted for use in Etruscan, Latin, and other languages. The Roman Empire helped to spread their alphabet throughout much of Western Europe, although the Greek alphabet was still used in the Eastern Empire. By the time the Western Roman Empire fell in the 5th century, it was already a Christian empire. Writing (in Latin) had become essential in ecclesiastical administration. Both the Latin writing system and Christianity survived the empire that gave birth to them. During the early medieval period, the Latin alphabet was adapted to transcribe various languages, such as Gothic, Old Irish, French and Old English. Meanwhile, in the East, the Greek Orthodox Church expanded to the north, Russia and the Balkans, taking the Greek alphabet with them. It’s said that two Orthodox clerics, St. Cyril and St. Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet to write Slavic languages. This is why the alphabet currently used in Russia, Bulgaria and other parts of Eastern Europe is called Cyrillic, in honor of St. Cyril. In this way, the Semitic, Greek, and Latin alphabets served as the basis of most of the alphabets currently used in modern Europe, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent.


Saturs

Human communication was initiated with the origin of speech approximately 500,000 BCE [ nepieciešams citāts ]. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago. The imperfection of speech, which nonetheless allowed easier dissemination of ideas and eventually resulted in the creation of new forms of communications, improving both the range at which people could communicate and the longevity of the information. All of those inventions were based on the key concept of the symbol.

The oldest known symbols created for the purpose of communication were cave paintings, a form of rock art, dating to the Upper Paleolithic age. The oldest known cave painting is located within Chauvet Cave, dated to around 30,000 BC. [1] These paintings contained increasing amounts of information: people may have created the first calendar as far back as 15,000 years ago. [2] The connection between drawing and writing is further shown by linguistics: in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece the concepts and words of drawing and writing were one and the same (Egyptian: 's-sh', Greek: 'graphein'). [3]

The next advancement in the history of communications came with the production of petroglyphs, carvings into a rock surface. It took about 20,000 years for homo sapiens to move from the first cave paintings to the first petroglyphs, which are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.

It is possible that Homo sapiens (humans) of that time used some other forms of communication, often for mnemonic purposes - specially arranged stones, symbols carved in wood or earth, quipu-like ropes, tattoos, but little other than the most durable carved stones has survived to modern times and we can only speculate about their existence based on our observation of still existing 'hunter-gatherer' cultures such as those of Africa or Oceania. [4]

A pictogram (pictograph) is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration. Pictography is a form of proto-writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. Pictographs were the next step in the evolution of communication: the most important difference between petroglyphs and pictograms is that petroglyphs are simply showing an event, but pictograms are telling a story about the event, thus they can for example be ordered chronologically.

Pictograms were used by various ancient cultures all over the world since around 9000 BC, when tokens marked with simple pictures began to be used to label basic farm produce, and become increasingly popular around 6000–5000 BC.

They were the basis of cuneiform [5] and hieroglyphs, and began to develop into logographic writing systems around 5000 BC.

Pictograms, in turn, evolved into ideograms, graphical symbols that represent an idea. Their ancestors, the pictograms, could represent only something resembling their form: therefore a pictogram of a circle could represent a sun, but not concepts like 'heat', 'light', 'day' or 'Great God of the Sun'. Ideograms, on the other hand, could convey more abstract concepts, so that for example an ideogram of

Because some ideas are universal, many different cultures developed similar ideograms. For example, an eye with a tear means 'sadness' in Native American ideograms in California, as it does for the Aztecs, the early Chinese and the Egyptians. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Early scripts Edit

The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature, based on pictographic and ideographic elements. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic un alphabetic (vai segmental) however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely.

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 4000 BC. The first writing system is generally believed to have been invented in pre-historic Sumer and developed by the late 3000's BC into cuneiform. Egyptian hieroglyphs, and the undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system and Indus Valley script also date to this era, though a few scholars have questioned the Indus Valley script's status as a writing system.

The original Sumerian writing system was derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced about 2700–2000 BC by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by the 2800 BC. About 2600 BC cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian language.

Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. By the 26th century BC, this script had been adapted to another Mesopotamian language, Akkadian, and from there to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.

The Chinese script may have originated independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around the 16th century BC (early Shang Dynasty), out of a late neolithic Chinese system of proto-writing dating back to c. 6000 BC. The pre-Columbian writing systems of the Americas, including Olmec and Mayan, are also generally believed to have had independent origins.

Alphabet Edit

The first pure alphabets (properly, "abjads", mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt, but by then alphabetic principles had already been incorporated into Egyptian hieroglyphs for a millennium (see Middle Bronze Age alphabets).

By 2700 BC, Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.

However, although seemingly alphabetic in nature, the original Egyptian uniliterals were not a system and were never used by themselves to encode Egyptian speech. In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system is thought by some to have been developed in central Egypt around 1700 BC for or by Semitic workers, but we cannot read these early writings and their exact nature remains open to interpretation.

Over the next five centuries this Semitic "alphabet" (really a syllabary like Phoenician writing) seems to have spread north. All subsequent alphabets around the world [ nepieciešams citāts ] with the sole exception of Korean Hangul have either descended from it, or been inspired by one of its descendants.

Scholars agree that there is a relationship between the West-Semitic alphabet and the creation of the Greek alphabet. There is debate between scholars regarding the earliest uses of the Greek alphabet because of the changes that were made to create the Greek alphabet. [6]

The Greek alphabet had the following characteristics:

  1. The Greek lettering we know of today traces back to the eighth century B.C.
  2. Early Greek scripts used the twenty-two West-Semitic letters, and included five supplementary letters.
  3. Early Greek was not uniform in structure, and had many local variations.
  4. The Greek lettering was written using a lapidary style of writing.
  5. Greek was written in a boustrophedon style.

Scholars believe that at one point in time, early Greek scripts were very close to the West-Semitic alphabet. Over time, the changes that were made to the Greek alphabet were introduced as a result of the need for the Greeks to find a better way to express their spoken language in a more accurate way. [6]

Storytelling Edit

Verbal communication is one of the earliest forms of human communication, the oral tradition of storytelling has dated back to various times in history. The development of communication in its oral form can be categorized based on certain historical periods. The complexity of oral communication has always been reflective based on the circumstance of the time period. Verbal communication was never bound to one specific area, instead, it had and continues to be a globally shared tradition of communication. [7] People communicated through song, poems, and chants, as some examples. People would gather in groups and pass down stories, myths, and history. Oral poets from Indo-European regions were known as "weavers of words" for their mastery over the spoken word and ability to tell stories. [8] Nomadic people also had oral traditions that they used to tell stories of the history of their people to pass them on to the next generation.

Nomadic tribes have been the torch bearers of oral storytelling. Nomads of Arabia are one example of the many nomadic tribes that have continued through history to use oral storytelling as a tool to tell their histories and the story of their people. Due to the nature of nomadic life, these individuals were often left without architecture and possessions to call their own, and often left little to no traces of themselves. [9] The richness of the nomadic life and culture is preserved by early Muslim scholars who collect the poems and stories that are handed down from generation to generation. Poems created by these Arabic nomads are passed down by specialists known as sha'ir. These individuals spread the stories and histories of these nomadic tribes, and often in times of war, would strengthen morale within members of given tribes through these stories. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

In its natural form, oral communication was, and has continued to be, one of the best ways for humans to spread their message, history, and traditions to the world. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Timeline of writing technology Edit

  • 30,000 BC – In ice-age Europe, people mark ivory, bone, and stone with patterns to keep track of time, using a lunar calendar. [10]
  • 14,000 BC – In what is now Mezhirich, Ukraine, the first known artifact with a map on it is made using bone. [10]
  • Prior to 3500 BC – Communication was carried out through paintings of indigenous tribes. – The Sumerians develop cuneiform writing and the Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing.
  • 16th century BC – The Phoenicians develop an alphabet.
  • 105 – Tsai Lun invents paper.
  • 7th century – Hindu-Malayan empires write legal documents on copper plate scrolls, and write other documents on more perishable media.
  • 751 – Paper is introduced to the Muslim world after the Battle of Talas.
  • 1250 – The quill is used for writing. [10]
  • 1305 – The Chinese develop wooden blockmovable type printing.
  • 1450 – Johannes Gutenberg invents a printing press with metal movable type.
  • 1844 – Charles Fenerty produces paper from a wood pulp, eliminating rag paper which was in limited supply.
  • 1849 – Associated Press organizes Nova Scotiapony express to carry latest European news for New York newspapers.
  • 1958 – Chester Carlson presents the first photocopier suitable for office use.

The history of telecommunication - the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication - began thousands of years ago with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, America and parts of Asia. In the 1790s the first fixed semaphore systems emerged in Europe however it was not until the 1830s that electrical telecommunication systems started to appear.


Which undeciphered writing system has the largest corpus of text? - Vēsture

Ancient History relies on disciplines such as Epigraphy, the study of ancient inscribed texts, for evidence of the recorded past. However, these texts, “inscriptions”, are often damaged over the centuries, and illegible parts of the text must be restored by specialists, known as epigraphists. This work presents PYTHIA, the first ancient text restoration model that recovers missing characters from a damaged text input using deep neural networks. Its architecture is carefully designed to handle longterm context information, and deal efficiently with missing or corrupted character and word representations. To train it, we wrote a nontrivial pipeline to convert PHI, the largest digital corpus of ancient Greek inscriptions, to machine actionable text, which we call PHI-ML. On PHI-ML, PYTHIA’s predictions achieve a 30.1% character error rate, compared to the 57.3% of human epigraphists. Moreover, in 73.5% of cases the ground-truth sequence was among the Top-20 hypotheses of PYTHIA, which effectively demonstrates the impact of this assistive method on the field of digital epigraphy, and sets the state-of-the-art in ancient text restoration.

Authors' Notes

Historians rely on different sources to reconstruct the thought, society and history of past civilisations. Many of these sources are text-based – whether written on scrolls or carved into stone, the preserved records of the past help shed light on ancient societies. However, these records of our ancient cultural heritage are often incomplete: due to deliberate destruction, or erosion and fragmentation over time. This is the case for inscriptions: texts written on a durable surface (such as stone, ceramic, metal) by individuals, groups and institutions of the past, and which are the focus of the discipline called epigraphy . Thousands of inscriptions have survived to our day but the majority have suffered damage over the centuries, and parts of the text are illegible or lost (Figure 1). The reconstruction ("restoration") of these documents is complex and time consuming, but necessary for a deeper understanding of civilisations past.

One of the issues with discerning meaning from incomplete fragments of text is that there are often multiple possible solutions. In many word games and puzzles, players guess letters to complete a word or phrase – the more letters that are specified, the more constrained the possible solutions become. But unlike these games, where players have to guess a phrase in isolation, historians restoring a text can estimate the likelihood of different possible solutions based on other context clues in the inscription – such as grammatical and linguistic considerations, layout and shape, textual parallels, and historical context. Now, by using machine learning trained on ancient texts, we’ve built a system that can furnish a more complete and systematically ranked list of possible solutions, which we hope will augment historians’ understanding of a text.

Figure 1: Damaged inscription: a decree of the Athenian Assembly relating to the management of the Acropolis (dating 485/4 BCE). IG I3 4B. (CC BY-SA 3.0, WikiMedia)

Pythia

Pythia – which takes its name from the woman who delivered the god Apollo's oracular responses at the Greek sanctuary of Delphi – is the first ancient text restoration model that recovers missing characters from a damaged text input using deep neural networks. Bringing together the disciplines of ancient history and deep learning, the present work offers a fully automated aid to the text restoration task, providing ancient historians with multiple textual restorations, as well as the confidence level for each hypothesis.

Pythia takes a sequence of damaged text as input, and is trained to predict character sequences comprising hypothesised restorations of ancient Greek inscriptions (texts written in the Greek alphabet dating between the seventh century BCE and the fifth century CE). The architecture works at both the character- and word-level, thereby effectively handling long-term context information, and dealing efficiently with incomplete word representations (Figure 2). This makes it applicable to all disciplines dealing with ancient texts ( philology , papyrology , codicology ) and applies to any language (ancient or modern).

Figure 2: Pythia processing the phrase μηδέν ἄγαν ( Mēdèn ágan ) "nothing in excess," a fabled maxim inscribed on Apollo’s temple in Delphi. The letters "γα" are the characters to be predicted, and are annotated with ‘?’. Since ἄ??ν is not a complete word, its embedding is treated as unknown (‘unk’). The decoder outputs correctly "γα".

Experimental evaluation

To train Pythia, we wrote a non-trivial pipeline to convert the largest digital corpus of ancient Greek inscriptions ( PHI Greek Inscriptions ) to machine actionable text, which we call PHI-ML. As shown in Table 1, Pythia’s predictions on PHI-ML achieve a 30.1% character error rate, compared to the 57.3% of evaluated human ancient historians (specifically, these were PhD students from Oxford). Moreover, in 73.5% of cases the ground-truth sequence was among the Top-20 hypotheses of Pythia, which effectively demonstrates the impact of this assistive method on the field of digital epigraphy, and sets the state-of-the-art in ancient text restoration.

Table 1: Pythia's Predictive performance of on PHI-ML.

The importance of context

To evaluate Pythia’s receptiveness to context information and visualise the attention weights at each decoding step, we experimented with the modified lines of an inscription from the city of Pergamon (in modern-day Turkey)*. In the text of Figure 3, the last word is a Greek personal name ending in -ου. We set ἀπολλοδώρου ("Apollodorou") as the personal name, and hid its first 9 characters. This name was specifically chosen because it already appeared within the input text. Pythia attended to the contextually-relevant parts of the text - specifically, ἀπολλοδώρου. The sequence ἀπολλοδώρ was predicted correctly. As a litmus test, we substituted ἀπολλοδώρου in the input text with another personal name of the same length: ἀρτεμιδώρου ("Artemidorou"). The predicted sequence changed accordingly to ἀρτεμιδώρ, thereby illustrating the importance of context in the prediction process.

Figure 3: Visualisation of the attention weights for the decoding of the first 4 missing characters. To aid visualisation, the weights within the area of the characters to be predicted (‘?’) are in green, and in blue for the rest of the text the magnitude of the weights is represented by the colour intensity. The ground-truth text ἀπολλοδώρ appears in the input text, and Pythia attends to the relevant parts of the sequence.

Future research

The combination of machine learning and epigraphy has the potential to impact meaningfully the study of inscribed texts, and widen the scope of the historian’s work. For this reason, we have open-sourced an online Python notebook, Pythia, and PHI-ML’s processing pipeline at https://github.com/sommerschield/ancient-text-restoration , collaborating with scholars at the University of Oxford . By so doing, we hope to aid future research and inspire further interdisciplinary work.

*Specifically, lines b.8- c.5 of the inscription MDAI(A) 32 (1907) 428, 275.


The Story of India’s Many Scripts

While India’s scripts are ancient, technology and modernity are changing their usage patterns.

Only a few years ago, things did not seem to be going well for India’s various alphabets, often known as the Indic or Brahmic scripts after the historical Iron Age script that is the ancestor of modern South and Southeast Asian writing systems. Digitalization and the widespread proliferation of Roman-alphabet keyboards in India meant that Indian users would often transcribe Indian languages using ad hoc Romanizations on the internet and via text.

Yet today, one can’t follow the Indian Twittersphere or Indian content on social media and the rest of the internet without noticing the recent proliferation of Indic script material, particularly Devanagari (the script used for Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali). Technology and innovation helped this process along, and instead of shrinking the sphere of Indic script usage, they allow Indic scripts to be used more broadly, especially at the popular level. The use of Unicode, and the spread of Indic script transliteration and typing interfaces on Google, and on phones—which is how most Indians access the Internet—have all made it much easier to publish online in Indic scripts. Many phones and computers in India are not specifically designed with Indic script keyboards and instead use the Roman alphabet keyboards common in the West. Transliteration software renders this moot. The increased use of Indic-language scripts has also lead to newer and more artistic fonts for Indian languages.

In short, this is a golden age for Indic language script usage, due to technology and increased literacy. This is despite both the proliferation of English-language education in India, and the shoddy quality of public schools in that country. The very nature of modernity, with its mass communication, advertisements, social platforms, and the spread of information and entertainment to everyone with a smartphone, means that everyone will eventually gain and utilize basic literacy, even if by osmosis and not formal education. And most of this literacy in India will be in local languages. This will be the first time in India’s recorded history that its scripts are being used so widely.

India has a long history of writing. While India has been a literate culture for millennia, it has also greatly valued oral knowledge. The ancient Hindu scriptures, the Vedas, the oldest of which dated to around 1500 BCE were memorized verbatim for at least a thousand years, if not more, before being committed to writing. The oldest writing found in the subcontinent is the as yet undeciphered script of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), which seems to have been somewhat logo-syllabic in nature. The script fell out of use by 1500 BCE.

The Indus Valley Script. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The linguistic landscape of the subcontinent changed dramatically during the 2nd millennium BCE, so that is is impossible to determine if there is a connection between the IVC script and the next clearly attested script in India, the Brahmi script found in the inscriptions of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (ruled 268-232 BCE), especially since they probably represented vastly different, unrelated languages.

The sudden appearance of the Brahmi writing system is one of the great mysteries of writing in India, as there is no evidence of inscriptions beforehand. Another script, the (extinct, childless) Kharosthi of northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan seems to be clearly derived from the imperial Aramaic script used by the Persians who ruled over parts of the Indus Valley for two centuries until the arrival of Alexander the Great. It is unclear if the fully developed Brahmi script was invented by the Mauryan Empire as a result of exposure to Aramaic, but this seems unlikely, particularly since there were advanced states in the Ganges valley and a corpus of Vedic literature dating from before the Mauryan period.

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It is more likely that pre-Mauryan inscriptions may still be discovered, and in fact, some Brahmi inscriptions have been found in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka dating to the 6th century BCE. Is it possible then, that writing spread from the south to the north, countervening the traditional notion that the Indic scripts originate in the Ganges valley? This may quite possibly be the case, especially since the coasts of southern India were more exposed to foreign trade from the Middle East than northern India, and scripts from traders could have been brought to India this way (the same way the Phoenicians brought their script to Greece). This long gestation period and overland route from southern to northern India may explain why the Brahmi script, even if it is vaguely derived from Middle Eastern alphabets, is so different and nativized, especially relative to the more obviously Middle Eastern-inspired Kharosthi.

The Possible Evolution of Brahmi from Middle Eastern Scripts. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Once the Brahmi script was spread throughout India by the subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire, it was used by the subcontinent’s elites.However, unlike imperial China with its unified central government and bureaucratic exam system, and Christian and Muslim societies that were united by a written scripture, oral culture and regional differences in India led to the Brahmi script differentiating and evolving into different scripts in various regions of India, a phenomenon that was already occurring by the end of the Maruyan period in the 2nd century BCE. This phenomenon—each literary language having a particular and unique script—is not actually that unique to India, as the various languages of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean also evolved their own scripts from a common source.

The increased need for quicker, daily writing, versus use for monumental inscriptions may have led to the predominance of cursive styles that evolved into India’s modern scripts. Various other factors may have been at play, such as the material used for writing: in South India, scripts became more rounded, as a result of writing on palm leaves, while in North India, cloth and birch bark allowed for more angular lines, and indeed the major division amongst Brahmic scripts is between the southern Indian/Southeast Asian scripts and the northern Indian and Tibetan scripts.

The Differentiation of Brahmi Letter Shapes. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Regional linguistic differences also helped Indic writing proliferate into many scripts in both South and Southeast Asia. It became prestigious for every major language to have its own script, though what evolved into today’s Devanagari (which began to emerge by the 7th century CE) script retained a special prestige due to its close association with Sanskrit. It is unclear if the evolution of Indic scripts into new forms would have ever stopped had it not been for the standardization process that is necessary for a print-oriented mass modern society. Relatively recently, for example, Devanagari spawned new, regional variations such as the Gujarati script, indicating that there was no real “final form” in the evolution of letter shapes in Indic writing. This seems to have remained the case, even when Indic-script users were exposed to the more unchanging Roman and Arabic alphabets.

The Evolution of Letter Shapes. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The change in letter forms leading to new scripts was probably so slow, generation by generation, that the process did not necessarily involve conscious change from one script to another, but a slow evolution of differences in letter formation as texts were copied throughout the ages. A similar development occurred in medieval Europe with the Latin script, but the development of the printing press, and Renaissance ideas about how the Latin script ought to look like led to a typographical convergence.

Brahmi and Devanagari found together on a pillar. Source: Wikimedia Commons

The evolution of Brahmi into so many scripts over time in India does however raise the question of what individuals and scribes thought about the changes upon becoming aware—and they were aware, as inscriptions in multiple different Indian scripts have been found together, like Kannada with Devanagari—of the fact that their contemporary writing systems were divergent in separate regions, and were also vastly different from the forms found in inscriptions and ancient documents. While 19th century scribes of Indian scripts were unable to tell the British what was written on ancient pillars from the Mauryan Era (the British deciphered Brahmi in 1837), this inability to read ancient forms of writing does not always seem to be the case. In fact, there have been examples of Mauryan, Gupta, and early Nagari inscriptions found together, with each subsequent script alluding to the content of what was written before it in a predecessor script.

But that fact that this knowledge was lost over time and that Indian scripts differentiated into so many forms does seem to indicate that literacy was not widespread and was limited to pockets of individuals, a trend which probably accelerated due to the eclipse of a pan-Indian literary culture after the 12th century. Before the emergence of a modern, mass culture throughout India, writing styles and scripts were particular to regions, and even castes, with scribes and merchants often utilizing their own scripts, which were usually simpler forms of the more formal monumental alphabets used for official or religious purposes.

However, modern trends such as the emergence of a politically unified, subcontinent-wide state in India, new scholarship, and technology seem to be reversed the differentiation that has characterized Indian scripts for past 2,000 years. The literacy of hundred of millions of people in native scripts makes it unlikely that the shapes of letters used by millions of people everyday for communication will change anytime soon, as that would lead to confusion and a lack of communication. The standardization and use of some scripts for mass print and online have also led to the decline of caste and trade based scripts, as well as many local variations. Many hitherto unwritten modern languages are now written in established scripts, usually the script most prevalent in that particular state of India’s, instead of evolving a new script for the language.

While India’s scripts are ancient, technology and modernity are changing their usage patterns, and are in fact allowing them to thrive as never before in standardized and widely used forms, as more people gain literacy and access to the internet.


Get around [ edit ]

While Corpus Christi is ostensibly laid out in a classic city-block style, the adaptation of that system to the local geography can make navigation a little confusing. Nevertheless, there are several main roads that traverse nearly the entire city, and these can be used to orient yourself if you find yourself lost.

By car [ edit ]

Most visitors and locals travel around Corpus Christi in cars. Most likely, a rental or personal car is the best way for you to see the city.

The main routes one needs to know to get around efficiently in Corpus Christi are I-37, South Padre Island Drive (TX-358), Crosstown Expressway (TX-286), un Ocean Drive/Shoreline Boulevard (Ocean Drive is an extension of Shoreline Blvd. for about seven miles along Corpus Christi Bay).

I-37 brings you into town from the west and ends on Shoreline Drive downtown on the Bayfront.

Shoreline Blvd. is a section of about four miles in downtown Corpus Christi along the bay. It begins in the area of the Art Museum of South Texas and leads south, becoming Ocean Drive. Following Ocean Drive takes one through the most scenic part of the city and to its end at the Naval Air Station and Texas A&M.

South Padre Island Drive does not go to South Padre Island (a frequent mistake made by visitors), but is better thought of as the southern section of Padre Island Drive. It is a section of 358 running from I-37 down the southern side of the city from northwest to southeast and ending on Padre Island at Padre Island National Seashore. Along it is the main shopping and dining area for the city. Locals will invariably refer to South Padre Island Drive as S.P.I.D., with the letters always pronounced separately. Visitors should remember that there will not be signs reading SPID. Instead, many read NAS-CCAD (for Naval Air Station and Corpus Christi Army Depot) or TX-358.

Connecting the northern end of S.P.I.D. to the downtown area near where I-37 ends is the Crosstown Expressway.

The Harbor Bridge takes drivers over the ship channel from downtown to Corpus Christi Beach, a popular destination for tourists.

By public transit [ edit ]

Corpus Christi has a small trolley service (actually buses poorly disguised as trolleys) and a citywide bus service. Both are run by the Corpus Christi Regional Transit Authority, and schedules can be found at their website [11].

There is no Metro, subway, or any other form of a city rail service.

Car rental services can be found at the airport or along S.P.I.D.

Corpus Christi has a marina, for those few lucky enough to travel by water.


Epi-Olmec script

One of the most important Olmec finds was the discovery of an inscribed slab found under the waters of the Acula River near the village of La Mojarra in 1986 in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Dubbed Stela 1 of La Mojarra, this monument was inscribed with 465 glyphs arranged in 21 columns, and the image of a ruler. The writing on it is nothing like any other writing system in Mesoamerica, such as Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, or Aztec, although like the Maya it also used the Long Count.

However, Stela 1 of La Mojarra is not the only example of its writing system. Most of the monuments that bear glyphs in the same (or similar) writing system are also found near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the thin stretch of land that separates the majority of Mexico from its south-eastern states and from Central America, although none has texts as long as the Stela. The famous Tuxtla Statuette, a hand-length nephrite figurine of an almost comedic man dressed in a duck's outfit, bears a Long Count date of 162 CE as well as non-calendric glyphs. Other famous inscriptions include Stela C of Tres Zapotes, with a Long Count date of 32 BCE, and Stela 1 of Chiapa de Corzo (located in Chiapas, Mexico), with an incomplete date conjectured to be 36 BCE. In the site of Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, highly erroded monuments also bear Long Count dates, but from the early Classic period at around 450 CE, as well as a large stone version of the Tuxtla Statuette devoid of any text.

Scholars have given this script many names, epi-Olmec was chosen since it is more common in scientific literature. Some have called this script the "La Mojarra script" after the location where the Stela was found. Another name, also based on a geographical name, is the "Isthmian Script", named after the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. You would find all three names used in publications, and websites. Yet another name is the "Tuxtla Script", named after the Tuxtla Statuette as well as the Tuxtla Mountains near which many of the texts have been found.

Left side image of La Mojarra Stela 1, showing a person identified as "Harvester Mountain Lord". Inscriptions in the Isthmian or Epi-Olmec script on the right side of La Mojarra Stela 1

The Epi-Olmec script turned out to be structurally similar to the Maya. It is logophonetic, meaning that one set of the signs, the phonograms, have phonetic values, while the other glyphs, called logograms, represents morpheme. A morpheme is a word or part of a word that cannot be broken further into smaller units with relevant meaning. For instance, the English word beautiful can be broken down into beauty and -ful, neither of which can be broken down further. Beauty is a morpheme because it is a word. Furthermore, -ful carries the meaning of "a lot of", and can also be used with other words, like bountiful, faithful, and others. Hence it is not a unique derivation of beauty, but a morpheme in its own right.

In a logophonetic system, both logograms and phonograms are used. Frequently logograms make up the root of a word whereas phonograms spell out the prefixes and suffixes that modify the root.

The vowel u ("u" with a line through the middle) is a strange vowel. It is a central high vowel, meaning that it's like the common vowel [i] but the position of the peak of the tongue is halfway between the throat and the teeth. You can check out Phonetics for details on how to pronounce it.

All phonograms in the Epi-Olmec script represent syllables. So we call the set of phonograms the syllabary:

The Epi-Olmec culture was a cultural area in the central region of the present-day Mexican state of Veracruz, concentrated in the Papaloapan River basin, a culture that existed during the Late Formative period, from roughly 300 BCE to roughly 250 CE. Epi-Olmec was a successor culture to the Olmec, hence the prefix "epi-" or "post-". Although Epi-Olmec did not attain the far-reaching achievements of that earlier culture, it did realize, with its sophisticated calendrics and writing system, a level of cultural complexity unknown to the Olmecs.