Detalizēta informācija par govs galvu, sudraba lira, Ur

Detalizēta informācija par govs galvu, sudraba lira, Ur


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Lielisku instrumentu atklāšana

Kad Vullijs sāka rakt senajā Uras vietā, viņam nebija ne jausmas, cik daudz tajā ir nenovērtējamu dārgumu. Karalisko kapu mīkla, kur kopā ar saviem valdniekiem tika apbedīti desmitiem kalpu, ir viens no rāpojošākajiem senajiem stāstiem par bēru kultūru.

Leonards Vullijs, turot šumeru karalienes līras sacietējušo ģipša veidni, 1922. ( Publisks domēns )

Līras ir instrumenti ar stīgām, kuras mēdza trīcēt ar taustiņu vai ar roku, lai radītu mierīgu skaņu. Jums vajadzētu būt mierīgam un maigam ar šo instrumentu, lai tas atskaņotu debesu mūziku. Tā bija ļoti populāra šumeru ķēniņu galmā un daudzi no viņiem vēlējās šo patīkami skanīgo mūziku aizvest uz pēcnāves dzīvi. Tāpēc Uras karaliskajā kapsētā tika atklāti daudzi liras. Tie ir datēti ar agrīno dinastijas III periodu (2550. - 2450.g.pmē.). Pētnieki pieņem, ka viņiem bija 11 stīgas.


Cītara

Vairāki dažāda veida instrumenti tiek klasificēti kā ziteri, kurus mūsdienās izmanto visos kontinentos. Ķīnas, Japānas un Korejas garās citeras, kurām ir izliekta virsma un gara, šaura forma, parāda iespējamo saikni ar Klusā okeāna, Dienvidaustrumāzijas un Āfrikas dienvidaustrumu idiohordajām bambusa ziterēm. Bambusa nozīme mūzikā Āzijā ir burtiski leģendāra Java valodā, domājams, ka mūzika pirmo reizi radusies, nejauši ielaižot gaisu bambusa caurulē. Ķīnā mūzikas instrumenti tiek klasificēti pēc to konstrukcijas materiāla. Viena no astoņām sistēmā esošajām vielām ir bambuss, ko ķīnieši attiecina uz virzienu Austrumi, sezonu pavasaris un fenomenu Kalni. Ķīnieši zheng, cītara, savā ideogrāfijā ietver radikālo nozīmi “bambuss”. Vecāko citeru ideogrāfus - cjiņ un se- tomēr tos ir grūtāk interpretēt. Ir zināms, ka šāda veida ziteres pastāvēja Šanga periodā (c. 1600–1046 p.m.ē.) zheng pirmo reizi tika dokumentēts Qin periodā (221–207 p.m.ē.). Līdz 8. gadsimtam šis instruments tika ievests Japānā, kur kā 13 stīgu koto tas uzplaukst arī mūsdienās. Koto, tāpat kā zheng, bieži spēlē sievietes, lai gan koto ģildes vadītājs parasti ir vīrietis.

Relatīvs jaunpienācējs ķīniešu ziteru spektrā ir yangqin (“Ārzemju cītara”), kuras prototips no Persijas sasniedza Ķīnu kaut kad Mingu dinastijas laikā (1368–1644), tas ir vienīgais kastes cītaras pārstāvis Austrumāzijā. Indonēzijas Sundanese kamermūzika bieži izmanto a kacapi, kastes citera, parasti ar 18–20 stīgām un kustīgiem tiltiem. Šāda veida akordofonu vēsture patiešām ir neskaidra, taču divi šīs vispārējās formas instrumenti, kas var būt ļoti veci, ir Āfrikas plosts un dēļu citeras. Plostu cītara ir veidota pēc idiohordiska principa, taču tajā tiek izmantotas vairākas nūjas, kuru diametrs ir aptuveni 1,5 collas (1,5 cm), un katrai no tām ir viena virkne, kas izvirzīta no savas virsmas, un tad visi spieķi tiek sasieti kopā. Dēļa citera ir izgatavota no doba dēļa, virs kura ir piestiprinātas vairākas stīgas. Šis pēdējais instruments ir īpaši atrodams dažos Austrumāfrikas apgabalos, iespējams, ka tā uzbūves principu tirgotāji pārnesa uz Tuvajiem Austrumiem.

Viduslaiku arābu autori (tostarp Ibn Khaldūn) min plēstu trapecveida cītu - qānūn (cēlies no grieķu valodas kanōn, “Noteikums”). Mūsdienu instrumentam ir trīs oktāvu diapazons ar trim virknēm katrā piķī un sarežģīta sviras sistēma, ar kuras palīdzību tās daudzās stīgas var smalki un ātri pielāgot dažādām arābu skalām. Cieši saistīts ir persiešu atvasinājums sanṭūr, vēl viena trapecveida cītara, kurai trāpījuši divi gaiši āmuri. Šīs citeras versijas ir atrodamas Ķīnā ( yangqin), Grieķija (santouri) un Austrumeiropā (cimbalom). Šīs trapecveida ziteres ir prototipi vēlākajiem Rietumeiropas taustiņinstrumentiem: qānūn, kas tiek spēlēta ar diviem plektriem, ar tastatūras palīdzību kļuva par klavesīnu cimbalomu, pievienojot tastatūru, par klavierēm. Viduslaikos tastatūra tika piestiprināta vairākiem instrumentiem, tostarp lautai, hurd-gurdy un dažādām skandināvu taustiņām, no kurām zviedru nyckelharpa izdzīvo. Eksperiments bija patiesi veiksmīgs, tomēr tikai ar klavikordu, klavesīnu un vēlāk klavierēm uz vijoles tā vienmēr palika perifēra nozīme.


Divas liras no Ur

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1928.-29. Gada sezonā Urā, Karaliskās kapsētas Lielajā nāves bedrē, C. Leonards Vullijs atklāja divus iespaidīgus mūzikas instrumentus un sudraba laivas formas līru, kā arī lielisku liru ar buļļa galvu, kas izgatavota no zelta loksnes un lapis lazuli bārda. Šī grāmata stāsta par to vēsturi, saglabāšanu un saglabāšanu. Lai gan pagājušā gadsimta sākumā bija maz zināms par trešās tūkstošgades vidus Mezopotāmijas arheoloģiju, bija skaidrs, ka šumeri ir attīstījuši enerģisku luksusa preču tirdzniecību ar ekonomiku, kurai bija nepieciešama augsti strukturēta valdība, kuras vadītāji varēja pavēlēt bagātīgus un sarežģītus kapus, tostarp pilns mūzikas instrumentu klāsts.

Sīki un detalizēti, izmantojot gan tradicionālās metodes, gan jaunas rentgena un elektroniskās attēlveidošanas izmeklēšanas metodes, Maude de Schauensee zondē un analizē Universitātes muzeja rīcībā esošo divu liru konstrukciju, vienlaikus nodrošinot ekonomisku, vēsturisku un socioloģisku kontekstu, kurā labāk saprast viņus. Viņa izskata dekoratīvos motīvus kopā ar šo instrumentu celtnieku materiāliem un tehniku. Ilustrācijas un mdash 10 līnijas mākslas darbi, 25 fotogrāfijas, 6 CAT skenējumi, 5 rentgenstari un 24 krāsu plāksnes, kā arī papildu informācija. Šī grāmata pirmo reizi piedāvā jaunu informāciju un saglabāšanas aprakstus. Muzikologi, mākslas vēsturnieki, Tuvo Austrumu zinātnieki un arheologi, kā arī vispārējie lasītāji atradīs šīs grāmatas jauno analīzi par senas kultūras instrumentiem, kas ir ļoti interesanti.

Maude de Schauensee, Hasanlu publikāciju sērijas asociētais redaktors un bijušais Tuvo Austrumu sekcijas glabātājs Pensilvānijas Universitātes Arheoloģijas un antropoloģijas muzejā, ir rakstu autors par bronzu, strādājot pie Hasanlu, zirgu slazdiem un asīriešu reljefiem, kā arī citām Irānas ziemeļrietumu tēmām.

Skatiet savu iepirkumu grozu | Pārlūkojiet Penn Press nosaukumus arheoloģijā | Pievienojieties mūsu adresātu sarakstam


Detalizēta informācija par govs galvu, sudraba lira, ur - vēsture

Materiālus precīzi noteica Dievs. Jebkura novirze nesīs noteiktu nāvi.

Mums jāatceras, ka izraēlieši iznāca no Ēģiptes kā Dieva tauta. Viņi bija pirmā ebreja Ābrahāma pēcnācēji. Ir svarīgi paturēt prātā zvērestu, ko Dievs zvērēja, laužot derību ar Ābrahāmu:

1.Moz.15: 13-14 Tad Viņš sacīja Ābrāmam: "Zini, ka tavi pēcnācēji būs svešinieki zemē, kas nav viņu, un kalpos viņiem, un viņi tos nomocīs četrus simtus gadus. "Un arī tauta, kurai viņi kalpo, es pēc tam tiesāšu, viņi iznāks ar lielu mantu.

Un ar lielu mantu viņi patiešām iznāca, kā teikts:

2. Mozus 3: 20-22 "Tāpēc es izstiepšu savu roku un sitīšu Ēģipti ar visiem saviem brīnumiem, ko es darīšu tās vidū, un pēc tam viņš tevi atlaidīs. Un es došu šai tautai labvēlību ēģiptiešu acīs, un, ejot, jūs nedrīkstat iet tukšām rokām. & quot Tātad jūs izlaupīsit ēģiptiešus. "

2. Mozus 12: 35-36 Bet Israēla bērni bija darījuši pēc Mozus vārda un jautāja no ēģiptiešiem sudraba, zelta un apģērba. Un Tas Kungs bija devis ļaudīm labvēlību ēģiptiešu acīs, lai viņi viņiem dotu to, ko viņi lūdza. Tā viņi izlaupīja ēģiptiešus.

Kad izraēlieši ieradās Sinaja kalnā, Tas Kungs viņiem deva norādījumus par to, kas viņiem jānes kā brīvās gribas upuris (spontāna un brīvprātīga ziedošana), lai viņi varētu uzcelt telti. Ievērojiet, ko Dievs runāja par savu mājokli, telti: (ļoti svarīgi panti)

2. Moz. 25: 1-9 Tad Tas Kungs runāja uz Mozu, sacīdams: "Runā Israēla bērniem, lai viņi man nes upuri. No katra, kas to labprāt ar sirdi dod, ņemiet Manu upuri. Un šis ir ziedojums, ko jūs no viņiem paņemat: zelts, sudrabs un bronza, zili, purpursarkani un purpursarkani pavedieni, smalki veļa un kazu mati, sarkanā krāsā nokrāsotas ādas, āpšu ādas un akācijas koks un kvotoils gaismai, un garšvielas svaidāmā eļļai un saldajiem vīraka & quotonyx akmeņiem, kā arī akmeņi, kas jāievieto efodā un krūtīs. & quot Un lai viņi Mani padara par svētnīcu, lai es varētu dzīvot viņu vidū. "Saskaņā ar visu, ko es jums parādīju, tas ir, telts paraugs un visu tā iekārtojumu paraugs, lai jūs to darītu.

Šie materiāli ir uzskaitīti tieši tā, kā Dievs bija norādījis (nekas vairāk un ne mazāk), jo katram no tiem būtu īpaša simboliska nozīme saistībā ar patieso Debesu telti un Jēzu Kristu. Nekas nevar tikt atstāts nejaušības vai cilvēka iztēles ziņā, jo, ja Kungs vēlas šeit apmesties un uzcelt savu telti kopā ar cilvēku, tad cilvēkam ir jāpieiet Viņam Viņa ceļā un bez izņēmumiem. Sīkāka informācija par tās uzbūvi veidotos laicīgā veidā, ko Dievs kādu dienu pastāvīgi darīs caur Jēzu Kristu. Telts kļūs par redzamu paraugu tam, kā mēs nonākam pie Dieva caur Jēzu. Tagad aplūkosim materiālus, kas tiks izmantoti telts celtniecībā, un paturēsim prātā, ka mums ir jāpārbauda simbolika no ebreju fona. Vecā Derība ir piepildīta ar tēlainu valodu, ko var interpretēt, ņemot vērā ebreju Bībeles kontekstu:

Materiāli (pēc Dieva pasūtījuma)

Saskaņā ar Ex 38 viņi deva 2800 mārciņas. no zelta. Tīrs zelts visā Svētajos Rakstos runā par dievišķību, to, ko cilvēks nevar reproducēt. Zeltu ir radījis Dievs un tas nāk no Dieva. Zelts runā par Jēzus Kristus dievību. Tas raksturo Kunga Jēzus dievišķo godību kā “quotthe Dieva Dēls” un “Dievs Dēls”. Saskaņā ar Ex 38 viņi deva 2800 mārciņas. no zelta.

Jēzus bija neviens cits kā Jehova miesā. Viņš ir "Malahs Jahve", "Jehova ķēniņš. Kad Jesaja ieraudzīja Kungu augstu un pacēla sevi kā ķēniņu visā savā godībā, Jānis Jaunajā Derībā pastāstiet mums, ka viņš redzēja Jēzu:

Jāņa 12:41 To Jesaja teica, redzēdams savu godību un runājot par Viņu.

Sudraba svars sasniedza 9600 mārciņas. Visā Svētajos Rakstos sudrabs tēlaini runā par pestīšanu. To vienmēr izmantoja kā izpirkšanas naudu:

2.Mozus 30:16 "Un tu ņem Israēla bērnu izpirkšanas naudu un iecel to sapulces telts kalpošanai, lai tā būtu piemiņa Israēla bērniem Tā Kunga priekšā, lai veiktu izpirkšanu. . & quot

Telts stāvēja uz sudraba ligzdām. Gan Jāzeps, gan Jēzus tika pārdoti par sudrabu. Jūdass tika samaksāts sudrabā, kā teikts Svētajos Rakstos. Sudrabs ir atpirkšanas nauda. Sudrabs simbolizē atpestīšanu, kas nāk caur Jēzu Kristu un tikai Viņu. Tas parāda Kristus dārgumu kā izpirkšanu grēciniekiem. Ievērojiet arī to, ka debesīs nav minēts neviens sudrabs. Tauta jau būs izpirkta.

Marka 10:45 "Jo pat Cilvēka Dēls nav nācis, lai viņam kalpotu, bet gan lai kalpotu un atdotu savu dzīvību par atpirkšanu par daudziem."

Kopā 6700 mārciņas. no bronzas tika dota lietošanai tajās vietās, kur svarīga bija izcila izturība un karstumizturība. Bronzas kušanas temperatūra ir 1985 grādi. Tas bija svarīgi altārā, kur bija spēcīgs karstums. Viņi atnesa bronzu, nevis misiņu. Misiņš nāk no vara un alvas maisījuma, bet bronza - no vara un cinka.

Bronza simbolizē spriedumu. Kad Mozus pacēla bronzas čūsku, tas runāja par čūskas spēku, kas tika tiesāts caur Dieva Dēla augšāmcelšanu:

Num 21: 9 Tad Mozus izgatavoja bronzas čūsku un uzlika to uz staba, un tā tas bija: ja čūska kādu bija sakodusi, tad, skatoties uz bronzas čūsku, viņš dzīvoja.

Bronza raksturo Kristus dievišķo raksturu, kurš pārņēma Dieva dusmu, svētuma un taisnīguma uguni, kļūstot par upuri grēkam.

2 Kor 5:21 Jo To, kas grēku nepazina, Viņš ir padarījis par grēku mūsu labā, lai mēs Viņā kļūtu par Dieva taisnību.

Mateja 27:46 Un apmēram devītajā stundā Jēzus skaļā balsī sauca, sacīdams: "Eli, Eli, lama sabachtani?" Tas ir: "Mans Dievs, mans Dievs, kāpēc tu mani esi atstājis?"

Veļā bija ieausti vai izšūti zili, purpursarkani un sarkani diegi. Ebreju vārds zilai nozīmē vēžveidīgos. No šī mīkstmieša izdalījās izcili krāsviela. Šī spilgtā krāsa vienmēr tiek pieminēta vispirms. Cilvēkam vajadzēja kaut ko tādu, kas ierosinātu priekšstatu par debesīm kā vietu, no kuras Dievs atklāj sevi pilnīgāk nekā uz zemes. Tāpēc zilā krāsa attēlo debesis, debesu krāsu. Zilā krāsa vienmēr tika pieminēta visā teltī, lai atgādinātu cilvēkam, ka viņa galamērķis ir debesis un mūsu Pestītāja dēļ mums ir lemts atrasties Dieva klātbūtnē. Zils runā par to, kas nāk lejā no augšas (& quot; no augšas & quot; ir ebreju idioma par debesīm). Atcerieties, kad sieviete pieskārās Jēzus drēbes zilajai apakšai? Mēs redzam zilā skaistumu mūsu Kunga Jēzus Kristus dzīvē, kurš bija ne tikai debesu pēc savas izcelsmes, bet arī pēc savas būtības un veidiem.

Jņ 3:31 "Kas nāk no augšienes, tas ir augstāks par visu, kas ir no zemes, ir zemes un runā par zemi. Tas, kas nāk no debesīm, ir pāri visiem.

Ebreji iegūtu šo krāsu, sajaucot zilo un sarkano krāsu. Šī dziļi sarkanā purpursarkanā krāsa bija honorāra krāsa (Kingly).

Judg 8:26 rotas, piekariņi un purpursarkani halāti, kas bija uz Midiāna ķēniņiem un bez važām, kas bija ap viņu kamieļu kaklu.

Violeta krāsa raksturo Jēzu kā ķēniņa karali un kungu kungu, bet ir vēl viena svarīga patiesība. Zilā un purpursarkanā sajaukšanās. Zils runā par to, kas nāk no augšas, un sarkans, kā mēs redzēsim, attēlo asinis un nāvi, upuri. Violeta ir abu kombinācija, kas runā par Kristu kā par Dievu, tā par Cilvēku, Cilvēku, kurš nāca no debesīm mirt. Kaut kādā noslēpumainā veidā Viņš pārņēma grēcīgās miesas līdzību.

Jesajas 33:17 Jūsu acis redzēs ķēniņu Viņa skaistumā un redzēs zemi, kas ir ļoti tālu.


"Sarkans pavediens" (upuris)

Sarkanā krāsa tika iegūta no austrumu kukaiņa (tārpa), kas inficē noteiktus kokus. Tas tika savākts, sasmalcināts, žāvēts un sasmalcināts pulverī, kas radīja izcili tumši sarkanu nokrāsu. Skārleta runā par upuriem un raksturo Kristu Viņa ciešanās. Krustā sišanas 22. psalms citē Jēzus teikto: "Es esmu tārps". Dievs kaut kādā veidā uzņēma sev miesu un asinis un pēc tam nomira, atdodams savu dzīvību kā izpirkuma maksu par mums visiem, saspiests Dieva taisnības dzirnavās.

Ef 5: 2 Un staigājiet mīlestībā, kā arī Kristus mūs ir mīlējis un atdevis sevi par mums, upuri un upuri Dievam par saldu smaržu.

Ebr. 9:26 Viņam tad būtu bijis bieži jācieš kopš pasaules dibināšanas, bet tagad, reiz mūžību beigās, Viņš ir parādījies, lai atnestu grēku ar savu upuri.

Veļa bija visinteresantākā. Izgatavots no Ēģiptes lina, tas bija smalki austi, izcili balti un tam bija īpašs nosaukums "byssus". Šis materiāls tika izmantots apģērbiem, kas paredzēti honorāriem un ierindas personām, un ir atrasts faraonu kapenēs. Tika konstatēts, ka veļā vienā kapā velkā ir 152 diegi collā un 72 diegi collā. Baltā veļa vienmēr runā par tīrību un taisnību:

Atkl. 15: 6 Un no tempļa iznāca septiņi eņģeļi, kam bija septiņas mocības, ietērpti tīrā, gaišā audeklā un kuru krūtis bija apjoztas ar zelta saitēm.

Atkl. 3: 5 "Tas, kurš uzvar, tiks tērpts baltos tērpos, un es neizdzēsīšu viņa vārdu no Dzīvības grāmatas, bet atzīšos viņa vārdā sava Tēva un Viņa eņģeļu priekšā."

Atkl. 19:14 Un karaspēks debesīs, tērpies baltā un tīrā veļā, sekoja Viņam uz baltiem zirgiem.

Smalki savītie, baltie lini runā par taisnību un raksturo Jēzu, Cilvēka Dēlu, nevainojamu, tīru un bezgrēcīgu.

Jņ 3: 3-5 Un ikviens, kam ir cerība uz Viņu, šķīstās, tāpat kā Viņš ir šķīsts. un jūs zināt, ka Viņš ir parādījies, lai atņemtu mūsu grēkus, un Viņā nav grēka.


"Kazu mati" (nolādētais grēku upuris)

Tajos laikos kazas bija plaši pazīstamas ar pienu, gaļu, ādu, ko izmantoja daudzām lietām, piemēram, ūdens pudelēm utt., Un matus, kas bija ļoti gari, tumši un gaumi, tika savērpti un austi audumā. Kaza bija upura dzīvnieks. Kazas matu pārklājums bija pirmais virs telts priekškara. Šī drūmā krāsa stāsta par Jēzu Viņa pazemībā un nabadzībā. Kazu ādas nēsāja nabadzīgie, un visā Bībelē tas atspoguļoja galēju nabadzību.

Ebrejiem 11:37 Viņus apmētāja ar akmeņiem, sazāģēja divās daļās, kārdināja, nogalināja ar zobenu. Viņi klīda pa aitām un kazu ādām, būdami trūcīgi, nomocīti, mocīti-

Lk 9:58 Un Jēzus viņam sacīja: "Lapām ir caurumi, bet gaisa putniem ligzdas, bet Cilvēka Dēlam nav kur nolikt galvu."

Un mati runā par Kristu kā par šķirto, tāpat kā mati ir jāatdala no kazas, tā Kristum bija jāupurē savs segums, lai citiem nodrošinātu segumu.

Vēl viens interesants punkts par kazu ir tas, ka to izmantoja Izpirkšanas dienā. Pēc tam, kad augstais priesteris bija pabeidzis asinis, kas tika apkaisītas svētajos svētos, viņš iegāja telts pagalmā un uzlika rokas uz grēkāža galvas, atzīstot par to visus cilvēku grēkus. Tad cilvēks, kas stāvēja gatavībā, aizveda kazu tuksnesī un tur izlaida brīvībā, lai apzīmētu Izraēlas grēku aizvešanu, ko Dievs bija piedevis. Tas mums atgādina, ka Jēzus, pazemīgs un nabags, kļūst par mūsu lāstu, lai mēs varētu aiznest savus grēkus aizmirstības zemē.

2 Kor 5:21 Jo Viņš, kas grēku nepazina, ir padarījis par grēku mūsu labā, lai mēs kļūtu par Dieva taisnību Viņā.


"Aunu ādas krāsotas sarkanā krāsā" (aizstājošs upuris)

Auns ir pieaudzis aitas tēviņš un ganāmpulka galva. Ganam var būt viens vai divi auni aitu barā, lai veicinātu vienveidību. Auns mūžīgi ebreja acīs ir dzīvnieka aizstājējs, uzticīgs līdz nāvei. Tas, protams, ir tāpēc, ka Dievs sagādāja aunu kā Īzāka aizstājēju tajā dienā, kad tika atklāta Ābrahāma ticība.

1.Mozus 22: 12-13 Un Viņš sacīja: "Nenoliec savu roku uz zēnu un nedari viņam neko, es zinu, ka tu bīsties Dievu, jo tu neesi aizturējis savu dēlu, savu vienīgo dēlu, no Manis." Ābrahāms pacēla acis un paskatījās, un tur aiz viņa bija auns, kas aiz ragiem bija noķerts biezoknī. Tad Ābrahāms aizgāja, paņēma aunu un upurēja to par dedzināmo upuri sava dēla vietā.

Auna āda tika nokrāsota sarkanā krāsā, lai attēlotu aizstājēja upuri. Tātad Jēzus kā cilvēces galva, pēdējais Ādams, upurēja savu dzīvību kā aizstājēju visiem, kas uzticēsies Viņam.

Ebrejiem 2: 9 Bet mēs redzam Jēzu, kas tika padarīts nedaudz zemāks par eņģeļiem, jo ​​nāves ciešanas bija vainagotas godībā un godā, lai Viņš ar Dieva žēlastību nobaudītu nāvi ikvienam.

Ebrejiem 2:17 Tāpēc visās lietās Viņam bija jābūt līdzīgam saviem brāļiem, lai Viņš būtu žēlsirdīgs un uzticīgs augstais priesteris lietās, kas attiecas uz Dievu, lai izpirktu cilvēku grēkus.

Jņ 1:29 Nākamajā dienā Jānis redzēja Jēzu nākam pie viņa un sacīja: "Redzi! Dieva Jērs, kas nes pasaules grēku!


"Āpšu ādas" (ārējais izskats-nepievilcīgs)

Āpšu ādas bija pēdējais pārklājums, ārējais pārklājums, ko visi redzēja. Viņi bija skarbi un nepārprotami pēc izskata. Bet kā tas runā par Kristu? Tas runā par to, kas Kristus bija cilvēkam. Teltī nebija nekāda ārējā skaistuma, tā tas bija ar Kristu, kad Viņš nāca uz zemes, kad Viņš uzcēla savu telti cilvēku vidū. Kā pravietis pareģoja:

Vai 53: 1-2 Kas ir ticējis mūsu ziņojumam? Un kam ir atklāta Tā Kunga roka? Jo Viņš augs Viņa priekšā kā maigs augs un kā sakne no sausas zemes. Viņam nav ne formas, ne žēlastības, un, kad mēs Viņu redzam, nav skaistuma, pēc kura mums vajadzētu Viņu vēlēties.

Kas Jēzus bija jūdiem? nekas cits kā kurss, cieta āpšu āda. Kāds ir Jēzus pasaulei šodien? nekas cits kā kurss, cieta āpšu āda. Bet tiem no mums, kas Viņam ir atvēruši savas sirdis, Viņš ir daudz vairāk. Viņš ir "jauki viens", Viņš ir "Šaronas roze", "ielejas lilija" un "godīgākais starp 10 000" mūsu dvēselēm. Ja kāds gribētu paskatīties tālāk par miesas ārējo apvalku, viņš redzētu Kristus godības pārveidošanos. "Vai no Nācaretes var nākt kas labs?" Jēzus saka: "Nāc un redzi".

Jņ 1: 10-14 Viņš bija pasaulē, un pasaule tika radīta caur Viņu, un pasaule Viņu nepazina. Viņš nāca pie savējiem, un savējie Viņu nepieņēma. Bet visiem, kas Viņu pieņēma, Viņš deva tiesības kļūt par Dieva bērniem tiem, kas tic Viņa Vārdam: kas ir dzimuši ne no asinīm, ne no miesas gribas, ne no cilvēka gribas, bet no Dieva. Un Vārds kļuva miesa un dzīvoja starp mums, un mēs redzējām Viņa godību, Tēva vienpiedzimušā godību, pilnu žēlastības un patiesības.


'Acacia Wood' (neiznīcīgā cilvēce), saukta arī par Shittim Wood

Šitas koks auga Sinaja tuksnešos un tuksnešos ap Nāves jūru. Koksne ir cieta, ļoti smaga, kukaiņi to neiznīcina, un tai ir smalki, skaisti graudi. Sausās vietās tas bija ārkārtīgi grezns, dažreiz sasniedzot divdesmit pēdu augstumu. Tam bija jauki dzelteni ziedi, un tā kukaiņu izturīgā akācijas koks tika izmantots māmiņu futrāļu izgatavošanā. Šis akācijas koks neapšaubāmi runā par neiznīcīgo Kristus cilvēci, jo mums ir teikts, ka Viņa cilvēce nekad neredzēs samaitāšanu.

Ps 16:10 Jo Tu neatstāsi manu dvēseli Šeolā un neļausi savam Svētajam redzēt samaitāšanu.

Viņš bija patiesi cilvēcisks cilvēks, un quotthe cilvēks Kristus Jēzus. Bībele sauc Viņu, & quotthe Marijas dēlu & quot; un & quot; cilvēka & quot ;. Viņam tika sagatavots ķermenis:

Ebrejiem 10: 5 Tāpēc, atnācis pasaulē, Viņš sacīja: "Upuri un upuri Tu nevēlējies, bet miesu Tu Man esi sagatavojis.

Un šis ķermenis Viņam joprojām pieder pagodinātā formā. & quot; Šis pats Jēzus & quot

1 Jņ 3: 2 Mīļie, tagad mēs esam Dieva bērni, un vēl nav atklāts, kas mēs būsim, bet mēs zinām, ka tad, kad Viņš tiks atklāts, mēs būsim līdzīgi Viņam, jo ​​redzēsim Viņu tādu, kāds Viņš ir.

Rom 8: 18-21 Jo es uzskatu, ka šī brīža ciešanas nav cienīgas salīdzināt ar godību, kas atklāsies mūsos. Jo radīšanas nopietnas cerības ar nepacietību gaida Dieva dēlu atklāsmi. Jo radība tika pakļauta veltīgumam nevis labprātīgi, bet Viņa dēļ, kurš to pakļāva cerībā, jo arī pati radība tiks izglābta no samaitātības verdzības Dieva bērnu krāšņajā brīvībā.


"Eļļa" (Smaržu svaidījums)

Eļļu ieguva, sasmalcinot zemes olīvu ogas. Eļļa, kā mēs zinām, bija šķidrums, ko izmantoja, kad pravietis, priesteris un ķēniņš tika svaidīti Vecās Derības laikos. Un tādu fragmentu dēļ kā:

1 Jn 2: 20-21 20 Bet jums ir svaidījums no Svētā, un jūs visu zināt.

1 Sam 16:13 Tad Samuēls paņēma eļļas ragu un svaidīja viņu starp saviem brāļiem, un Tā Kunga Gars nāca pār Dāvidu no tās dienas. Tad Samuēls piecēlās un devās uz Rāmu.

Jesajas 32:15 Kamēr uz mums no augšienes tiek uzliets Gars, un tuksnesis kļūst par auglīgu lauku, un auglīgais lauks tiek uzskatīts par mežu.

Mums ir Svēto Rakstu vara uzskatīt eļļu par Svētā Gara veidu. Bībelē olīvkoks simbolizē daudzas lietas:

Hos 14: 6 Viņa zari izplatīs viņa skaistumu kā olīvkoks, un viņa smarža kā Libāna.

Ps 52: 8 Bet es esmu kā zaļa olīvkoka Dieva namā, es paļaujos uz Dieva žēlsirdību mūžīgi mūžos.

Judg 9: 9 Bet olīvkoks viņiem sacīja: Vai man atstāt savu resnumu, ar ko viņi godā mani? Dievs un cilvēks, un iet tikt paaugstinātam pār kokiem?

Tātad Svētais Gars kā olīveļļa ir tas, kam pieder viss, kas cilvēkam vajadzīgs dzīvībai un dievbijībai. Bagātība, auglība un skaistums ir Viņa bagātīgā mērā. Dievs svaidīja Jēzu par pravieti, priesteri un ķēniņu. Viss, ko Kristus darīja, bija piepildīts ar bagātību, auglību un skaistumu, jo Viņš bija Svētā Gara templis un piepildīts ar visu pilnību:

Jņ 3:34 & quot; Jo Tas, ko Dievs ir sūtījis, runā Dieva vārdus, jo Dievs nedod Garu pēc mēra.

Interesanti, ka olīvas netika sistas vai presētas, bet sasmalcinātas. Tātad Jēzus tika sagrauts Ģetzemanes dārzā (Ebr. Eļļas spiede) un pēc tam Dieva dusmās uz romiešu krusta, kā teikts Svētajos Rakstos:

53:10 Tomēr Tam Kungam patika viņu satriekt, un tas viņu apbēdināja. viņa rokā.

Svaidāmā eļļa bija paredzēta tikai telts lietošanai, ikviens, kas pārkāpa pavēli, tika sodīts ar nāvi. Olīveļļai bija jābūt tīrai un tikai tīrai, jo tā attēlo Svēto Kristus Garu. Vārds "Kristus" ir grieķu vārds ebreju valodā "Mašija" (Mesija), kas nozīmē & quotthe svaidītais. Tas burtiski nozīmē & quotto uztriepi & quot, kā ar eļļu. Eļļu izmantoja arī Svētā telts un tā mēbeļu svaidīšanai un zelta lampas statīva iedegšanai.


"Garšvielas eļļai un vīraks" (Dievam patīkami smaržojošs aromāts)

Vīraksam un eļļai bija jāpievieno trīs garšvielas:

2.Mozus 30:34 Un Tas Kungs sacīja Mozum: "Ņem saldas garšvielas, staktes, onihu un galbanu, un tīru vīraku ar šīm saldajām garšvielām.

Pulveris no sacietējušiem smaržīgo sveķu pilieniem, kas atrodami mirres krūma mizā. Šis vārds nozīmē & kvotas samazinājums & quot.

Pulveris no Sarkanajā jūrā atrastā gliemežveidīga gliemeņa ragveida apvalka vāka. Sadedzinot, šis pulveris izstaro caurspīdīgu aromātu. Ebreju vārds nozīmē “aromātisks apvalks”. Sarkanā jūra ir izolēta Indijas okeāna siltā ūdens kabata, un tā ir pazīstama ar savām īpatnējām gliemju pasugām.

Brūngani asa sveķi, kas izdalās no Ferula auga stumbra apakšējās daļas. Šis garšaugu augs atrodas Vidusjūrā, un tam ir biezi kāti, dzelteni ziedi un papardei līdzīga zaļa lapotne. Tam ir muskusa, asa smarža, un tas ir vērtīgs, jo saglabā jauktu smaržu smaržu un ļauj to izplatīt ilgu laiku.

Šajās garšvielās vai smaržās mēs redzam Jēzu kā saldi smaržojošu aromātu, kas sagādā prieku Tēva sirdij. Sajaucot ar olīveļļu, mēs redzam Kristus Gara saldo, apgaismojošo darbu, un, sajaucoties ar atklātu vīraks, mēs redzam lūgšanas saldumu kā & quotsweet smaržojošu aromātu Dieva nāsīs. Cik piemēroti, ka šīs smaržas norādītu uz Kristu.

Jņ 8:29 "Un Tas, kurš Mani sūtījis, ir ar mani. Tēvs nav atstājis Mani vienu, jo es vienmēr daru to, kas Viņam patīk. "

Ef 5: 2 Un staigājiet mīlestībā, kā arī Kristus mūs ir mīlējis un atdevis sevi par mums, upuri un upuri Dievam par saldu smaržu.

2 Cor 2: 15-16 15 Jo mēs esam Dievam Kristus smarža starp tiem, kas tiek glābti, un starp tiem, kas pazūd. 16 Vienam mēs esam nāves aromāts, kas ved uz nāvi, bet otram dzīvības aromāts, kas ved uz dzīvību. Un kam pietiek šīm lietām?

& quot

Likuma mērķis un sirds - Bhakti vēstījums

Senās Izraēlas telts bija svētnīca, kas Mozus vīzijā tika dota kā paraugs un kuru uzcēla Izraēla bērni. Dieva apsolījums bija, ka Viņš dzīvos Vissvētākajā Svētajā virs Derības šķirsta Žēlsirdības sēdekļa.

Kāpēc studēt telti?

A) 50 nodaļas piemin Tabernakulu

Jo vismaz 50 nodaļas (13-Ex, 18-Lev, 13-Num, 2-Deut, 4-Heb) Bībelē stāsta par būvniecību, rituālu, priesterību, telts nēsāšanu un nozīmi. tas viss. Arī daudzās citās Svēto Rakstu vietās par telti runā pārnestā valodā. Daudzos Bībeles pētījumos šī tēma tiek ignorēta un tiek uzskatīta par nenozīmīgu.

B) Plīvura plīsums

Pats Dievs tik daudz domāja par šāda veida nozīmi, par ko liecina plīvura plīsums:

Mateja 27: 50-51 Un Jēzus atkal sauca skaļā balsī un atdeva savu garu. Tad, lūk, tempļa plīvurs tika pārrauts divās daļās no augšas uz leju, un zeme satricināja, un klintis tika sadalītas,

Ja mēs nesaprotam Svēto Rakstu nozīmi par svētumu un aizsegu, mēs pazaudējam ārkārtīgi nozīmīgu informāciju par to, ko Kristus nāve nozīmēja grēcīgajai cilvēcei.

C) Telts ir Kristus veids:

Atcerieties, ko saka Vārds, & quotall Rakstus dod Dieva iedvesma (Dieva dvesta). & quot Kad mēs skatāmies uz Bībeli, mums jāatceras, ka tā ir pilnīgi Dieva iedvesmota. Aplūkojot katru Vārdu, mums jāatceras, ka katrs Vārds ir īpaši Dieva iedvesmots. Tāds bija Kristus uzskats, runājot par Svētajiem Rakstiem, tāds bija apustuļu viedoklis, un tādam jābūt arī mūsu uzskatam. Tas ir pats Dieva Vārds. Tas nesatur tikai Dieva Vārdu vai norāda tikai uz reliģisko pieredzi, tas ir Dieva Vārds.

Vai tad ir brīnums, ka ikvienai detaļai un vārdam par telti ir garīga nozīme? Aplūkojot pašu telts struktūru un tās unikālās atpestīšanas mēbeles, tajās ir lieliska simbolika un tipoloģija. Atcerieties, ka viss bija pirksts, kas norādīja uz Mesiju. Saiešanas telts kā veids, ko Dievs ir izstrādājis īpaši un detalizēti, norādītu uz Kristus kalpošanas raksturu un aspektiem. Jo vairāk mēs iepazīstamies ar telti, jo vairāk mēs iepazīstam Kristu un visu, ko Viņš mums nozīmē. Kāds lielisks iemesls iepazīties ar Svētajiem Rakstiem par telti.

Heb 10:20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh,

Col 2:17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

D) It is a Representation of the True Tabernacle in Heaven:

The Lord wants us to be aware of His nature and character. Even the angels don't fully understand the nature and character of God but they learn from watching His dealings with His church (Eph 3). Things are really happening in the heavenly dimension and the Lord wants to reveal to us what took place in heaven after the resurrection of Christ. There is a real tabernacle in the heavenlies and Christ really appeared before the throne of heaven as the Lamb of God (Rev 5). There is no doubt that some of these things are a mystery but the more we draw close to God and His Word the more He draws close to us.

Heb 9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

E) The Presence Within the Holy of Holies Dwells Within the Believer in Jesus:

Jesus said I am the temple (Mishkan) of God. When the glory (Heb. Sh'chinah) would come down like a tornado or funnel right through the roof of the holy of holies and the Presence would manifest on the mercy seat between the cherubim after the blood was sprinkled, that was the mishkan. That Presence was what Jesus said dwelt within Him. And in fact Paul said about the church, "Know ye not that you are the temple (Mishkan) of God?" We, as the body of Christ, have the same Presence dwelling within us. God doesn't dwell in buildings now but within His people.

1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

F) Its teaching covers in type almost all of New Testament truth.

The study of the tabernacle is so rich in meaning to the Christian and so pregnant with Messianic significance that we can spend a lifetime in the study of it and only begin to understand the riches and the depth of truth that lies within the study of the tabernacle.

Rom 15:4 "Whatever things that were written before were written for our learning."

G) Studying the Tabernacle will absolutely strengthen our faith in the Bible.

Be assured that anyone who has delved into the wonderful details of the tabernacle will confess that the Bible is more than just a book. No man could have thought of this. The Bible is the Word of God.

"all Scripture is given by inspiration of God. & quot


Nanna/Suen/Sin (god)

Mesopotamian moon god. He was called Nanna in Sumerian, and Su'en or Sin in Akkadian. The earliest writings of both are roughly contemporary, and occur interchangeably. An additional name, which is only attested in literary texts, is Dilimbabbar. The true etymologies of both Nanna and Su'en remain unclear (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-64).

Functions

Possible depiction of the god Nanna, seated on a temple-like throne, on a fragment of the Stele of Ur-Namma at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (object number B16676.14) (ca. 2100 BCE). The stele was excavated at Ur. © Penn Museum.

The ziggurat  TT  , or temple tower, of Nanna at Ur. It was built by king Ur-Namma of Ur (r. about 2112-2095 BCE), the founder of the Ur III dynasty. The monumental temple tower is built of solid bricks. © Penn Museum.

The moon god was the tutelary deity of the city of Ur. His reach and importance, however, was far greater than just a city god, the moon god is clearly one of the most important deities in the wider pantheon of Mesopotamia. In the Early Dynastic god lists, such as Fara SF 1, the moon god appears immediately after the four leading gods An, Enlil, Inana and Enki (Klein 2001: 290, and this important, albeit slightly junior position, is confirmed in the text Nanna-Suen's Journey to Nippur (ETCSL 1.5.1: 18), when Nanna brings the "first fruit offerings" to Enlil, the head of the early Mesopotamian pantheon (Black et al. 2004: 147).

The primary symbol of the moon god was as a bull, the result of the horizontal crescent of the waxing moon appearing similar to the horns of that animal. This symbolism led to a consideration of the moon god as a cowherd, which is celebrated most clearly in the composition The Herds of Nanna (ETCSL 4.13.06), the longest section of which enumerates the cattle in Nanna's herd.

An association with fertility may come from the moon god's connection to cattle, and also, perhaps, from the clear link to the menstrual cycle, roughly similar to the timing of the moon's transformations. The connection with fertility is demonstrated in the Old Babylonian (early second-millennium) birth incantations (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367 Veldhuis 1991). The magical-medical text A Cow of Sin relates the story of the moon god's beautiful and pregnant cow, Geme-Sin. The birthing-pains of Geme-Sin are eased by Sin, and the incantation ends with a 'supplication: "may this woman give birth as easily as Geme-Sin" suggesting this text's role in human child-birth (Veldhuis 1991: 1).

Other literature makes much of the moon as an astronomical feature. The deity is referred to in terms characteristic of the celestial body, e.g., radiant, shining, and much is made of the moon's path and cycle, which were also keenly observed for omens of the future, for example in the first-millennium series šumma Sin ina tāmartišu, "If the moon at its appearance" (Hunger and Pingree 1999: 21 ff.).

The Akkadian literature evokes some of the other functions of the moon god. A prayer to Su'en details his role in divination (Foster 2005: 758-9). No doubt this divinatory role was also connected to the moon god's ability to illuminate darkness (Foster 2005: 760-1). Both the moon god and the sun god are praised together in a further text in which they are associated with issuing laws and verdicts, the determination of destinies, and the announcements of omens (Foster 2005: 762). This judicial role was already obvious in the text of the Early Dynastic 'Stele of the Vultures', where oaths are taken in the presence of Su'en, and in his epithet "diviner of fates", which is used across the Near East (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367).

Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

In the Sumerian myth Enlil and Ninlil (ETCSL 1.2.1), the moon god is described as the first-born son of Enlil and Ninlil, and the moon god's three brothers are listed: Nergal-Meslamtaea, Ninazu (both underworld deities) and Enbililu (who was responsible for irrigation). There has been some suggestion that this position as the 'first born son of Enlil' might reflect the importance of Ur during the Ur III period. There are also occasional references to a paternal/fillial relationship between An and the moon god (Klein 2001: 295-7), but such are probably general references to An in his role as father of all the gods (Krebernik 1993-98b: 364-5).

The moon god's wife is the goddess Ningal (Akk. Nikkal) and their children are Inana and Utu (Edzard 1965: 102). The god list AN = Anum also names Ningublaga as the son of the moon god, and Amarra-azu and Amarra-he'ea as his daughters. Another child of the moon god known from Old Babylonian sources is Numušda (Hall 1985: 742). Nanna's vizier was Alammuš. In the first millenium Nuska, a vizier of Enlil, was thought of as a son of Su'en (specifically the Su'en of Harran) - a relationship which is possibly a result of contact/conflation with Aramaic religious beliefs (Krebernik 1993-98b: 365-8).

Cult Places

From the earliest periods, Nanna/Su'en was the patron deity of the city of Ur [

/images/Ur.jpg] . The name of his main sanctuary in Ur was é-kiš-nu-gál, the name also used for the moon god's sanctuaries in Babylon [

/images/Nippur.jpg] (George 1993: 114). From the Akkadian period until the middle of the Old Babylonian period, the daughter of the reigning king was appointed to be the high-priestess of the moon god at Ur (Krebernik 1993-98b: 367-9). The most famous of these is Enheduanna, who is the purported author of several Sumerian literary works (e.g. the Temple Hymns, ETCSL 4.80.1 and Inana B, ETCSL 4.07.2). However, Enheduanna's authorship has been seriously questioned (Civil 1980 Black 2002 Rubio 2009 Lion 2011). Other Mesopotamian cult places for the moon god include Ga'eš, a place in the neighbourhood of Ur [

/images/Urum.jpg] , modern Tell `Uqair located east of Babylon, where the moon god was honoured as Dilimbabbar. Beyond the alluvial plains of Mesopotamia, a cult centre of Nanna/Su'en is attested at Harran [

/images/Harran.jpg] , south-east of modern Urfa [

/images/Urfa.jpg] , from the Old Babylonian period onwards, where the temple name was é-húl-húl "House of Rejoicing" (Krebernik 1993-98b: 368). At Harran a long inscription was found on a stele, which commemorates Adda-guppi, the mother of Nabonidus, and which celebrates her reverence of the moon god. Another stele inscription from Harran describes Nabonidus' accession to the throne, which is here described as being at the will of Su'en, and that he rebuilt the é-húl-húl temple (Gadd 1958).

Time Periods Attested

The earliest attestation of this name dates back to the very beginning of written documentations. In personal names the moon god is attested from the Late Uruk period until the very end of the cuneiform tradition. Not only is he frequently attested in personal names, a testimony to personal piety, he is also frequently invoked in royal names from the earlier to the late periods, for example: Naram-Sin (Old Akkadian) Amar-Su'en, Šu-Sin, Ibbi-Sin (all Ur III) Sin-iddinam (Old Babylonian), Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sin-ahhe-eruba – from the Neo Assyrian period) (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360 Hall 1985: 56-91).

Not surprisingly it is from the Third Dynasty of Ur that come the greatest number of attestations and clearest indications of worship. Many dedicatory inscriptions of canals, buildings and objects record the worship and patronage of Su'en, most during Ur-Namma's reign. The perhaps most obvious of these is the temple tower ( ziggurat  TT  ) at Ur, built under Ur-Namma. The year names continue to record events related to the moon god, most commonly the installation of the high-priestesses of the moon god at Ur, and for Nanna-Karzida at Gaeš (Hall 1985: 130-2), while offerings are very commonly attested (Hall 1985). The royal hymns, particularly those to Šulgi often include subscripts to Nanna, for example Šulgi D (ETCSL 2.4.2.04 Klein 2001: 285). Among this literature are the 15 hymns to Nanna, which include A Balbale to Suen (ECTSL 4.13.01) and A tigi to Su'en (ECTSL 4.13.09).

Worship of the moon god continued throughout the Old Babylonian period, as attested in both personal names and royal names as well as numerous building inscriptions, year dates and offerings (Hall 1985 Collon 1992: 20).

The moon god seems to have fallen out of favour somewhat in the period of 1500-1000 BCE (Foster 2005: 758-62), but experienced a revival during the first millennium, in particular in personal names of the Neo-Assyrian period (Radner and Baker 1998-2011). Su'en often appears second, after the pre-eminent deity Aššur, among the gods invoked to bless the king (SAA 1, 133 line 1). Some scholars have argued that the Neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus promoted the moon god within the pantheon of Babylonia, but more recently it has been suggested that this is an over-interpretation of the evidence available (Kuhrt_1995: 600). Nevertheless, Nabonidus also reconstructed the temple of Sin at Ur and reinstated the position of the high-priestess priestess of the moon god at Ur.

Iconography

While the moon god is commonly attested in the literature and texts of Mesopotamia, he is not as commonly reflected in the visual iconography. Anthropomorphic representations are known from the Ur III period royal iconography, but second millennium BCE images are rare, which is surprising given that Nanna/Su'en formed the most popular theophoric element in Old Babylonian names. A painting of the moon god is attested at Mari (Room 132), and these relatively rare figurative images continue down to the Neo-Assyrian period, for example Sennacherib's rock relief at Maltai. By far the most common images of this deity appear on cylinder seals, known from across Mesopotamian history (Collon 1992: 22, 27).

The moon god is most frequently represented by his symbol, the crescent moon (Sumerian u4-sakar, Akkadian u/ašqāru). This iconography is already known form Early Dynastic seals, and continues throughout Mesopotamian history and across the Ancient Near East. The crescent shape had an impact on other symbols which came to be associated with Nanna/Suen, primarily the moon god's association with the bull (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360). Additionally, Nanna/Su'en is often attested in connection with a boat. Other iconographic symbols include a rather enigmatic tripod, and it is now thought that many of the motifs once thought to be solely associated with the sun god - such as rays, gates and a god-figure rising between mountains, might now also be considered iconographic characteristics of the moon god. Such similarities should not be surprising given that the moon provided the light of the night-time, as the sun did for the day (Krebernik 1993-98b: 374-7).

Name and Spellings

Nanna: In the Early Dynastic period: d ŠEŠ.NA (with the sign NA acting as a phonetic complement) later d ŠEŠ.KI or d ŠEŠ+KI, syllabically: na-an-na (Cohen 1996: 9 Krebernik 1993-98b: 360).

Su'en/Sin: first attested at Ebla from ca. 2400 BCE spelled d EN.ZU, but read Su'en in Sumerian names, and Sin in Akkadian names. For discussions of this rebus-writing, see Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-2. From the Old Babylonian period onward: (d) 30, clearly related to the close connection between the moon and the month (Krebernik 1993-98b: 360-1).

Dilimbabbar (previously read Ašimbabbar): An alternative name or epithet. The logographic writing DIL-im2-babbar suggests two possible, and perhaps not mutually exclusive interpretations. The Sumerian word pronounced 'dilim' (written DILIM2) can refer to a bowl, a possibly valid metaphor for the quarter-moon, and the use of DI, might have been a play upon the meaning of this term as 'unique', while babbar is the Sumerian for "white" (Cohen 1996: 11 n.20).


Category Archives: Ur-Zababa

A long while ago, I wanted to write about Ku-Baba, the only woman on the Sumerian King List. I went first to my go-to source on anything Sumerian, Sumerian Shakespeare, and found that Jerald Starr, the brain behind the site, had not mentioned Ku-Baba at all. It was as if I was just imagining this rather intriguing figure.

Nonetheless, I wrote to Starr with the hope he would have some information about Ku-Baba, or at least a good source he could point me toward. His response, which was basically doubt that she existed at all, left me feeling like I was at a dead end at the time, so I abandoned the idea of writing about her.

Fast forward to today, and Starr has changed his mind. “I had to revise my opinion,” he wrote to me in a surprise email. He also included a link to a new post on his website, in which he explains in detail how he arrived at the conclusion that Ku-Baba might have existed after all.

“For a long time I doubted that Ku-Baba even existed,” he writes in the post. “I believed the reference was a sly mean-spirited joke by the scribe who wrote the King List.”

What changed Starr’s mind was an alabaster statue at the Louvre from Girsu, with a little too much eye makeup to be just your run-of-the-mill Sumerian priestess, as he had initially believed. “When I first saw the statue, I believed it was a Sumerian priestess because she seems to be wearing a circular headband,” he writes, “. . .although for a priestess I thought she was a bit heavy-handed with the makeup.”

From the eyes, Starr traveled back up to the head, where it became clear to him that it was no headband this statue was wearing–that it was a hat he’d never seen on a Sumerian woman before. “The hat on the statue most closely resembles a shepherd hat, the crown of a Sumerian king,” he writes.

And from there, Starr writes as only he can about the minutest details to put Ku-Baba, the first woman ruler in history, back into the realm of possibility, giving me a chance to write about Ku-Baba like I had originally wanted.

The First Woman Ruler

Ku-Baba, Kug-Bau in Sumerian, is the only female monarch on the Sumerian King List. She ruled between 2500 BC and 2330 BC. On the list itself, she is identified as:

… the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish, became king she ruled for 100 years.

Every source I came across in my research, including Starr, questioned how a woman who was a tavern-keeper became king. They then went on to explain that tavern keeping was one of many occupations Mesopotamian women could hold. Now, aside from Starr, said sources all described tavern keeping as a well-respected occupation, even while some mentioned that taverns in Sumer were pretty much brothels. This complicates further the rationale of a woman tavern-keeper becoming king, but in her About.com article titled, “Kubaba, A Queen Among Kings,” Carly Silver writes, “Regardless of what kind of show they were running, women often ran taverns, holding perhaps one of the only independent female positions of power in ancient Sumer.”

Silver drives home the rather high status of the tavern-keeper profession by mentioning Siduri, the female tavern-keeper Gilgamesh meets in the Underworld in his quest for immortality in the epic of his namesake. In it, the tavern-keeper gives Gilgamesh, a powerful god-king, sage advice about the nature of human life, how short it is, and how one ought to enjoy it.

“So, in what was probably a very important epic even in antiquity,” she writes, “a female tavern-keeper was seen as a guide along perilous paths and a figure worthy of veneration.”

Conversely, Starr’s description of the status of a tavern-keeper, or barmaid, is one that is very different from Silver’s. He writes, “Throughout history, a barmaid was typically considered to be a woman of loose morals, freely available to the patrons of the tavern, and little better than a common prostitute.”

So, how can this be? Several sources commend tavern keeping as a respectable occupation, almost making it sound like it was a foot in the door for Ku-Baba to become queen in her own right, while one all but ascribes it to prostitutes.

It helps that Starr does mention a distinction between a mere barmaid who slings drinks and provides patrons with her company, and someone who owns the establishment where this business takes place, a distinction other sources do not mention. Starr also classifies an owner of a tavern as “middle class,” while iterating that the employee slinging the drinks is “a commoner, and a lowly commoner at that.”

Furthermore, in order to see more clearly how tavern keeping relates to Ku-Baba’s rise to royalty, it helps to look at the picture in a different way.

According to Starr, even though there is no question Ku-Baba was a commoner, she might not have been a tavern-keeper. Starr states in his post that it was her parents who were tavern-keepers, a nugget he says her enemies distorted and used against her to tarnish her reputation and legacy. “I believe Ku-Baba was unfairly characterized as a bawd (the usual description of a female barkeeper) for propaganda reasons,” Starr writes. “I believe it was a deliberate attempt to sully her reputation. It is the kind of thing her enemies would say about her.”

Bottom line, we must let go of the idea that Ku-Baba was a tavern-keeper to get to the bottom of how she became a queen in her own right, because everything is questionable when you have an enemy, which she did, according to Starr.

And who was that enemy, you ask? Sargon of Akkad, our favorite baby in a basket here at AllMesopotamia.

Again, I point you toward Starr’s article for a more comprehensive telling of this story and presentation of the case involving Ku-Baba’s previous profession, but Sargon of Akkad usurped the throne of Kish from Ur-Zababa, Ku-Baba’s grandson, 31 years after her death, serving as background for Starr’s conclusion.

But how did Ku-Baba take the throne?

In her article titled “Ku-Bau, the First Woman Ruler,” Darci Clark writes, “In general, other women in Mesopotamian society would only be able to exert any political influence through their relationships to the king.”

Starr echoes Clark’s statement: “Sumerian queens were always the wives of kings. They never governed on their own.”

Okay, but would a king marry a commoner?

“Although it is highly unlikely that a king would marry a commoner,” Starr explains, “it is certainly within the realm of possibility.”

It’s possible Ku-Baba married a king, but there is no mention of such a thing happening in ancient texts. Nevertheless, a king was involved. According to Clark, Ku-Baba became lugal of Kish after performing an act of kindness. It seems that a king–Puzur-Nirah, king of Akshak, namely–awarded Ku-Baba her kingship for a “pious deed.”

Researching this further, I came across an article on the website History Hustle, titled “Kubaba, the Bartender Who Became the First Woman Ruler in History,” which pointed me toward the Weidner Chronicle, an interesting ancient Babylonian religious text, where the deed and its reward are described:

In the reign of Puzur-Nirah, king of Akšak . . . Kubaba gave bread to the fisherman and gave water, she made him offer the fish to Esagila. Marduk the king, the prince of Apsu, favored her and said: “Let it be so!” He entrusted to Kubaba the tavernkeeper, sovereignty over the whole world. (Lines 43-45, Weidner Chronicle)

A Feminine Legacy

Very little is known about Ku-Baba’s reign. We do know that she made Kish strong, and that she reigned for 100 years. It is easy to conclude then that she was a successful monarch. Really, there’s no way she could have not been.

Starr writes, “Any female pretender to the throne who didn’t do an excellent job would quickly find herself in the middle of a coup d’état. She was capable enough, and respected enough, to stay in power and establish a dynasty.”

That dynasty, the 4th Dynasty of Kish, lasted for two generations, ending with the above-mentioned Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Suen, son of Ku-Baba. Not bad for a woman living in a man’s world, and a man’s world it was.

Carly Silver writes that Ku-Baba’s was remembered by later generations as an improper usurper. They would also refer to Ku-Baba when describing things that are not as they should be–women taking on men’s roles has never been popular. “By taking on the duties of a man – a king – Kubaba was seen to have crossed a boundary and transcended gender divisions in an improper fashion,” Silver writes.

Ku-Baba was also referenced when a lung didn’t look so good, or a child was born with both male and female genitalia. “Combining male and female genitalia in an individual would echo her reign as lugal, or king, which the ancients saw as violating the natural order of things,” Silver writes.

Nonetheless, Ku-Baba lived in people’s memories until Babylonian times, becoming a goddess. “But she was still a barmaid,” Starr explains. “She is portrayed as a kindly woman in all of the stories about her . . . Ku-Baba never lost the ‘common touch’. Queen Ku-Baba was always ‘the people’s queen’.”

Whether her legacy when she was an actual memory was a positive or negative one, today, in 2017, Ku-Baba’s legacy is that of (written) history’s first woman ruler, one who could only be slandered by a past that might have been falsified by her enemy, and one whose ascendancy to the throne was built upon kindness.


One Lyre for humanity

When the Baghdad Museum was looted and vandalized in April 2003, most of us could only stand by and watch in horror as part of the world’s history and humanity was lost. And after the initial shock wore off, and for some it never did, some great people got to work right away to restore what was lost.

I’m unfortunately not one of those people, but I’m going to tell you about two such men, one, a pioneer of Mesopotamian archaeology, and the other a musician with passion, both of who do in the most legitimate way possible qualify as members of that elite of humanity.

Before I do that, I will tell you about this, the Golden Lyre of Ur:

The Golden Lyre of Ur on display at the Baghdad Museum before the looting.

This Golden Lyre of Ur was one of thousands of items that fell victim to the looters that awful day in 2003. It is believed to be as much as 4,750 years old. If I may take a moment to put into perspective just how old 4,750 years old is: the Golden Lyre of Ur predates Christianity, Judaism and the construction of the Great Pyramid in Egypt…

Originally excavated with more than a dozen other stringed instruments in 1929 by British archaeologist, Sir Leonard Woolley from the Royal Graves of Ur, the Golden Lyre of Ur was found in the grave of Queen Pu’abi. Queen Pu’abi is believed to have died in 2600 BC.

Queen Pu’abi’s crowned and jewel-adorned body was found along with 74 other bodies, 68 of who were female. The males and females found were all wearing the same type of clothing and each holding a vessel believed to have contained the poison they all drank for their mass suicide. This was part of their duty to their queen as sacrificial victims.

One of those unfortunate females was the Golden Lyre player, whose hand bones were found placed over where the strings would have been.

Sir Leonard Woolley holding a Lyre like the one found in Queen Pu'abi's grave.

The wooden sections of the Golden Lyre had decayed over the centuries, so Woolley used careful methods to avoid damaging the ancient find any further, which aside from wood, was also made of gold, lapis lazuli, gulf shell, pink limestone and bitumen. Before removing the fragile ancient find from the ground, Woolley poured plaster of Paris to fill in the deteriorated parts of the wood and then covered the whole thing with strips of waxed cloth to hold it all together.

If it weren’t for Woolley’s care in excavating such a fragile and ancient piece of humanity’s history, I definitely would not be sitting here writing about the details of the Golden Lyre of Ur, and the wonderful project I’m about to tell you about might not have ever been completed, or even thought of.

Up until Andy Lowings, a harp enthusiast from England, felt a calling to recreate the Golden Lyre of Ur using all the materials used all those thousands of years ago, the instrument was unplayable. And now, after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in April 2003, the Golden Lyre of Ur is not even displayable, as it lies in broken pieces.

The Golden Lyre of Ur after the looting of the Baghdad Museum in 2003. Lowings said at a conference at the Library of Congress in March 2009: "It was vandalized and found broken in the car park."

Enter Lowings and an amazing network of people who care about the history of humanity formed a partnership of sorts that kept growing in size and contributions from universities across the globe, South African gold mines, the Royal goldsmith of Prince Charles, and even the British Royal Air Force, among other unlikely contributors– and a playable and as-close-to-authentic-as-possible Golden Lyre of Ur is now in existence.

You can read the details of how the Sumerian scenes were etched onto the Lyre with lasers and laser engineers at the University of Liverpool in this document.

The project began in 2003, shortly after the original Lyre was destroyed, and Lowings wanted every detail to be recreated, from the golden bullhead, to the Iraqi cedar wood used in the body of the Lyre. The project took three years to complete, and a labor of love–a love of music, of history, of humanity.

You can watch and hear Andy Lowings describe the three years of The Golden Lyre of Ur Project in his warm and compelling way of speaking in this video, recorded at a seminar at the Library of Congress in Washington DC, in March of 2009.

Listen to this piece of music from the strings of Lowings’s reconstructed Golden Lyre of Ur and you might want to ask Lowings to bring this instrument (valued at $50,000) to your next educational event:

Today, Lowings’s project has brought with it a CD of the Lyre’s music and a group that will go wherever they are needed to perform and educate the world about the cradle of civilization, and one of the many tools it gave us to explore our humanity.


10 Medieval Torture Devices

­The period known as the Middle Ages stands out as one­ of ­the most violent eras in history. This epoch, lasting roughly 1,0­00­ years, from the 5th century to the 15th­, was a time of great inequality and brutality in much of Europe.

What really sets this time apart is the ghoulish inventiveness that gave rise to a plethora of torture methods. There were many grounds for torture during the Middle Ages -- religious fervor and criminal punishment come to mind -- but why would a person take the time to invent a device designed to maim?

In his 1975 b­ook "A History of Torture in England," L.A. Parry attempted to explain this bizarre phenomenon:

­". What strikes us most in considering the mediaeval tortures, is not so much their diabolical barbarity … as the extraordinary variety, and what may be termed the artistic skill, they displayed. They represent a condition of thought in which men had pondered long and carefully on all the forms of suffering, had compared and combined the different kinds of torture, till they had become the most consummate masters of their art, had expended on the subject all the resources of the utmost ingenuity, and had pursued it with the ardour of a passion."

In this article, we will explore a collection of the most heinous torture devices ever invented. We begin on the next page.

­The Brazen Bull was a hollow brass statue crafted to resemble a real bull. Victims we­re placed inside, usually with their tongues cut out first. The door was shut, sealing them in. Fires would then be lit around the bull. As the victim succumbed to the searing heat inside, he would thrash about and scream in agony. The movements and sounds, muted by the bull's mass, made the apparatus appear alive, the sounds inside like those of a real bull. This effect created additional amusement for the audience, and served the added benefit of distancing them from the brutality of the torture, since they couldn't directly see the victim.

Legend has it that this device was invented by a Greek named Perillus (Perilaus in some sources) for a tyrant named Phalaris of Agrigentum. Expecting a handsome reward for his creativity, Perillus instead became the first person placed inside the Brazen Bull. By some reports, Phalaris himself became an eventual victim of the bull when his subjects grew tired of his mistreatment [source: Gallonio].

Some courts used torture to determine if someone accused of a crime was truly guilty. This torture would take strange forms: Someone's arm would be forced into boiling water, and the verdict would be based on how well the arm healed days later. Other courts simply tortured people to get them to confess to the crime. The courts themselves even recognized, in their twisted way, that a confession given under torture held no legal meaning. Such a confession had to be confirmed by the victims while not being tortured within 24 hours. If they refused, however, they were simply tortured until they confessed again [source: Innes].

­Thumbscrews represent a very insid­ious form of torture. You weren't likely to die from their use, but they created unendurable agony. The device consisted of three upright metal bars, between which the thumbs were placed. A wooden bar slid down along the metal bars, pressing the thumbs against the bottom. A screw pressed the wood bar downward, crushing the thumbs painfully. The thumbscrews were an elaboration of an earlier device known as the pilliwinks, which could crush all 10 fingers and resembled a nutcracker [source: Parry].

Thumbscrews supposedly originated with the Russian army as a punishment for misbehaving soldiers. A Scottish man brought a set home with him and introduced them to the United Kingdom [Kellaway and Parry].

Up next, a very old and very familiar medieval torture device, plus some variations on a theme.

Torture was often included as part of a judicial sentence against a criminal. Authorities responded to increases in crime rates by enacting excruciating tortures upon convicted criminals, usually in a very public manner. The horrifying nature of the punishment was meant to deter other criminals. While the most serious offenses (high treason, mass murder) resulted in severe torture, children were sometimes hanged for stealing food, so not everyone who visited the torturer's chamber was a hardened criminal.

The rack was used throughout Eu­rope for centuries. It came in many forms, but here's the basic idea: The victim is tied down while some mechanical device, usually a crank or turning wheel, tightens the ropes, stretching the victim's body until the joints are dislocated. Continued pressure could cause the limbs to be torn right off. Such torture was known as being "broken on the rack," "racked," or "stretched on the rack." It could be combined with other forms of torture to make things even more painful. In one story, a Christian youth was tied to a wheel and his joints destroyed by the stretching. A fire was lit beneath the wheel, adding to the torture. Eventually, the fire was extinguished by the downpour of blood as the victim's limbs were torn free [source: Gallonio].

One type of rack was known as the Horse. It was a wooden device that vaguely resembled an actual horse in shape. The victim was tied to a beam on the top (the horse's "back"), facing up. Pulleys below tightened ropes affixed to the victim's hands and feet. He or she was stretched until his or her joints dislocated, then left there or slackened and allowed to hang underneath the horse while an inquisitor or judge questioned the victim and tried to get a confession [source: Gallonio]. Torquemada, the infamous torturer of the Spanish Inquisition, was known to favor a stretching rack known as a potoro [source: Goldberg & Itzkowitz].

Wheels were adapted to many torturous u­ses. They could be part of a stretching rack, but medieval torturers were far too creative to leave it at that. Early torturers were fond of tying someone to a large wooden wheel, then pushing it down a rocky hillside. A more elaborate method involved a wheel mounted to an A-frame that allowed it to swing freely. The victim would be tied to the wheel, and then swung across some undesirable thing below -- fire was always a good choice, but dragging the victim's flesh across metal spikes also worked well. The wheel itself could also have spikes mounted on it, so the pain came from all directions. Instead of swinging, the wheel might turn on an axle. The difference was likely immaterial to the victims.

One of the most horrible wheel tortures was akin to crucifixion. The victim would have the bones in all four limbs broken in two places by strikes from an iron bar. Then, the shattered limbs were threaded through the spokes of a large wheel. Finally, the wheel would be attached to the top of a tall wooden pole and left out in the sun for days. The victim might be alive for hours, enduring the agony of his or her mangled arms and legs and the relentless sun, not to mention the attentions of crows [source: Hunt].

Next, we'll learn about two torture methods that were still used even after the Middle Ages had ended.

Bein­g burned at the stake was usually the last stop for torture victims, because this form of torture was invariably fatal. Conceptually, it's a very simple process -- create a pile of dry wood with a stake at the center to tie the victim to, and then light it. The fire does all the work. It usually took about a half an hour before the victim lost consciousness, but if it was windy and the fire was blowing away from the victim, he or she might have to endure up to two hours of being slowly burned to death [source: Bachrach]. Since the victims had usually been previously tortured with the rack or some other method, the pain must have been unimaginable. Despite the horror of simply being burned at the stake, the torturers of the Inquisition in the Netherlands developed a particularly cruel twist: Prior to being tied to the stake, the victim's tongue would be sandwiched between two hot iron plates. The scorched and swollen tongue would only allow strange, muffled screams of pain once the burning began, which supposedly added a great deal to the audience's entertainment.

The cruel irony of the Inquisition's practice of burning people at the stake was that it happened whether you confessed or not. Once accused of heresy, you would almost certainly be consumed by fire. However, if you confessed, you would be strangled to death before the fire was lit, supposedly sparing you the agony. This practice didn't die out at the end of the Middle Ages, however. Both women and men accused of witchcraft were burned at the stake in England, France and other locales well into the 17th century.

The pillory remained in use even later than the stake. A pillory is a­ set of two parallel wooden boards clasped together, with holes for the neck and wrists. When opened, the victim places his or her head and arms through the holes. Then the pillory is closed, and the victim can't possibly escape.

The pillory itself does no harm to the victim, though it's certainly not comfortable. The entire apparatus was usually placed on a stage in a public place -- the entire point was to humiliate and shame the victim for his or her crimes. The crowd would throw objects at the victim, such as rotten vegetables, dead animals or feces. Stones and other blunt objects were thrown as well, which could result in painful injuries or death.

While a spell in the pillory often only lasted an hour or two, usually during the busiest times of day, its effect really depended on the nature of the crime and the mood of the crowd. Four English men who had falsely accused others of crimes to get the reward (sending innocents to the hangman's noose) were beaten to death by the crowd. Others who won the crowd's favor by refusing to pay unjust taxes or mocking government officials were showered with flowers or rescued from the pillory outright [source: Kellaway]. For lesser crimes, the victim might instead be placed in stocks, leg irons that restrained the ankles. While the goal of public humiliation was the same, the stocks allowed victims to protect themselves from thrown objects.

Sometimes, the vengeful crowd was the least of the victim's concerns. The pillory could be accompanied by other punishments, such as flogging or mutilation. British authorities favored branding the face with a mark of shame, such cutting off one or both ears, or slicing the nose lengthwise [sources: Farrington and Parry].

The next section features one of the most infamous torture devices of all time, plus its lesser known cousin.


Skatīties video: Plakņu slīpmašīnas praktiska pārbaude


Komentāri:

  1. Heardwine

    Lieliska tēma

  2. Cat

    Bet es teikšu, ka pēcnācēju rediģēšana,

  3. Ansgar

    Atvainojiet, ka pārtraucu ... es nesen esmu šeit. Bet šī tēma man ir ļoti tuvu. Es varu palīdzēt ar atbildi. Rakstiet PM.

  4. Vuzahn

    ļoti interesanti. PALDIES.

  5. Athelstan

    Pieļaut kļūdas. Mēģināsim to apspriest. Rakstiet man PM, runājiet.

  6. Adil

    This does not suit me.



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